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103 terms

Anatomy Terms for Final

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anatomy
study of the structure of the body
gross anatomy
study of the macroscopic structures of an organism
microscopic anatomy
study of the microscopic structures of an organism
physiology
study of the functions of an organism and its parts
irritability
ability to sense changes in the environment and respond to them
digestion
breaking down of ingested foodstuffs to simple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood
metabolism
taking the small things that are broken down by digestion and using them
excretion
getting rid of wastes
reproduction
at the cellular level, the original cell divides, producing two identical daughter cells that may then be used for body growth or repair
growth
an increase in the size of a body part or an organism
homeostasis
state of equilibrium in the body with respect to its functions, chemical levels, and tissues
receptor
monitors the body's variables like blood pressure
control center
determines the set point, which is the level or range at which a variable is to be maintained
effector
structure in the body that can change the value of a variable
negative feedback mechanisms
when the effect of response to stimulus is to shut off the original stimulus or reduce its intensity
positive feedback mechanisms
increases the original disturbance or stimulus by pushing the value further from the original value
homeostatic imbalance
disturbance of homeostasis or when negative feedback mechanisms are overwhelmed
anatomical position
standard body position (feet forward, eyes forward, palms up)
superior
toward the head or the upper part of the body or a structure
inferior
away from the head end or toward the lower part of the structure
anterior
toward the front of the body
posterior
toward the back of the body
medial
toward or at the midline of the body
lateral
away from the midline of the body
intermediate
between a more medial and a more lateral structure
proximal
closer to the origin of the body part (the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk)
distal
father from the origin of the body part (the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk)
superficial
toward or at the body surface
deep
away from the body surface
axial
makes up the main axis of the body and includes the head, neck, and trunk
appendicular
consists of the appendages, or limbs, which are attached to the body's axis
plane
flat surface of a portion that that the body is cut into
sagittal plane
vertical plane that divides the body into right and left parts
midsagittal plane
sagittal plane that lies exactly in the midline
frontal plane
lies vertically and divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
transverse plane
runs horizontally from right to left, dividing the body into anterior and posterior parts
viscera
internal organs
thoracic cavity
superior subdivision surrounded by ribs and muscles
pleural cavities
two subdivisions of the thoracic cavity, each enveloping a lung
mediastinum
medial cavity of the thorax that contains the heart, the trachea, and great vessels
pericardial cavity
encloses the heart and surrounds the remaining thoracic organs
abdominal cavity
contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs
serous membrane
moist membrane found in the closed ventral body cavities
oral cavity
contains the teeth and the tongue; continuous with the digestive organs
nasal cavity
part of the respiratory system passageways
orbital cavity
home to the eyes, which it houses in the anterior position
middle ear cavity
contain tiny bones that transmit sound vibrations to the hearing receptors in the inner ears
synovial cavity
secretes a lubricating fluid that reduces friction as the bones move across one another
squamous epithelium
flat cells
cuboidal epithelium
cube shaped cells
columnar epithelium
tall cells (like a column)
simple epithelium
one cell layer thick
stratified epithelium
made up of several cell layers
pseudostratified epithelium
stratified "wanna-be"; looks like several layers, but it is only one layer
endocrine gland
produce hormone and eventually lose their ducts
exocrine gland
secrete their onto body surfaces (skin) or into body cavities
hormones
regulatory chemicals that endocrine glands secrete by exocytosis directly into the extra cellular space
collagen fibers
most abundant of the three fibers found in the matrix of connective tissue
fibroblasts
continuously manufacture the fibers and scant ground substance
connective tissue proper
has fibers as its prominent element
loose connective tissue
category of connective tissue that includes areolar tissue, reticular tissue, and adipose tissue; most common type of connective tissue in vertebrates; holds organs in place and attaches epithelial tissue to other underlying tissues; surrounds the blood vessels and nerves
adipose tissue
areolar connective tissue modified to store nutrients; a connective tissue consisting chiefly of fat cells
reticular connective tissue
connective tissue with a fine network of reticular fibers that from the internal supporting framework of lymphoid organs
dense regular tissue
contains closely packed bundles of collagen fibers running in the same direction
dense irregular tissue
has the same structural elements as the regular variety, but the bundles of collagen fibers are much thicker and are arranged irregularly; forms sheets in body areas where tension is exerted from many different directions
cartilage
