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135 terms

Anatomy 2 Final

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The alimentary canal extends, in its entirety, from
D. the mouth to the anus
The digestive system
A. ingests food, propels food, mechanically and chemically breaks down food, absorbs nutrients, and defecates the remainder
The correct sequence for the layers in the walls of the alimentary canal from innermost to outermost is the
B. mucosa, submucosa, muscular layer, serosa
The _____ is the layer of the alimentary canal that absorbs nutrients.
A. mucosa
Peristalsis occurs in the digestive tract
A. from the pharynx to the anus
The teeth that are best adapted for biting off hunks of food are the
A. incisors
The root canal of a tooth contains
D. blood vessels and nerves
The mechanical breakup of food particles in the mouth is called
A. mastication
The ulva is
E. a flap of tissue that keeps food from entering the respiratory system
Because of their location, swollen palatine tonsils may interfere with
C. both breathing and swallowing
Salivary amylase digests
A. carbohydrates
The parotid glands are
A. the largest salivary glands
The epiglottis is attached to the
D. larynx
Heartburn is usually caused by the effects of gastric juice on the
B. esophagus
The main part of the stomach is called the
A. fundus
The parietal cells gastric glands secrete
C. hydrochloric acid
All of the enzymes that digest protein are
A. secreted by the pancreas
Gastrin, which stomach cells secrete
B. increases secretion by the gastric glands
Secretion of cholecystokinin from the intestinal wall is stimulated by
D. protein and fat in the small intestine
The hormones secretin
C. stimulates release of pancreatic juice
The bile ducts of the liver unite to form the
B. hepatic ducts.
which of the following is the correct sequence for the digestion of lipids?
B. [2] emulsification by bile [4] hydrolysis by pancreatic lipase [3] dissolved in the epithelial cell membrane [1] formation of chylomicrons [5] diffusion into lacteal ducts
One of the major functions of the large intestine is to
B. absorb ingested water
Enlarged blood vessels of the anal columns is called
B. hemorrhoids
_______ is a protein-splitting enzyme in pancreatic juice.
A. trypsin
A cute pancreatitis is often caused by the conversion of
A. trypsin to trypsinogen
Pancreatic digestive secretions are regulated by
C.cholecystokinin
Hepatitis B can be transmitted by means of
E. all of the above
Which constituent of bile has a digestive function?
C. cholesterol
Which of the following are major functions of the liver?
E. all of the above
The cells that result from meiosis are diploid
false
chromosomes align down the center of a cell undergoing meiosis in metaphase
true
the secretions of the prostate gland neutralize the acid in semen
true
each epididymis emerges from the bottom of a testis
true
The ductus deferentia are muscular tubes about 25 centimeters long
false
Capacitation makes sperm tails whip more quickly.
false
The amount of testosterone produced is regulated by a positive feedback system.
false
Gonadotropins include FSH and LH
true
In females, egg cell production begins before birth.
true
Ciliary action aids movement of an egg through a uterine tube.
true
FSH stimulates a primordial follicle to start maturing
true
An increase in the level of FSH at approximately day 14 causes ovulation
false
Endometriosis can result in the formation of fibrous tissue around the ovaries and can prevent ovulation or obstruct the uterine tubes.
true
The structure the sperm enters upon exiting the ductus deferens is the
E. seminiferous tubules
The interstital cells of the testes produce
androgens
the tubular part of the uterus that extends downward into the upper vagina is the
B. cervix
The egg, or ovum, is more correctly called
B. a secondary oocyte
A pap smear is used to detect abnormal cells in the
C. cervix
The zona pellucida consists of
A. glycoprotein
The dimensions of a uterine tube are
D. 0.7 centimeters in a diameter and about 10 centimeters long
Fertalization normally occurs in the
B. uterine tube
Which of the following terms is/ are correctly defined?
E. all of the above
The inner mucosal layer of the uterine wall is the
A. endometrium
The first step in oogenesis is a
B. primary oocyte divides to form a polar body and an egg cell
The female structure that corresponds to the male penis is the
B. clitoris
In females, which structure is immediately anterior to the vagina?
D. symphysis pubis
Menopause is due to the aging of the
A. ovaries
The hormone mainly responsible for the development and maintenance of female secondary sexual characteristics is
A. estrogen
About the time of ovulation, the anterior pituitary gland releases a surge of
C. LH
In the menstrual cycle, estrogen _______, whereas progesterone ________.
C. stimulates uterine wall development; stimulates the uterine lining to become more glandular
A mammary gland contains ______ lobes.
