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Gerontology Final Exam Questions

STUDY
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A ________ is a bar chart that reflects population by age and sex
Population Pyramid
The combined ratio of children and older people to individuals aged 18-64 is called
Total Dependency Ratio
_______ is the rate at which birth occurs
Fertility
Which of the following is defined as the average number of years people in a given population can expect to live?
Life expectancy
The three-stage shift from high mortality & fertility rates to low mortality & fertility rates occurs through a socioeconomic process, which is called
demographic tansition
Which is defined as the number of males to every 100 females?
sex ratio
What is the leading cause of death in the US for people over the age of 65?
Heart Disease
What shape is a young nation in a population pyramid?
Triangular shape
Which term below fits the following definition: The incidence of death in a population
Mortality Rate
An example of an age integrated group is:
A family
In 2005 the U.S. life expectancy at birth was approximately
78 years
Humans are active agents that who create the society in which they live is known as "Social _______."
Constructionism
What is a period effect?
The impact of a historical event on the entire society
Age timetables refers to the idea that there are appropriate ages
For making various life course tansitions
What is the definition of an empty nest?
When a couple's children are grown and move out of the house.
What theory holds that normal aging involves a natural and inevitable mutual withdrawal from involvement with others?
Disengagement Theory
Which of the following is an example of cross-sectional research?
Asking a 20-yr. old, a 40-yr. old, and a 60-yr. old the same question
For many, the three major life trajectories are
Education, Work, Retirement
Which term matches the following definition: Produced by others' role changes.
Counter transitions
Social Clock means norms for
Ordering of major life events
Gerontologists define a "cohort" as:
Aggregate of individuals who experience the same event within the same time interval
Systematic stereotyping of and discrimination against people because they are old is
Ageism
All are activities that gerontological specialist perform except:
Diagnosing
What are the three subdivisions of old age that many gerontologists use?
Young, Middle and Oldest
Research has found that most children's book portray the elderly:
in a stereotypical and negative fashion
The statement "Most older people are disabled" is a
Sterotype
The term "Geriatrics" is different from "Gerontology" because it focuses on _______ and aging
Health
A gerontologist who studies life transitions and trajectories is likely using the
Life Course Framework
Studying the life satisfaction of 2011 WMU graduates for the next 60 years is an example of
Longitudinal Research
Cultural expect ions for when life events occur is referred to as Age
Timetables
A theory is:
a broad explanation that provides the structure for organizing and interpreting multiple observable facts and their relationship to one another.
For both the disengagement and activity theories, the _____ is the subject matter.
Social System
Based on the definition of "deferred exchange strategies" the person most likely to be involved in this strategy would be a:
Family member
____________ is the study of population processes- fertility, mortality and migration.
Demography
In the year 2000 in the United State approximately ____ were 65 and older
12%
In the third stage of demographic transition, the population as a whole ages and more deaths are caused by ____.
chronic, long-term conditions
_______ theorists study social identity by wealth, gender, race and age.
Stratification
The statement "The rich get richer and the poor get poorer." Might be said by a Political Economist who supports the Theory of Cumulative
Education
Gerontologists define a "cohort" as:
Aggregate of individuals who experience the same event within the same intercal
The Young at Heart documentary provides support for the _____ theory of aging.
Activity
Medicare was established in
1965
Medicare Part A covers
Hospitalization
The public program that provides the most funding for nursing home (institutional) care is
Medicaid
What term refers to the amount of preretirement pay that is replaced by the social security retirement benefit?
Replacement rate
The three types of welfare in the welfare state are social insurance, fiscal welfare and
Public assistance
Social Security in an example of a(n)
entitlement program
What term refers to the taxes levied on workers and employers to fund social insurance programs?
Payroll tax
Supplemental Security Income (SSI) is a means -tested public assistance program for the aged, blind and
disabled poor
The measure of the number of years a person can expect to live without a disability is called?
active life expectancy
Older Americans Act services are generally provided
in the community
11. In order to be eligible for Medicaid, a person must be
low-income
Unstable molecules that are produced when the body transforms food into chemical energy
Free radical theory
Male baldness is caused by an interaction of testosterone and
genes
What are the dark spots or discoloration that you often see on the backs of very older people's hands or on their forearms?
lentigo
The most common form of human cancer is _____ cancer
skin
As people grow older, neurons
die and are not replaced
If an adult exhibits trembling, withdrawal from interaction, hallucinations, loss of balance they should probably be tested for
Parkinson's Disease
Presbyopia is the inability to focus on _______ and becomes more problematic with age.
