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72 terms

Biology 2011 Final

STUDY
PLAY
ATP
adenosine triphosphate
stores energy/fully charged
ADP
Adenosine Diphosphate
stores energy/not fully charged
Biotic Factors
living parts of an ecosystem
Abiotic Factors
nonliving parts of an ecosystem
Habitat
the type of environment in which an organism or group normally lives or occurs
Nitrogen
N2O-turns into nitrite
Nitrite
NO2−turn into nitrate
Nitrate
NO3-turn into ammonia
Ammonia
NH3- yay ammnia
Ammonium
NH4+
Orders of Biology Study
individual, population, community, ecosystem, biome, biosphere
Methods of Biology Study
observation, experimentation, modelling
Where does an environment's energy come from?
Sol
What is the energy flow of living systems?
From one trophic level to another; consumption
What is the efficiency of energy transfer?
10%
Autotroph
An organism that produces its own food
Producer
An organism that introduces energy to the environment
Photosynthesis
The process plants use to derive nutrients from sunlight
Heterotroph
An organism that feeds on other organisms; a consumer
Consumer
An organism that depends on others for energy
Herbivore
A consumer that eats plants
Carnivore
A consumer that eats other consumers
Omnivore
A consumer that eats both plants and other consumers
Detritivore
A consumer that eats dead matter
Decomposer
A consumer that returns nutrients from dead matter to the earth
Food chain
A direct line from one organism to another, showing energy flow
Food web
An intertwined mesh of food chains, illustrating a more complete set of interactions from an ecosystem
Trophic Level
A level of energy passage in a food chain/web/pyramid. Each successive unit contains 1/10 the energy of the previous
Ecological pyramid
A pyramid illustrating the shrinking amount of energy with each trophic level
Biomass
The mass of living organisms in an area
Biotic factor
A living component of an ecosystem that affects its state
Abiotic factor
A nonliving component of an ecosystem that affects its state
Nitrogen fixation
Caused by lightning strikes and anaerobic bacteria; converts nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3)
Nitrification
Bacteria process ammonia (NH2) into nitrites (NO2-) and nitrates (NO3-)
Assimilation
Nitrites (NO2-), nitrates(NO3-), ammonium (NH4-) and ammonia (NH3-) are all absorbed by plants to make proteins, DNA, and RNA
Ammonification
The decomposition of waste or dead matter releases nitrogen (N2) into the soil, where decomposers convert it to ammonia (NH3-)
Denitrification
Different bacteria convert nitrate (NO3-) into nitrogen gas (N2)
DNA
A nucleic acid that contains the codes to build life, formed by plants from assimilation
RNA
Another, simpler, nucleic acid
Protein
Biological compounds built with nitrogen
Habitat
The area in which a specific organism lives
Niche
The role a specific organism occupies--i.e. its food, its habitat, its water source, etc.
Competitive Exclusion Principle
If there are similarities between two organisms' niches, competition will arise, forcing one into either extinction, or evolution into a different niche
Predation
When one organism captures and feeds on another
Symbiosis
When two organisms cooperate in a manner that benefits at least one
Commensalism
Symbiosis where one organism benefits with no difference to the other
Mutualism
Symbiosis where both participants benefit
Parasitism
Symbiosis where one participant benefits, to the detriment of the other
Carrying Capacity
largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support
Predator
any animal that lives by preying on other animals
Prey
animal hunted or caught for food
human population growth
Growing almost exponentially for centuries and birth rate is higher than death rate in most countries
Benefits of Compost
Can be reused as soil does not go into land fills
benefits of recycling
Reuses products do not have to wast energy making new products
Birds from HHP
western gull
clapper rail
black oyster catcher
Invasive species
plants and animals that have migrated to places where they are not native
benefits of wetlands
provide food and protective habitats for many aquatic animals, protect coastlines from erosion, and reduce damage from hurricanes
Naval ship yard history
one of the biggest shipyard in west coast (navy); using a lot of toxins for atomic bombs in 2nd world war → discovered toxins and pesticides in water → SUPER FUND CLEAN UP BY GOV'T
power plant HHP
Oldest and dirtiest
Community action that made it stop
Limiting factor
factor that causes the growth of a population to decrease
What characteristics do all living this have?
Cellular based, reproduction, evolution, adapt to environment, grow and develop, use process energy, metabolism, utilize water, DNA RNA
Sugar test:
most simple sugar:Glucose
the one with least amount of sugar: sucrose
Starch test:
Potatoes have more starch the onion
What issues in CA
2% of water is usable the rest is frozen or salty
desalination is $$$ not practica
CA: droughts not enough rain
FARMERS: 50%
DOMESTIC: 25%
RIVERS/ECOSYSTEM: 25%
have to share water
What parts of USA get most rain?
USA: SE (Florida/Alabama)
Where in CA do we get the most rain?
Winter and spring
When we do our best to conserve water how are we helping other people and the natural ecosystem?
water budgeting because when the city gets less water the environment gets more water
What is the concern about water?
we don't have enough fresh water, most is in oceans, polluted or frozen
What natural and human induced actions release excess Carbon into the atmosphere?
Burning coal, cutting down trees
Where can you find carbon on earth?
everywhere
What biological molecules are made form carbon?
carbohydrate lipids amino acids muclaic acids
What are some properties of carbon?
four bonding places, most common element, wants to bond with 2 oxygen, not commonly found alone