D. 15 to 20
The glands in a lobe of a breast
A. drain into alveolar ducts, which drain into a lactiferous duct that leads to the nipple
Stertility may result from uncorrected ___________, or undescended testes.
cryptorchidism
Spermatozoa are produced in minute ducts called ___________ ____________
seminiferous tubules
Testosterone is secreted by __________ cells of the testes.
interstitual
The ________ ___________ is a countercurrent heat exchanger that keeps the testis cool.
pampiniform plexus
Until ejaculation, most sperm are stored in the ________.
epididymis
About 30% of the semen is produced the _______, a medial gland that encloses part of the urethra.
prostate
The blood-testis barrier is formed by tight junctions between the ________ cells of the testis.
sustentacular
Erection results largely from vasocongestion of the two _______ _______ on the dorsal side of the penis.
corpa cavernosus
A sperm penetrates an egg by means of enzymes from its ___________.
acrosome
The first haploid cell produced in sprematogenesis is the _______ __________
secondary spermatocyte
Embryonic precursor of the male reproductive tract
K. mesonephric duct
Has receptors on the embryonic gonad if the gonad has a Y chromosome
C. HCG
Inability to produce this would result in impotence
A. nitric oxide
A male secondary sex characteristics
B. beard
Cord that guides the descending testes into the fetal scrotum
T. gubernaculums
Muscle that elevates or lowers the scrotum
O. cremaster
Must be present if testosterone is to have any effect on the testes
H. FSH duct
Minute blood sinuses in the erectile tissues of the penis
I. lacunae
Inhibin selectively suppresses its secretion
H. FSH duct
The release of an egg from the ovary is called ________.
ovulation
The constricted part of the uterus that protrudes into the vagina is called the ____________.
cervix
Attachment of the conceptus to the uterine walled is called _______________.
implantation
_____________ is a hormone secreted by the ovary that selectively suppresses FSH secretion.
progesterone
A developing egg is ovulated, and may be fertilized, at the ________ _______ stage of oogenesis.
secondary oocyte
Follicles and oocytes develop during a portion of the ovarian cycle called the __________ phase.
follicular
An ovarian follicle is considered a secondary follicle when it develops a cavity called the _________.
antrum
In the luteal phase, the ovaries secrete mainly ________, which stimulates glycogen synthesis and mucus secretion in the uterus.
inhibin
Hyperemesis gravidarum is a state of severe _______ early in pregnancy.
vomiting
Parturition is the process of _________ _________.
giving birth.
Target cells for oxytocin
D. myoepithelial cells
Degeneration of ovarian follicles that never ovulate.
R. atresia
Binds the ovary to the broad ligament
I. mesovarium
Suppressed by both inhibin and dopamine
B. anterior pituitary
Partially composes the menstrual fluid
E. endometrium
Vaginal spaces that surround the cervix
U. fornices
Site of fertilization
L. uterine tube
Source of prolactin and luteinizing hormones
B. anterior pituitary
Childbirth
O. parturition
Mammary secretion that precedes milk
Y. colostrums
Primary spermatocytes are haploid.
true
Impotence means the inability to fertilize an egg due to a low sperm count or defective sperm.
true
The acidity of the vagina would be harmful to sperm if it were not neutralized by the semen
true
Spermatogenesis requires a temperature slightly lower than the core body temperature.
true
The testes and ovaries are collectively called the gametes.
false
During erection, the corpora cavernosa become more vasocongested than the corpus spongiosum.
true
Since ejaculation is an involuntary reflex, it does not involve any skeletal (voluntary) muscles.
true
The male scrotum is homologous to the female labia majora.
true
If two chromosomes are homologous, they came from the same parent.
false
The nerves that carry sensations from the male genitals constitute the pampiniform plexus.
false
Testosterone has no effect on spermatogenesis unless follicle-stimulating hormone is present.
true
Sperm heads are embedded in the sustentacular cells until the spermatozoa are mature.
true
Spermine is a sugar that provides energy for sperm motility.
false
The tunica albuginea of the male is homologous to the tunica vaginalis of the female.
true
The blood-testis barrier keeps blood from getting to the testes.
false
Only the female embryonic gonad has receptors for HCG
false
Most of a female's eggs degenerate before she is born.
true
Prolactin is not secreted until after a woman gives birth.
false
Cow's milk does not contain enough protein for adequate infant nutrition.
false
Colostrum has less protein than cow's milk.
false
The serosa of the uterus is called the perimetrium.
true
Milk flows into a single large lactiferous duct immediately behind the nipple.
false
An adolescent girl's growth of axillary hair and apocrine glands is stimulated by androgens.
true
Most girls do not ovulate during the first year of menstruation.
true
The luteal phase is a period of rapid mitosis in the endometrium.
true
The reproductive tract of a female fetus differentiates under the influence of estrogen
false
There are no mucous glands in the vagina.
false
Estrogen is a risk factor that increases the incidence of certain types of breast cancer.
true
A woman's blood cholesterol level tends to rise after menopause
true
Estrogen causes granulosa cells of a follicle to be more sensitive to FSH.
true
Most girls ovulate during the first year of menstruation.
false
The testes originate from tissues posterior to the parietal pleural
false
The germinal epithelial cells that line the seminiferous tubules produce sperm.
true
The primary organs of the female reproductive system are the uterus and vagina
false