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95 terms

Ancestors of the West, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam terms

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ahura mazda
the wise lord
gathas
zarathustras 17 hymns
avesta
sacred text of zorastrianism
ethical dualism
the belief in universal forces of good and evil
resurrection and judgement of the dead, vivid portrayals of heavena dn hell
zorastrianisms doctrines regarding human destiny
5 times a day
how often to zorastrians usually pray a day?
fire ritual
symbol of purity, worshiping ahura mazdas perfect purity, central to zorastrian worship
pantheon
group of gods
anthropomorphic
"of human form"
aeschylus,
famous greek dramatist
oracle
sanctuary favored by a particular god
oracle at delphi
most famous oracle
mystery religions
diverse group of beliefs and practices that are now referred to as:
eleusion mysteries, cult of dionysus,
some important mystery religions:
orphism
named for legendary orpheus, religious task: to lead a pure life, through vegetarianism and other ascetic practices
numina
supernatural powers, each in charge of specific funtions
numen
what the gods possessed, supernatural powers in great abundance
cult of isis,
a roman mystery religion where osiris was killed and hacked into pieces by his brother and then isis found his body parts and mummified him and brought him back to life
emperor worship
influenced christianity because of the violent persecution that sometimes resulted when the christians refused to participate in it
platonic dualism
plato's highly influential perspective that true reality consists of eternal and perfect forms or ideas and that the material, bodily world is an imperfect reflection of the world of forms
covenant
an agreement established long ago between god and the ancient israelites, first through abraham and later through moses
yahweh
what jews call god
shema
judaisms most basic theological statement
torah
one of the most important terms in judaism, "instruction", will of god as it is revealed to humankind
tanakh
the bible itself, also found in christian old testament
the torah
first five books of the bible, also called pentateuch - "five books", stands as judaism's central code of holiness
the prophets
include both historical accounts of ancient israel and proclamations of the will of god spoken by those called to serve as gods mouthpieces
the writings
the books that constitute the writings are highly diverse in both content and literary form
rabbi
a teacher of torah or leader of jewish worship
mishnah
contains teachings that wer formulated and transmitted orally by the rabbis of the preceding four centuries
talmud
central pillar, based directly on mishnah
kabbalah
teaches that god can best be known with the heart through love
Zohar
most famous text of jewish mysticism
hasidism
draws from some of the mystical teachings of the Kabbalist tradition, says that god is the immanent and known first with the heart, emphasizes personal relationships with god
zaddik
center of all hasidic community
zionism
movement arising the the late 19th century that was committed to the re-establishment of a jewish homeland
anti-semitism
when jewish people faced persecution
holocaust
persecution of jews by german nazis from 1933-1945, murdered around 6million using concentration camps
mezuzah
often on right of door, small container with a scroll on which is written the shema
sabbath
begins at sunset on friday and lasts until sunset on saturday
rosh hashanah
the festival of the new year, occurs in early fall
yom kippur
day of atonement, 10th day of new year, most important holy day of judaism
passover
commemorates the exodus of the jews from bondage in egypt and is a time of joyful celebration
bar mitzvah
the primary ritual marking the jewish coming of age, when a child takes religious responsibilities of an adult
apolypticism
a common jewish religious perspective of jesus's time which held that the world had come under the control of evil forces and was heading toward the climatic end time at which point god would intervene to usher a reign of perfect justice and goodness
apostle
an early follower of jesus's, included 12 disciples
apostle's creed
short statement of christian belief that sets forth the foundations of the central doctrines of the incarnation and the trinity
bishops
officials within the earth church who were regarded as successors to the apostles
canon
an authoritative set of sacred writings such as christianity's new testament
catholic
the largest of the 3 major divisions of christianity
catholic reformation
an effort begun in 1545, initiated partly by the protestant reformation to clarify church doctrines
church
the community of all christian believers
deacons
officials within the early church who were like the presbyters in that they assisted the bishops but were on closer terms with the congregation at large
ecumenism
the promotion of worldwide christian unity
eucharist
reacting last supper, holy communion,
gospel
referring generally to the saving power of the life, crucifixion, and resurrection of the jesus christ
grace
god's presence freely given, key doctrine for paul and for christianity
heresies
opinions or doctrines at variance with accepted doctrine
holy spirit
one of 3 persons of holy trinity along with god the father and jesus the son
incarnation
doctrine of christianity, says that jesus became fully human while remaining fully divine
indulgences
the punishment due for sins committed, buying and selling of them was common in catholicism
martyrs
those who choose to die for their beliefs
new testament
27 writings that by the late 4th century AD, had been adopted by orthodox christians as their primary sacred text
nicene creed
formulated at council of Nicaea, setting forth precise language and the doctrines of the incarnation and of the trinity
original sin
moral and spiritual corruption
orthodox
deemed by those with true authority, major division of christianity dominant in the eastern regions of europe and the area surrounding the mediterranean sea
parables
stories that jesus used to cast important moral lessons with the language and circumstances familiar to the common people
pope
bishop of rome, leader of catholicism,
predestination
prevalent in calvin's form of protestantism states that god has already chosen those who will be saved from sin
presbyters
officials within the early church who assisted the bishops
protestant reformation
a widespread phenomenon in 16th century europe that resulted in the emergence of protestantism from catholicism
second coming
anticipated return of christ to the world, on which occasion the dead will be resurrected and all people will be judged
second vatican council
council of catholic bishops that aimed to reflect on church teaching so that the church would respond appropriately to the needs of modern world
tradition
primary means for god's revelation of Christ beginning with he apostles and continuing in the present day through the church
trinity
a core christian doctrine stating that god consists of 3 persons - god the father, jesus the son, and the holy spirit = all one god
al-fana
the extinction of one's sense of separate existence before achieving union with allah
caliphs
military leaders of mulim community
five pillars
confession of faith, prayer, fasting, wealth sharing, pilgrimage to mecca
hajj
pilgrimage to mecca
hijra
emigration of muhammad and his followers from mecca to yathrib
imam
the leader of the friday worship service, directs prayers and delivers a sermon
Imam
successor to muhammad and the leader of islam
jihad
"struggle", sometimes counted as 6th pillar
ka'ba
stone cube structure in courtyard of great mosque of mecca, believed to have been built by abraham
mosque
the muslim place or building of worshop
quaran
islams primary sacred text, direct words of allah
ramadan
ninth mont of the islamic lunar calendar, period during which muslims fast
shahada
confession of faith
shari'a
divine law, derived from quaran, tells muslims how to live
shaykh
teacher and master in islam
shi'i
division of islam dominant in iraq and iran
sufi
form of islam characterized by a mystical approach to allah who is experienced inwardly
sunna
teachings and actions of muhammad recorded in writings, model for being a muslim
sunni
division of islam practiced by most muslims, named after sunna
umma
the community of muslims