has qualities intermediate between dense connective tissue and bone; tough but flexible; lacks nerve fibers and is avascular; receives its nutrients by diffusion from blood vessels located in the connective tissue membrane surrounding it
hyaline cartilage
most abundant cartilage type in the body; provides firm support with some pliability, covering the ends of long bones as articular cartilage and providing springy pads that absorb compression as joints
elastic cartilage
forms the "skeletons" of the external ear and the epiglottis
fibrocartilage
perfect structural intermediate between hyaline cartilage and dense regular connective tissues; has rows of chondrocytes alternating with rows of thick collagen fibers; found where strong support and the ability to withstand heavy pressure and required
bone
has a rocklike hardness that gives it the exceptional ability to support and protect body structures; bones provide cavities for fat storage and synthesis of blood cells
osseous tissue
another word for bone
blood
the fluid within blood vessels; the most atypical connective tissue; does not connect things or give mechanical support; develops from mesenchyme and consists of blood cells, surrounded by a nonliving fluid matrix called blood plasma
neurons
highly specialized nerve cells tat generate and conduct nerve impulses
muscle tissue
highly cellular, well-vascularized tissue that is responsible for most types of body movement
skeletal muscle
packaged by connective tissue sheets into organs called skeletal muscles that are attached to the bones of the skeleton
smooth muscle
cells of these muscles do not have any visible striations; spindle shaped and contain one centrally located nucleus; found mainly in the walls of hollows organs over than the heart; acts to squeeze substances through these organs by alternately contracting and relaxing
cardiac muscle
found only in the walls of the heart; its contractions help propel blood through the blood vessels to all parts of the body
voluntary muscle
muscle under strict nervous control, such as skeletal muscle
involuntary muscle
muscle that cannot ordinarily be controlled voluntarily
cutaneous membrane
cutaneous membranes of the skin cover the surface of the body; consist of stratified squamous epithelium and the underlying connective tissues; cutaneous membranes are thick, relatively waterproof, and dry
mucous membranes
membranes that form the linings of body cavities open to the exterior (digestive, reparatory, urinary, and reproductive tracts)
serous membranes
moist membranes found in closed ventral body cavities; consists of simple squamous epithelium resting on a thin layer of loose connective tissue
integumentary system
the skin as an entire organ system; provides the external protective covering of the body
hypodermis
loose connective tissue beneath the dermis and connects the dermis to muscle or bone; subcutaneous tissue just deep to the skin and consists of adipose plus some areolar connective tissue
epidermis
superficial layer of the skin; composed of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
keratin
most abundant protein in dead epidermal structures such as hair and nails; waterproofing protein produced by the epidermis; fibrous protein that helps give the epidermis its protective properties
melanin
dark brown pigment found in skin; formed by cells called melanocytes; imparts color to the skin and hair; polymer made of tyrosine amino acids
melanocytes
cells in the epidermis that produce melanin; found in the deepest layer of the epidermis
tactile cells
present at the epidermal-dermal junction and are shaped like a spiky hemisphere and is associated with a dislike sensory nerve ending
stratum basale
deepest epidermal layer; attached to the underlying dermis along a wavy borderline that reminds one of corrugated cardboard
stratum spinosum
several layers thick; these cells contain a weblike system of intermediate filaments, mainly tension-resisting bundles of pre-keratin filaments, which span their cytosol to attach to desmosomes
stratum granulose
consists of three to five cell layers in which keratinocyte appearance changes drastically, and the process of keratinization (in which cells fill with the protein keratin) begins
keratinization
when the cells fill with the protein keratin; the cells flatten, their nuclei and organelles begin to disintegrate and they accumulate two types of granules
stratum lucidum
layer of tissue found only in the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet
stratum corneum
broad zone twenty to thirty cell layers thick that accounts for up to three-quarters of the epidermal thickness
desquamation
when the dead cells flake off the skin from the top
dermis
the part of the skin that is not made up of epithelial tissue; second major skin region; strong, flexible connective tissue
papillary layer
areolar connective tissue in which fine interlacing collagen and elastic fibers form a loosely woven mat tat is heavily invested with small blood vessels
dermal papillae
peg-like projections that indent the overlapping epidermis
epidermal ridges
on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet, dermal papillae lie atop larger mounds called dermal ridges, which in turn cause the overlying epidermis to form epidermal ridge; they increase friction and enhance the gripping ability of the finger and feet
reticular layer
accounts for about eighty percent of the thickness of the dermis; coarse, irregularity arranged, dense fibrous connective tissue
carotene
yellow to orange pigment found in certain plant products such as carrots lajfdskfjsadjfl
sweat glands
distributed over the entire skin surface except the nipples and parts of the external genitalia