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Chapter 5 Developing through the Lifespan
Terms in this set (105)
branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout life span.
fertilized egg as it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division
developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through second month in which major body systems develop.
developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth in which first bone cells appear.
such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 141)
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions.
baby's tendency, when touched on cheek, to turn toward touch, open mouth, and start sucking
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner.
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
Piaget's term for the concept or framework that organizes and interprets info.
interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas.
all mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new info
awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived which develops during the sensorimotor stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 149)
principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in forms of objects.
in Piaget's theory, preoperational child's difficulty in taking another's point of view.
in Piaget's theory,stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend mental operations of logic.
theory of mind
awareness that other people's behavior may be influenced by beliefs, desires, and emotions that differ from one's own
disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind.
concrete operational stage
in Piaget's theory, stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain mental abilities that enable them to think logically about specific events.
formal operational stage
in Piaget's theory, stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.
fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age.
optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development.
process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.
according to Erikson, sense that world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers.
transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence.
primary sex characteristics
body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible.
period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing.
secondary sex characteristics
nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair.
first menstrual period.
one's sense of self; according to Erikson, adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.
in Erikson's theory, ability to form close, loving relationships; primary developmental task in early adulthood.
time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines.
progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and, finally, physical functioning.
study in which people of different ages are compared with one another.
research in which same people are restudied and retested over a long period.
one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age.
one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 184)
culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement.
morality at this LEVEL of Kohlberg's theory is determined by will of outside authority (adults such as parents and teachers) and centers around gaining reward or avoiding punishment.
morality at this LEVEL of Kohlber'gs theory is determined by approval seeking and law and order. Right and wrong determined by society's rules. Respect for authority and majority rule.
Kohlberg LEVEL of morality in which right and wrong determined by society's rules which are viewed as fallible rather than absolute or by abstract ethical principles that emphasize equality and justice
theorist who claimed individuals went through series of stages in process of moral development.
theorist that developed series of stages in which individual passes during cognitive development.
reflex in which babies will fan out their toes when you touch the sole of their feet
infant startle response to sudden, intense noise or movement. When startled the newborn arches its back, throws back its head, and flings out its arms and legs.
test given to newborns 1 minute after birth and again 4 minutes later. Scaled rating of infant's physical condition based on 5 measures
stage theorist who focused on adolescent crisis of Erik Erikson and came up with 4 stages that adolescents pass through while seeking an identity.
theorist who studied psychosocial development across the lifespan.
identity v role confusion
Erikson's name for crisis of adolescence.
theorist focused on social world of people when explaining cognitive development.
individual's basic disposition, which is evident from infancy and is generally stable across the lifespan - genetic
zone of proximal development
area between what a child can learn on their own and with help.
deep and enduring relationship with person with whom a baby has many experiences.
researcher that highlighted importance of physical contact comfort in formation of attachments with parents
phenomenon in some animals in which newborns follow the first moving object human or animal that catches their attention
theorist that studied types of attachment by use of the strange situation test
theorist associated with the idea of imprinting as an method of attachment in some animals
Vygotsky's idea that learners should be given only just enough help so that they can reach the next level
criticized Kohlberg's research on moral theory because she felt it was biased against girls
Marcia's stage in which adolescents are delaying making commitment expected of adult through trial and error experiment with different identities. They are looking actively but have not found it yet
sense of oneself as a unique person
theorist who proposed that terminally Ill patients go through a series of stages as they approach death.
stages of death
denial, anger, bargaining depression, acceptance
Marcia's stage in which adolescents accept identity and values given to them in childhood. They are not searching.
type of intelligence which includes accumulated knowledge and verbal skills, that INCREASES WITH AGE
study of the aging process and elderly individuals
form of intelligence that decreases with age and is used in coping with new kinds of problems and to reason speedily and abstractly
trust v mistrust
Erikson's first stage in which infants up to one year learn if they can count on their caregivers or not
intimacy v isolation
Erikson stage for young adults in which the crisis involves finding a romantic partner or feeling alone
integrity v despair
Erikson's crisis of old age in which the individual looks back on their life with either satisfaction or sadness
automatic and orderly process of development which reflects genetics for example walking at a predictable time in development
attachment style in which infants are able to explore, are upset when their caregiver leaves and happy when their caregiver returns
attachment style in which infant is upset when mother leaves & ambivalent when returns (resists attention mother initiates)
Anxious of exploration & strangers, even with mother present.
attachment style in which infant does not seek contact with mother; does not cry when she leaves and avoids or ignores mother when she returns
reflex consisting of head-turning and sucking movements elicited in a normal infant by gently stroking the side of the mouth of cheek
describes research that measures a trait in a particular group of subjects over a long period of time
research of different individuals at the same time across different age groups
The fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age.
Emotional distress seen in many infants when they are separated from people with whom they have formed an attachment.
common belief among adolescents that their feelings and experiences cannot possibly be understood by others and that they are personally invulnerable to harm
adolescent belief that all people are looking at them and noticing all their flaws
(fertilization - 2 weeks) prenatal stage when zygote rapidly divides creating - about 800 billion specialized cells. Also called zygotic
agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
theorist with a STAGE theory of cognitive development
theorist with a theory of Socialcultural cognitive development
People of a given age are affected by factors unique to their generation, leading to differences in performance between generations and effecting cross sectional studies
babies with this temperament readily adapt to new experiences, generally display positive moods and emotions, & have regular sleeping and eating patterns
babies with this temperament tend to be intensely emotional, irritable and fussy, cry a lot; & have irregular sleeping & eating patterns
slow to warm up
babies with this temperament have low-intensity emotional reactions, low activity, and withdraw from new situations but eventually adjust
psychologists that studied monkeys and found that feeding is not crucial for attachment but contact comfort is
style of parenting in which the parent creates strict rules for the child and the child has little or no input into determining the rules
Parenting style in which standards and limits are set, communication is 2 way, are reponsive to needs, are nurturing and children are expected to follow rules.
Term Harlow gave to the stimulation and reassurance derived from the physical touch of a caregiver needed for attachment
parenting style where parents are highly involved but set few demands or controls (Baumrind)
permissive parenting style in which the parents are not involved with their children and shows low communication and warmth
trust v. mistrust
Erikson's first stage in which infants up to one year learn if they can count on their caregivers or not
autonomy v. shame
erikson's second stage in psychosocial development in which children achieve a balance between self determination and control by others
initiative v guilt
Erikson's stage for preschool years where kids begin to develop schemas of what they "ought to do." If these schemas conflict with what others in their environment expect of them_____ develops
industry v inferiority
Erikson's fourth stage in which children direct their energy toward mastering knowledge & intellectual skills the danger at this stage involves feeling incompetent & unproductive
generativity v stagnation
Erikson's stage for middle adult hood (40s-60s) where individuals discover a sense of contributing to the world usually through family and work, or they feel a lack of purpose
integrity v. despair
Erikson's crisis of old age in which individuals look back on life with either satisfaction or sadness
criticized Kohlberg's research on moral development because she felt it was biased against girls
branch of psychology that studies the aging process and the problems and successes of older people.
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