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adenosine triphosphate
stores energy/fully charged


Adenosine Diphosphate
stores energy/not fully charged

Biotic Factors

living parts of an ecosystem

Abiotic Factors

nonliving parts of an ecosystem


the type of environment in which an organism or group normally lives or occurs


N2O-turns into nitrite


NO2−turn into nitrate


NO3-turn into ammonia


NH3- yay ammnia



Orders of Biology Study

individual, population, community, ecosystem, biome, biosphere

Methods of Biology Study

observation, experimentation, modelling

Where does an environment's energy come from?


What is the energy flow of living systems?

From one trophic level to another; consumption

What is the efficiency of energy transfer?



An organism that produces its own food


An organism that introduces energy to the environment


The process plants use to derive nutrients from sunlight


An organism that feeds on other organisms; a consumer


An organism that depends on others for energy


A consumer that eats plants


A consumer that eats other consumers


A consumer that eats both plants and other consumers


A consumer that eats dead matter


A consumer that returns nutrients from dead matter to the earth

Food chain

A direct line from one organism to another, showing energy flow

Food web

An intertwined mesh of food chains, illustrating a more complete set of interactions from an ecosystem

Trophic Level

A level of energy passage in a food chain/web/pyramid. Each successive unit contains 1/10 the energy of the previous

Ecological pyramid

A pyramid illustrating the shrinking amount of energy with each trophic level


The mass of living organisms in an area

Biotic factor

A living component of an ecosystem that affects its state

Abiotic factor

A nonliving component of an ecosystem that affects its state

Nitrogen fixation

Caused by lightning strikes and anaerobic bacteria; converts nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3)


Bacteria process ammonia (NH2) into nitrites (NO2-) and nitrates (NO3-)


Nitrites (NO2-), nitrates(NO3-), ammonium (NH4-) and ammonia (NH3-) are all absorbed by plants to make proteins, DNA, and RNA


The decomposition of waste or dead matter releases nitrogen (N2) into the soil, where decomposers convert it to ammonia (NH3-)


Different bacteria convert nitrate (NO3-) into nitrogen gas (N2)


A nucleic acid that contains the codes to build life, formed by plants from assimilation


Another, simpler, nucleic acid


Biological compounds built with nitrogen


The area in which a specific organism lives


The role a specific organism occupies--i.e. its food, its habitat, its water source, etc.

Competitive Exclusion Principle

If there are similarities between two organisms' niches, competition will arise, forcing one into either extinction, or evolution into a different niche


When one organism captures and feeds on another


When two organisms cooperate in a manner that benefits at least one


Symbiosis where one organism benefits with no difference to the other


Symbiosis where both participants benefit


Symbiosis where one participant benefits, to the detriment of the other

Carrying Capacity

largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support


any animal that lives by preying on other animals


animal hunted or caught for food

human population growth

Growing almost exponentially for centuries and birth rate is higher than death rate in most countries

Benefits of Compost

Can be reused as soil does not go into land fills

benefits of recycling

Reuses products do not have to wast energy making new products

Birds from HHP

western gull
clapper rail
black oyster catcher

Invasive species

plants and animals that have migrated to places where they are not native

benefits of wetlands

provide food and protective habitats for many aquatic animals, protect coastlines from erosion, and reduce damage from hurricanes

Naval ship yard history

one of the biggest shipyard in west coast (navy); using a lot of toxins for atomic bombs in 2nd world war → discovered toxins and pesticides in water → SUPER FUND CLEAN UP BY GOV'T

power plant HHP

Oldest and dirtiest
Community action that made it stop

Limiting factor

factor that causes the growth of a population to decrease

What characteristics do all living this have?

Cellular based, reproduction, evolution, adapt to environment, grow and develop, use process energy, metabolism, utilize water, DNA RNA

Sugar test:

most simple sugar:Glucose
the one with least amount of sugar: sucrose

Starch test:

Potatoes have more starch the onion

What issues in CA

2% of water is usable the rest is frozen or salty
desalination is $$$ not practica
CA: droughts not enough rain
have to share water

What parts of USA get most rain?

USA: SE (Florida/Alabama)

Where in CA do we get the most rain?

Winter and spring

When we do our best to conserve water how are we helping other people and the natural ecosystem?

water budgeting because when the city gets less water the environment gets more water

What is the concern about water?

we don't have enough fresh water, most is in oceans, polluted or frozen

What natural and human induced actions release excess Carbon into the atmosphere?

Burning coal, cutting down trees

Where can you find carbon on earth?


What biological molecules are made form carbon?

carbohydrate lipids amino acids muclaic acids

What are some properties of carbon?

four bonding places, most common element, wants to bond with 2 oxygen, not commonly found alone

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