29 terms

Anthropometry

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Sengoopta, 2003
Imprint of the Raj - fingerprints in India
Astrom, 2007
Early fingerprint recognition
Ruggiero, 2001
Multiple methods/classification systems for fingerprints, needed to stick to one
Beauvan, 2002
Increased mvt of populations meant authorities wanted to keep track of everyone
Joseph, 2001
Bertillon developed 11-point measuring system of different body lengths
Fosdick, 1915
No two officers took the same set of measurements
Saks & Koehler, 2008
Identification in FS - 2 steps:
1) Compare questioned item and evidence to an exemplar to judge whether they are alike
2) Assess the meaning of the reported match - what is the probability that both came from the same source?
Meuwly, 2006
Identity: 'set of characteristics in terms of which a human being defines its own personality and distinguishes itself from all others'
Evett, 1995
Scorns idea that all FPs are unique
Saks & Koehler, 2009
Individualisation has no scientific validity, and is sustained by the faulty logic that equates infrequency with uniqueness
Saks & Koehler, 2005
New paradigm
Cole, 2009
Need a clean break from individualisation and uniqueness as forensic concepts
Arbab-Zavar et al., 2015
Ear prints found at up to 15% of crime scenes
Champod, 2001
Argued for consideration of ear prints in FS, says no two ears are the same
State vs Polite, 1985
Florida - ear identification not accepted in the sci community
State vs Kunze, 1999
Washington State - Kunze charged with murder, and main evidence was an ear print. Frye hearing conducted, evidence initially accepted, but appeal argues that the hearing showed too much disagreement in the community so was dismissed.
Abdalla Ahmed & Omer, 2015
Estimation of sex from the anthropological ear measurements of a Sudanese population
Morrison et al., 2011
Tested forensic voice comparison system - precision and accuracy are very poor.
R v Barnes, 2010
Allowed photogrammetry as evidence b/c it is a 'tested and familiar' technique
Yang et al., 2014
Gait analysis is usually done from CCTV compared with footage from in custody
Lynnerup & Larsen, 2014
'Congruence of identity' as gait patterns can be shared
Rothwell, 1995
Use of forensic dentistry is disputed
Avon, 2004
Teeth used as a weapon can leave info about the biter
Krishnan, 2008
Reel et al., 2010
Footprints can be a good indicator of the general size of a person and of their body weight
Kleinberg et al., 2007
Photogrammetry gives measure of movements of an individual w/o their cooperation
Waples et al., 2009
Displacement theory
Davies & Thasen, 2000
CCTV as identification aid: error rate for still/moving, colour/monochrome images resulted in a success rate of 30% under optimised conditions
Kemp et al., 1997
Investigated effectiveness of photocards on credit card fraud
Maguire, 2009
Biometrics - recognising of humans on the basis of physical or behavioural traits