Near Objects
Sleep problems are more likely in older
women
Presbycusis refers to the normal loss of ____ with age.
hearing
Osteoporosis is a disease of the
bones
When an older person's vision becomes cloudy they should be checked for
cataracts
Joint pain due to inflammation is likely due to
Arthritis
Menopause is the
Cessation of menstrual cycle
After age 50, rates of men experiencing erectile dysfunction
increase
If a person's arteries are less elastic and the heart must work hard to pump blood through the arteries, he or she likely has
Hypertension
Research on two types of intelligence shows that one type stays about the same in later life, and ________ declines.
fluid intelligence
As a person ages, if they experience more minor lapses in memory that is
normal
When learned information is placed into memory for later use, that is called
encoding
Memory that is kept in consciousness is referred to as _____ memory
short-term
Older people tend to be less able than younger people to
Juggle many items in their short-term memory
The most common form of dementia is
Alzheimer's Disease
Damage to the speech and language center in the brain is
aphasia
Older _______ are more likely to show depressive symptoms.
Women
Research has demonstrated that ________ is a good way to fight depressive symptoms in
later life.
Social Engagement
The major risk factor for vascular dementia is
High Blood Pressure
According to Erikson, in old age individuals struggle with integrity versus
despair
What refers to a range of behaviors an individual uses to meet demands?
adaptation
Match a term with the following definition: A mental disorder caused by severe deterioration of the brain.
Dementia
What is required to identify relationships and to make conclusions on the basis of that understanding?
Fluid Intelligence
A unit of a mother, father and two children is best described as a ____________ family.
Nuclear
Individuals who provide assistance, emotional interaction, and social interaction are referred to by gerontologists as
Social Support
Women have stronger, more extended social networks.
True
In the U.S. in 2000, 26% of 75-84 year old _____ and 71% of 75-84 year old _____ are married.
Women, Men
When a married couple is in the early years of retirement, their level of marital satisfaction is _______ when they were first married.
About the same as
Most late life divorces are initiated by
Wives
Approximately what proportion of marriages end in divorce?
1 out of 2
A UCLA study of 70-94 year olds found that unmarried men reported ______ sexual activity compared to women.
About the same level of
Children whose parents have divorced have _____ a sense of obligation to parents than those in intact families.
Less of
A grandparent who provides very frequent, parent-like interaction with a grandchild would be described as
Involved
According to the textbook, the most significant growth trend in housing for the elderly is
Assisted living facilities
Grandparents who maintained a ________ relationship with their grandchildren focused on emotionally satisfying, leisure-time activities and reported an easygoing, friendly style of interaction.
Companionate
Which term matches the following definitions: Situation when people grow older in four or maybe even five family generations.
Bean Pole family structure
Most individuals aged 65 to 74 still live with a spouse.
True
White men are ________ to live with spouse than Black, Asian or Hispanic men.
more likely
When older adult children and their parents live together, it is more likely that
adult children move in with parents
The movement of older people to the Sun Belt, is called
Migratory stream
The most common adaptive modification in the homes of the elderly with physical
handrails/grab bars
Between 1994 and 2004, there was ________ in home ownership.
a significant increase
Residents of assisted living facilities are more likely to be satisfied with their setting if staff
encourage autonomy in decision making
The percent of elderly people living with their children was _____ in 1850 compared to 2000.
Much higher
A little higher About the same Much lower major drawback of continuing care retirement communities is the:
Cost
Elderly people preferring to stay in their homes as they grow older is a choice called
Aging in place
Since many more women began working outside the home in the late 1960s and 1970s, it makes sense that there was a sharp increase in the employment of women aged 65 and over in
2007
In comparing the years 1983 to 2006, in 2006 58-62 year old men were _______ to be working for the same employer they worked for when they were 50.
less likely
When considering the health of the 45-64 year old age group, blacks are ______ to be able to work as whites.
less likely
In 2001, which group of women was most likely to be working as a domestic servant
Hispanic
In Germany in 2002 less than half of the population aged 55-64 was in the workforce.
