39 terms

AQA Geography: The Development Gap

AQA geography human paper 2; the development gap. Includes measuring development, global equalities, inequalities in the EU and aid.
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Gross domestic product (GDP)
Total value of goods and services a country provides annually
Gross national product (GNP)
Total value of goods and services people of that nationality produce annually
Birth rate
Number of babies born per thousand of the population per year
Death rate
Number of deaths per thousand of the population each year
Infant mortality rate
Number of babies under the age of 1 who die per thousand babies born
People per doctor
Average number of people per doctor
Literacy rate
Percentage of adults who can read and write
Access to safe water
Percentage of people who can get clean drinking water
Life expectancy
Average age a person can expect to live to
Human development index (HDI)
Number calculated using life expectancy, literacy rate and income per head
Development measures only provide averages
Development measures have limitations because...
More economically developed country
MEDC
Less economically developed country
LEDC
Newly industrialising country
NIC
Bulgaria
Former communist country in Eastern Europe
Saudi Arabia
Oil-exporting country in the Middle East
Ethiopia
Heavily indebted country in central Africa
North and south divide line
LEDCs and MEDCs are split by the...
Defined by material wealth and income
Standard of living
Defined by standard of living and surrounding environment
Quality of life
Global inequalities
How countries differ in development
Economic
Poor trade links - social, economic or environmental?
Environmental
Natural disasters - social, economic or environmental?
Social
Place of women in society - social, economic or environmental?
Economic
Lots of debt - social, economic or environmental?
Environmental
Few raw materials - social, economic or environmental?
Social
Child education - social, economic or environmental?
Fair trade
Get farmers in less developed countries a fixed, fair price for the goods they produce
Trading groups
Groups of countries who agree to reduce import taxes between each other (e.g. NAFTA)
Debt abolition
Some or all of a country's debt is cancelled by the donor country
Bilateral aid
Aid is given directly to the recipient country
Multilateral aid
Aid is give indirectly through an international organisation that distributes aid
Short-term aid
Aid given to help cope with emergencies; impact is immediate but does not affect development
Long-term aid
Aid given over time to help recipient country become more developed
Sustainable development
Developing in a way that doesn't irreversibly damage the environment or impact badly on future generations
Core countries
Countries in the centre of trade in the EU (e.g. the UK)
Periphery countries
Countries on the edge of EU trade (e.g. former communist countries like Bulgaria)
Common agricultural policy
EU farmers are subsidised to grow certain products; farmers are guaranteed a fair fixed price for produce
URBAN Community Initiative
Money given to EU cities to create jobs, reduce crime and increase green space