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Self consoling behavior

clinging to favorite possessions & repetitive rituals particularly at bedtime & during separation from parents.

Tablespoon / Age rule

1 tablespoon of solid foods per year of age

Toilet Training

Voluntary control of anal & urethral sphincters begin at 18 - 24 months / bladder training seems to begin when toddler stays dry 2 hrs at a time / potty chair makes toddler feel secure because it is small / Restricting fluids before sleep may help

Toys for toddlers

Pots and pans / supervised water play / dancing to music / crayons or finger paint & paper / picture book / tricycles / objects that are pushed or pulled

Promoting autonomy

Maintain safety while allowing toddler the opportunity for social & physical independence / maintain positive self image & body image in child whose behavior is inconsistent & often frustrating / ritualism also helps develop personality and behavior

finger foods

what are appropriate snacks for toddlers

Normal vital signs

BP 90/56 / RR 25 breaths per min / pulse 70 / 110 beats / min

Language development for toddlers

3 years old 900 words / end of 1st year bye bye , mama , dada , parallels cognitive growth

milk intake

no more than 24 ounces (720ml) / too few solid foods can lead to deficiency of iron

Bladder Training

begins when toddler stays dry 2 hrs at a time

Behavior of child

Alternate between independence and dependence / test their powers by saying NO / toilet training self feeding self dressing speech development

3 year old behavior

assist in household chores / temper tantrums are less / less erratic / dress and undress themselves / use toilet / wash their hands / eat independently / talk in longer sentences and ask questions / imaginative / parallel and associative play

Sexual curiosity

Assess knowledge of child then assess into what the child is seeking / be honest and accurate in providing info at childs level they will learn in the future/ use correct terminology / provide sex education when child asks for it / masturbation is a form of sexual curiosity and is normal


Attribute life to inanimate objects

3 year old egocentrism

parallel play due to their comfort level

4 year old concept of death

pretend they are the hero who shoots the intruder / idea is to encourage questions as they appear & gradually help them accept the truth without fear

thumb sucking

seen by sonogram about 29th week of embryonic life / it satisfies and comforts the infant / nonnutritive sucking benefits in weight gain/ decreased crying / development of self consoling ability & increased behavior organization / will not have effected on teeth is if sucking is discontinued before 2nd teeth erupt

5 year old play

likes playing games governed by rules / less fearful believes that environment is controlled by authorities / can ride tricycle with speed / uses hammer to pound nails / computer games

handicapped childs play

needs most stimulation / environment should be as colorful and as bright as possible / play w/other children must be supervised / repetition of play is necessary / nurse or teacher should improvise games & songs to meet special needs

Imaginary friend concept

Helps child adjust to expanding world & increase independence

Primary Enuresis

Bed wetting in child whose never been dry

Secondary Enuresis

recurrence in child who has been dry for a year or more


more common in boys than girls / involuntary urination

Interventions for enuresis

By 12 - 14 years old 98 % of children remain dry / liquids after dinner should be limited / child should void before going to bed / hypnosis , pharmacotherapy , behavior modification / impramine hydrochloride (tofranil) decreases enuresis / desmopressin nasal spray has been used with some success but is expensive

toys for preschoolers

noncompetitive / construction sets / alphabet games / crayons / play tools /housekeeping toys / musical toys / pop up books / large puzzles / clay

Bedtime habits

Parents should be guided to engage the child in quiet activities before bedtime to maintain specific rituals that signal bedtime readiness (storytelling) and to verbally state " after this story it will be bedtime"

Fears of bodily harm

Loss of body parts is unique to this stage / little boy who discovers that infant sister is made differently may worry that she may be injured /wonders if this will happen to him / masturbation is common during this stage as a children attempt to reassure themselves that they are all right.

3 years old

Vocab of 300-800 words / uses plurals / forms 3 word sentences / can repeat 3 numbers / understanding occurs before expressive ability

4 years old

Vocab of 1500 words / 4 to 5 word sentences / experiment with language and words / may use offensive words without understanding meaning

5 years old

Vocab of 2000 words / can name 4 colors / uses 6 - 8 word sentences with pro nouns

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