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29 terms

earth science words ch6

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stress
A force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume.
tension
the action of stretching something tight
compression
stress that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks
shearing
Stress that pushes masses of rock in opposite directions, in a sideways movement.
normal fault
an inclined fault in which the hanging wall appears to have slipped downward relative to the footwall
hanging wall
the upper wall of an inclined fault
foot wall
The block of rock that forms the lower half of a fault
reverse fault
a geological fault in which the upper side appears to have been pushed upward by compression
strike-slip fault
a type of fault where rocks on either side move past each other sideways with little up or down motion
anticline
a fold in rock that bends upward into an arch
syncline
a fold in rock that bends downward to form a valley
plateau
a large area of flat land elevated high above sea level
earthquake
the shaking that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth's surface
focus
The point beneath Earth's surface where rock breaks under stress and causes an earthquake
epicenter
the point on the Earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake
P waves
A type of seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground
S waves
A type of seismic wave that moves the ground up and down or side to side
surface waves
are the slowest and largest of the seismic waves and cause most of the destruction during an earthquake
mercalli scale
a scale that rates earthquakes according to their intensity and how much damage they cause at a particular place
magnitude
The measurement of an Earthquake's strength based on seismic waves and movement along faults.
richter scale
a scale that rates an earthquake's magnitude based on the size of its seismic waves
seismograph
an instrument that records earthquake waves
moment magnitude scale
a scale that rates earthquakes by estimating the total energy released by an earthquake
seismogram
the record of an earthquake's seismic waves produced by a seismograph
friction
the force that opposes the motion of one surface as it moves across another surface
liquefaction
The process by which an earthquake's violent movement suddenly turns loose soil into liquid mud
aftershock
an earthquake that occurs after a larger earthquake in the same area
tsunami
a giant wave caused by an earthquake on the ocean floor
base-isolated building
A building mounted on bearings designed to absorb the energy of an earthquake.