Review questions from the book 'The University Wine Course - A Wine Appreciation Text & Self Tutorial' by Marian W. Baldy, PH.D.
True or False: In the earliest, ancient Mediterranean civilizations wine was the first drink of the common citizen.
False. At that time, wine was the drink of the priesthood and of the wealthy.
True or False: Scholars who have studied the origins of alcohol abuse agree that the American pattern of prohibiting exposure to alcoholic beverages until age 21 is one of the most effective ways to prevent alcohol abuse.
False. These scholars believe that the Italian pattern of introducing children to diluted wine at an early age in a family setting coupled with an overall social disapproval of drunkenness is one of the most effective ways to prevent alcohol abuse.
True or False: Demographic studies have shown that wine drinkers are better educated and earn more than non-wine drinkers.
At what blood alcohol concentration do most people perceive the maximum relaxation?
Wine provides about how many calories per four-ounce serving?
True or False: Although wine has a 4000-year history of therapeutic use, it is not considered useful in today's hospital settings in the U.S.
False. A survey of U.S. urban hospitals found that wine was used as an appetite stimulant, for its general therapeutic value, and as an aid to sleep in place of tranquilizers.
True or False: The people who should be most concerned about sulfites in wine are sulfite-sensitive, steroid-dependent asthmatics.
Medical researchers define moderate alcohol consumption as about how many four-ounce glasses of wine daily?
1-2 glasses daily
True or False: The research reviewed by Dr. Keith Marton showed that cardiovascular mortality increased with heavy alcohol use and that moderate drinkers have a reduced risk of cardiovascular mortality compared to non-drinkers.
True or False: Boffetta's and Garfinkel's study showed that at three or more drinks per day there is an increased risk of death for drinkers compared to non-drinkers, particularly for liver cirrhosis.
True or False: Although Dr. Marton's review of the research literature showed a 50% increase in breast cancer for moderate drinkers compared to non-drinkers, there are a number of reasons why our understanding of the relationship between moderate drinking and breast cancer is less certain than it is for cardiovascular disease.
True or False: About 90% of women who are active alcoholics during pregnancy will deliver a child who clearly suffers from FAS.
False. About one in ten of 10% of women who are active alcoholics during pregnancy will deliver a child who clearly suffers from FAS.
Briefly explain why women must weigh more than one risk when considering whether or not to drink.
Women have to weigh the increased risk of breast cancer against the cardioprotective effect of moderate drinking as well as possible effects on the fetus if they are pregnant.
True or False: Perception refers to an organism's immediate neurological response to a stimulus in the environment.
False. Sensation does that.
True or False: Sensory stimuli in wine are restricted to being either chemical or physical "activators".
False. Stimuli can also be thermal.
The smallest concentration of a wine component required for a taster to name it - "By jove, that's sweet!" - is called the _____.
Refer to the label De Loach Vineyards Estate Bottled Russian River Valley Gewürztraminer 1987 Early Harvest. Given that "residual sugar 1.2% by wt" is about 1.2 grams per 100ml, this wine would taste sweet to
About 50% of people
True or False: Winetasting focuses on a relatively narrow range of existing colors.
False. In winetasting we take advantage of a large part of our capacity to distinguish a wide range of colors from yellow-greens to brick reds and purples.
True or False: Wine sensory components such as color which evoke pleasure in and of themselves are said to have a hedonic quality.
What sensory quality would not be expected from the clue "A white wine is very pale and nearly colorless?"
Intense fruit aromas
True or False: Overall quality in red wines is correlated with total color and pigment content.
True or False: Our appreciation of wines is mainly due to their odors.
True or False: Flavors are actually odors - or "in-mouth smells" - that reach our olfactory epithelium when we hold the wine in our mouths.
True or False: The maximum sensitivity of our sense of smell has been estimated at one part per 10,000.
False. It's one part per million to several parts per trillion.
True or False: It has been estimated that the average person an learn as many as 200 odors.
False. The estimates suggest we can learn about 1000 odors. Wine has about 200 odors.
True or False: The sensory organ for the sense of smell is located at the top and rear of the nasal cavity and about 5-10% of the air reaches it in normal breathing.
What is the "retro nasal route"?
It's the passageway from the rear of the mouth and rear nasal passages to the olfactory epithelium.
True or False: We can only smell volatile molecules that can evaporate from the surface of a wine at the range of temperatures at which it is customarily served.