True
If ______ part-time work.
you are working part-time because you are unable to find full-time work, that is called
economic
The trend in jobs from 1977 to 2007 indicates a _____ in part-time work schedules and a _____ in full-time work schedules for those 65 and over.
decrease, increase
When spouses retire at about the same time, that is called _______ retirement.
joint
When an employer regularly adds funds to an investment account for a worker, that is called a
defined contribution
Gerontologists predict that U.S. workers will work ______ years in the future.
more
Over the past 30 years, retirement volunteering has _______.
increased
________ is any arrangement that allows older workers to reduce their responsibilities and ease gradually into full retirement.
Phased retirement
In her recent editorial in the Baltimore Sun, Susan Reimer advocates that Baby Boomers should
Ease into retirement
Research results indicate people who are ______ have more positive attitudes in retirement and higher satisfaction with retirement.
married
Which word best describes a pension plan in which the set monthly benefit level is based on year of service and prior earnings?
Defined benefit
The most common form of volunteering among older adults is
Religious organization
The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 banned discrimination against workers aged 40-65 and forbade employers from firing, demoting, or reducing salaries of older workers
without a good cause
The theory that indicates that people who begin life with fewer resources continue to have fewer opportunities to accumulate them in later years is:
Cumulative Disadvantage Theory
In a study examining hypertension among African Americans, Jamaicans, and Nigerians, it was found that an explanation of hypertension among African Americans is mainly:
Enviromental
Due to immigration status and other factors, which of the following ethnic groups is least likely to have health insurance?
Hispanics/Latinos in the U.S.
Until the 1950s, the primary means for reimbursing physicians was through:
fee for service
There have been several health care plans to control the growth of Medicare. Which one of the following plans began in the 1980s and specifies a fixed cost for a specific time period in which the patient is hospitalized?
Diagnostic related grouping
The first stage of epidemiological transition is
Age of pestilence and famine
Several studies have found social support to have a positive effect on the cardiovascular, endocrine, and immune systems.
True
Care of the frail elderly exists on a continuum of care. The least formal care is performed by:
family members
All of the following are activities of daily living except:
reading the newspaper
The primary caregiver, in all studies, usually are:
women
There is a gender difference in the division of labor among caregivers. Daughters are more likely to provide all of the following except:
household chores
One study examining stress for women caring for a parent with Alzheimer's disease found that the greatest source of stress was:
siblings
A study of 20 adolescent grandchildren of Alzheimer's patients found that the caregiving experience had had a/an ________ influence on family relationships.
positive
Which of the following activities is not one performed by home and community- based services?
Travel Plans
The two major causes of death are heart disease and _______ .
Cancer
Members of racial and ethnic minorities are more likely to be accepted for _________ on admission to nursing homes than Caucasians.
Medicaid
The physician Elizabeth Kubler-Ross identified five stages of dying. Which of the following is NOT one of those five stages?
confusion
In a ________, individuals specify their wish for treatment in advance. A. living testimony
living will
Who has the highest rate of suicide among those aged 65 and older, according to the U.S. Census Bureau?
White Men
Suicide, among the elderly, often occurs without:
warning
A main component of the hospice philosophy is:
pain management
The main source of payment support for hospice care is:
Medicare
The problem of widowhood for men is compounded by the traditional role of:
independence
The number of adult children who have lost both their parents by age 62 is:
75%
A pattern of behavior based on choices and options that are available to people according to their life situations.
Health Lifestyle
Over the past forty years, rates of smoking among men have ________.
Decreased
Which one is NOT one of the 3 main indicators of socioeconomic status (SES)?
Marriage
What is the major cause of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)?
Smoking
After smoking, what is the next most important lifestyle that affects health in later life?
Excerise
What is the most common chronic health condition for men and women?
Hypertension
Withholding or withdrawing medical treatment from the hopelessly ill is defined as
Passive Euthanasia
In hospice, bereavement support continues for one week after a loved one's death.
False
_________ are the long-term-care option of last resort.
Nursing Homes
Define Caregiver Stress
Refers to the strain felt by the caregiver
About what percent of people aged 65 and over live in a nursing home at any one time?
5%
The term ___________ care refers to a range of services designed to help people with chronic conditions compensate for limitations in their ability to function independently.
Long-Term
What term best describes watchdogs that monitor the quality of care in nursing homes by investigating complaints by families and residents against facilities?
Ombudsman program
What is the most stressful caregiving situation regarding diseases?
Alzheimer's
What does HCBS stand for?
Home and Community-based Services
Noted gerontologist Robert Butler called the tendency to reminisce about one's experiences
Life View