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Causes of increase in Population

Europe was more settled and peaceful
Dramatic expansion in food production

Factors for dramatic increase

1. Climates with better growing condition
2. Peasants cut down trees for farming
3. Change in technology
4. Water + wind power
5. Carruca(Plow)
6. 3-Field System


was an agricultural estate run by a lord and worked by peasants


peasants legally bound to the land

Money Economy

an economic system based on money, rather than barter

Serfs Economic obligations

1. work the lord's land
2. pay rent with a share of every product they raised
3.Pay tithe to church (10%)
5. pay for certain services

Serf's Benefits

1. Protection from the lord land
2. a home
3. land for farming

Lord's Economic obligations

1. pay for protection
2. legal rights for serfs

Lord's Benefits

1. all manual labor for free


business associations that set standard of quality


a person who wanted to learn a trade first- not paid


worked for wages for others;5-7 years work from master


a finish piece in their craft created by journeymen; judged by masters and if passed can join guild


french working class


official charge for being a heretic


hatred of jews


france's chief tax

flying buttress

arched supports on outside of Gothic building

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