62 terms

Pre-History and Mesopotamia Exam Flashcards

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Culture
way of life-- customs; handed down generation by generation
Archaeologist
someone who digs up artifacts; a person that actually FINDS the artifacts
Anthropologist
studies people/ culture
Historian
someone who writes about what others (archaeologists) have found
Artifact
any object made and left behind by human beings
Technology
the tools someone would use to complete tasks... i think
Nomad
term for people who wander from place to place in search of food
Fossil
any remains, impression, or trace of a living thing of a former geologic age, as a skeleton, footprint, etc.
Animism
the belief that there are spirits in everything-- animals, plants, all objects
Domesticate
to 'tame" animal(s)
Paleolithic Age
1st part of Stone Age--nomads; hunters and gatherers
-follow animals and also follow the ripening fruit/ plants
Neolithic Age
2nd part of Stone Age--settle down and become farmers and herders
Prehistory
refers to the time before the technology, writing, was invented/ created
Civilization
a group of people who settle down and advance in that place; characteristics are cities, class structure, job specialization, writing, government, advanced religion, art and architecture, public works
Surplus
extra
-food
-supplies
Job Specialization
people cannot do everything, so they get good at one thing, or become specialized
-causes people to depend on each other because they all do different things, so they need others to do the things they do not do for themselves
Class Structure
the way a civilization is divided; usually by class, or section--- typically: king/pharaoh, nobles, middle class, poor people and servants
-also called the "pecking order"
Cultural Diffusion
when two or more cultures come in contact with each other and they obtain some of each others customs
Iceman
-man found preserved in ice
-great historical find because it showed them that they were more advanced than previously through, he showed them!
-
Jared Diamond
-came up with theory as to why inequality exists
-go to video notes and look through them lots!!!
Jared Diamond's Theory
says that the reason inequality exists is because some people have good crops and good animals, while others have animals and crops that do not allow them to advance much at all
Polytheistic
the belief in many gods
Monotheistic
the belief in only one god
Artisans
skilled craft workers
Scribes
specially trained people who knew how to read/ write
City-State
political unit made up of a city and the surrounding area
Empire
groups of states or territories controlled by one ruler
Epic of Gilgamesh
what we learn from it about them:
-envied gods' immortality
-idea of a warlike hero
-religious beliefs
-connects to other stories (Noah's Ark) because in both, God/ gods get mad and flood the world
Sumerian School Days
story about teh kid and his typical day at school
-look back at the story
-tells us some about beliefs in how people should act
-don't talk when teacher is talking etc
Hierarchy
system of ranks
Ziggurat
temple with a shrine at top
Cuneiform
1st form of writing, wedge shaped
Codify
arrange and set down in writing
Criminal Law
branch of law that deals with offenses against others
Civil Law
branch of law that deals with private rights and matters
Tolerance
acceptance, such as that of a religion
Satrap
governor of a province in the Persian Empire
Satrapy
set up by Darius; province in the Persian Empire
Barter Economy
system in which one set of goods or services is exchanged for another
Money Economy
system in which goods are paid for with a token of an agreed value
Colony
a territory that is settled and then ruled by people from another land
"Carriers of Civilization"
Phoenicians
Torah
the first four books of the Bible-- where the Hebrew laws are written down
Covenant
binding agreement
Patriarchal
describing a family headed by a father/ husband/ oldest male
Sabbath
holy day for rest and worship
Prophets
spiritual leader believed to be interpreting God's will
Ethics
moral standards of behavior
Diaspora
the scattering of people
Babylonian Captivity
when Israelites became known as Jews; a time when Nebuchadnezzar forced many Israelites into exile in Babylon
Pictograms
a picture used to represent an object
I THINK
Sargon (of Akkad)
-created first empire in history → Founder of the Sumero- Akkadian dynasty
→ First empire in history
→ United semitic people
§ Conquered Sumer, Syria (possibly got that far), Asia Minor, India, Ur Defeated Luaalzagesi, an actual man, or Uruk (leader of Sumer)
→ Ruled for 56 years
Enheduanna
-daughter of Sargon
-became priestess of Ianna, combined her worship with the worship of another favorite god, Ishtar
-this causes the empire to become more united because they all agree with this way of worship
-one of the earliest known poets/ literature writer
Hammurabi
-Leader of Babylon 1790 BC, after Sargon
-Brought much of Mesopotamia under his control
-United Babylonian Empire
Accomplishments: Code of Hammurabi, improved irrigation, organizes and trains army, repaired temples, built roads, postal service, developed trade
Ashurbanipal
-last king of Assyria
-important because that was the height of this empire
-built library at Nineveh
-made a postal service
-"patron" of the arts
-encouraged the arts
Nebuchadnezzar
king and very effective ruler
-made a wall around Babylon--insanely wide
-Rebuilt Babylon-- coital
-Hanging Gardens
Darius
-Set up provinces headed by a satrap
§ Created law code
§ Built hundreds of mile of roads
§ Introduced single Persian coin
§ Created postal service
-Made himself known to his people
□ Travels around
Characteristics of Civilization
○ Cities
○ Class Structure
○ Job Specialization
○ Writing
○ Government
○ Advanced Religion
○ Art and Architecture
○ Public Works
Zoroaster
created the religion: Zoroastrianism

§ Persians polytheistic/ eventually found support
§ Perhaps thje first monotheistic religion
§ One universal- Ahura Mazda
§ Evil Spirit- Angra Mainyo, it is different in the book thought
§ Holy book- - Avesta
§ Paradise vs. hell
§ Good thoughts, good works, good deeds
§ United Empire through religion
Abraham
-known as founder of Judaism
-gets group of people together and they migrate to Canaan
David
-united the different tribes into one large nation
Solomon
son of David
-built a very extensive capital where Jerusalem was
-tried to increase its influence on other powerful empires