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ahura mazda

the wise lord


zarathustras 17 hymns


sacred text of zorastrianism

ethical dualism

the belief in universal forces of good and evil

resurrection and judgement of the dead, vivid portrayals of heavena dn hell

zorastrianisms doctrines regarding human destiny

5 times a day

how often to zorastrians usually pray a day?

fire ritual

symbol of purity, worshiping ahura mazdas perfect purity, central to zorastrian worship


group of gods


"of human form"


famous greek dramatist


sanctuary favored by a particular god

oracle at delphi

most famous oracle

mystery religions

diverse group of beliefs and practices that are now referred to as:

eleusion mysteries, cult of dionysus,

some important mystery religions:


named for legendary orpheus, religious task: to lead a pure life, through vegetarianism and other ascetic practices


supernatural powers, each in charge of specific funtions


what the gods possessed, supernatural powers in great abundance

cult of isis,

a roman mystery religion where osiris was killed and hacked into pieces by his brother and then isis found his body parts and mummified him and brought him back to life

emperor worship

influenced christianity because of the violent persecution that sometimes resulted when the christians refused to participate in it

platonic dualism

plato's highly influential perspective that true reality consists of eternal and perfect forms or ideas and that the material, bodily world is an imperfect reflection of the world of forms


an agreement established long ago between god and the ancient israelites, first through abraham and later through moses


what jews call god


judaisms most basic theological statement


one of the most important terms in judaism, "instruction", will of god as it is revealed to humankind


the bible itself, also found in christian old testament

the torah

first five books of the bible, also called pentateuch - "five books", stands as judaism's central code of holiness

the prophets

include both historical accounts of ancient israel and proclamations of the will of god spoken by those called to serve as gods mouthpieces

the writings

the books that constitute the writings are highly diverse in both content and literary form


a teacher of torah or leader of jewish worship


contains teachings that wer formulated and transmitted orally by the rabbis of the preceding four centuries


central pillar, based directly on mishnah


teaches that god can best be known with the heart through love


most famous text of jewish mysticism


draws from some of the mystical teachings of the Kabbalist tradition, says that god is the immanent and known first with the heart, emphasizes personal relationships with god


center of all hasidic community


movement arising the the late 19th century that was committed to the re-establishment of a jewish homeland


when jewish people faced persecution


persecution of jews by german nazis from 1933-1945, murdered around 6million using concentration camps


often on right of door, small container with a scroll on which is written the shema


begins at sunset on friday and lasts until sunset on saturday

rosh hashanah

the festival of the new year, occurs in early fall

yom kippur

day of atonement, 10th day of new year, most important holy day of judaism


commemorates the exodus of the jews from bondage in egypt and is a time of joyful celebration

bar mitzvah

the primary ritual marking the jewish coming of age, when a child takes religious responsibilities of an adult


a common jewish religious perspective of jesus's time which held that the world had come under the control of evil forces and was heading toward the climatic end time at which point god would intervene to usher a reign of perfect justice and goodness


an early follower of jesus's, included 12 disciples

apostle's creed

short statement of christian belief that sets forth the foundations of the central doctrines of the incarnation and the trinity


officials within the earth church who were regarded as successors to the apostles


an authoritative set of sacred writings such as christianity's new testament


the largest of the 3 major divisions of christianity

catholic reformation

an effort begun in 1545, initiated partly by the protestant reformation to clarify church doctrines


the community of all christian believers


officials within the early church who were like the presbyters in that they assisted the bishops but were on closer terms with the congregation at large


the promotion of worldwide christian unity


reacting last supper, holy communion,


referring generally to the saving power of the life, crucifixion, and resurrection of the jesus christ


god's presence freely given, key doctrine for paul and for christianity


opinions or doctrines at variance with accepted doctrine

holy spirit

one of 3 persons of holy trinity along with god the father and jesus the son


doctrine of christianity, says that jesus became fully human while remaining fully divine


the punishment due for sins committed, buying and selling of them was common in catholicism


those who choose to die for their beliefs

new testament

27 writings that by the late 4th century AD, had been adopted by orthodox christians as their primary sacred text

nicene creed

formulated at council of Nicaea, setting forth precise language and the doctrines of the incarnation and of the trinity

original sin

moral and spiritual corruption


deemed by those with true authority, major division of christianity dominant in the eastern regions of europe and the area surrounding the mediterranean sea


stories that jesus used to cast important moral lessons with the language and circumstances familiar to the common people


bishop of rome, leader of catholicism,


prevalent in calvin's form of protestantism states that god has already chosen those who will be saved from sin


officials within the early church who assisted the bishops

protestant reformation

a widespread phenomenon in 16th century europe that resulted in the emergence of protestantism from catholicism

second coming

anticipated return of christ to the world, on which occasion the dead will be resurrected and all people will be judged

second vatican council

council of catholic bishops that aimed to reflect on church teaching so that the church would respond appropriately to the needs of modern world


primary means for god's revelation of Christ beginning with he apostles and continuing in the present day through the church


a core christian doctrine stating that god consists of 3 persons - god the father, jesus the son, and the holy spirit = all one god


the extinction of one's sense of separate existence before achieving union with allah


military leaders of mulim community

five pillars

confession of faith, prayer, fasting, wealth sharing, pilgrimage to mecca


pilgrimage to mecca


emigration of muhammad and his followers from mecca to yathrib


the leader of the friday worship service, directs prayers and delivers a sermon


successor to muhammad and the leader of islam


"struggle", sometimes counted as 6th pillar


stone cube structure in courtyard of great mosque of mecca, believed to have been built by abraham


the muslim place or building of worshop


islams primary sacred text, direct words of allah


ninth mont of the islamic lunar calendar, period during which muslims fast


confession of faith


divine law, derived from quaran, tells muslims how to live


teacher and master in islam


division of islam dominant in iraq and iran


form of islam characterized by a mystical approach to allah who is experienced inwardly


teachings and actions of muhammad recorded in writings, model for being a muslim


division of islam practiced by most muslims, named after sunna


the community of muslims

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