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the natural process by which water is purified and made fresh through evaporation and precipitation. The cycle provides all the fresh water available for biological life.
An irregular stream drainage network that resembles the limbs of a branching tree.
a system of streams running in all directions away from a central elevated structure such as a volcano
Looks like all of the streams met at right angles; small streams converge into a single river; common in rock that has cracks at right angles
The courses of streams are largely controlled by a pattern of alternating parallel ridges and valleys.
Lowest elevation to which the stream can erode downward, for many streams, the water surface level of the body of water into which they flow
A groundwater movement equation formulated by Henry Darcy during the mid-1800's based on experiments on the flow of water through beds of sand. It forms the scientific basis of fluid permeability used in earth science. Q = K A(DH/DL)
formed when magma heats groundwater and the water rises and collects in a natural pool. is 6 - 9 °C warmer than the mean air temperature of the locality
salts dissolve out of minerals, recrystallizes in rocks when water evaporates, creates pressure
downward slipping of Earth materials, usually involves a rotation on concave surface
A thick mass of ice that originates on land from the accumulation, compaction, and recrystallization of snow
Formed under glacier where debris load exceeds capacity of glacier to transport sediment; asymmetrical hills
(geology) the leaping movement of sand or soil particles as they are transported in a fluid medium over an uneven surface
(geology) the erosion of soil as a consequence of sand and dust and loose rocks being removed by the wind
Geographical zones located directly north and south of the tropics, approximately centered on 30°S and 30°N. (13.3)
are the areas between 30 and 60 degrees latitude in both hemispheres. In this region the climate undergoes the greatest seasonal changes in temperature and moisture.
An open-mounted steel net dragged along the sea floor behind a research ship for the purpose of sampling rocks from submarine outcrops.
A process in which drill rigs mounted on off-shore platforms or on research vessels cut cylindrical cores from both sediment and rock of the sea floor, which are then brought to the surface for study.
a seaward extension of a valley that was cut on the continental shelf during a time when sea level was lower, or a canyon carved into the outer continental shelf, slope, and rise by turbidity currents
Fan shaped accumulation of sediment from rivers that is deposited at the base of a submarine canyon within a ocean basin.
the transport of sediment in a zigzag pattern along a beach caused by the uprush of water from obliquely breaking waves
Coastline that results from either a drop of sea level or an uplifting of the land
gaseous components of magma dissolved in the melt. They will readily vaporize at surface pressures
A device that emits a high-energy signal that penetrates and reflects from layers in sediment and rock beneath the sea floor; the data are used to construct a topographic profile of the sea floor.
measuring instrument in which the echo of a pulse of microwave radiation is used to detect and locate distant objects
a piece of lithosphere that becomes part of a larger landmass when tectonic plates collide at a convergent boundary.
A large, flat-topped seamount resulting from erosion of an island volcano when it was above sea level.
a submerged mountain on the ocean floor that is at least 1,000 m high and that has a volcanic origin
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