Which of the winetasting activities listed below is not done to enhance a taster's ability to experience the wine's odors?
Hold the wine against a white background
True or False: Winetasters may find that a wine's odors are stronger and more pleasant when they are experienced in the mouth as flavors rather than as odors entering the olfactory area in inhaled air.
Which taste quality is very rare in wines?
When is the mechanism of taste dependent on saliva?
To be tasted a solid substance must be dissolved in the saliva. Without saliva to dissolve the substances that produce taste stimuli, we could only experience touch sensations with our mouth.
Where are the papillae located that have very few taste buds in them?
On the tongue's top surface
True or False: We should question the accuracy of the taste bud map of the tongue because we don't taste sweet or sour or bitter or salty in just one place.
At a gross level we are most sensitive to which taste quality?
Which item on the list below is not perceived in wine with our sense of touch?
When the stimulus alcohol present in high amounts in a wine, you can expect to experience both a taste and a tactile sensation. These sensations are
sweet (taste), hot (tactile)
True or False: Adaptation is a change in sensitivity that occurs in response to different levels of stimulation. Winetasters learn to work with olfactory adaptation by resting 15-45 seconds between sniffs when evaluating wines.
True or False: An example of taste adaptation is the fact that we are unaware of the taste of our own saliva.
Refer to the label William Hill 1989 Willamette Valley Oregon Dry White Riesling. Which statement below is an accurate prediction of how you would expect this wine to taste and smell to most people?
Without perceptible sweetness and with an aroma which has an element that is like roses
True or False: PTC tasting is a well-documented example of how dramatically people can vary in their ability to taste something bitter and it accurately predicts a person's sensitivity to bitterness in wines.
False. PTC tasting does not predict a person's sensitivity to bitterness in wines.
True or False: Anosmia can refer to the loss of a person's ability to smell all odors and the term "specific anosmia" is used when someone cannot detect a particular scent but otherwise has a normal sense of smell.
The "Orange Juice Effect" is an example of
A taste modifier
You just served two glasses of De Loach Vineyards Estate Bottled Russian River Valley Gewürztraminer 1987 Early Harvest to a friend. One glass is colder and the other is warmer. When she taste them, the warmer wine will seem
True or False: The National Geographic Smell Survey found that olfactory sensitivity is reduced during pregnancy and that odor perception declines during aging.
True or False: Women are more able to learn to identify odors than men.
True or False: Blind tastings - in which the wines are identified only by a letter or numerical code - are designed to eliminate stimulus errors which occur when irrelevant criteria are used to judge wines.
True or False: Our ability to recall wine odors can be reduced by giving the odor a verbal structure, such as our associations with the odor and dictionary-style definitions.
False. Giving an odor a verbal structure, such as our associations with the odor and dictionary-style definitions, enhances our ability to recall its name.
True or False: The wine aroma wheel was designed to enhance the accuracy of communication about wine odors among members of the wine industry.
When judging the appearance of wines, the taster evaluates their
True or False: The higher the alcohol content of a wine, the thicker the streams produced when the wine falls back down the side of the glass after it is swirled.
False. The streams are thinner in higher alcohol wines.
In white table wines, this color is a sign that the wine has been exposed to too much air in production or has been bottle aged too long
True or False: Within the normal color range for white table wines, darker colors are associated with oak barrel aging and/or later harvests
True or False: Among red wines, a purple hue is associated with older, bottle-aged wines and the brick red hue is characteristic of young wines.
False. Purple wines are younger and get more brick red with age.
True or False: Because their detection and prevention is of central concern to winemakers, a very large number of off odors have been linked to particular diagnostic chemicals - such as acetic acid and ethyl acetate - which can be found by laboratory as well as sensory analysis.
In wine usage, ______ refers to the odors which come from the grape and ______ is used for smells that come from fermentation and aging in oak and bottle.
True or False: For a wine to have perceptible varietal aromas requires a particular grape variety, proper growing conditions, and careful winemaking.
True or False: The term "flavor components" is used for the chemicals responsible for a wine's taste and tactile sensations.
True or False: A wine with inadequate body would be correctly described as flat.
What sensation would you expect in your mouth when the stimulus tannin in the wine is low or absent?
True or False: You are tasting two White Riesling wines. They are identical except for sugar content. Wine A has three times as much sugar as wine B. When you taste the two wines, you expect wine A to have more body than wine B.
True or False: Great wines are distinguished from ordinary wines by their greater complexity, harmony, and the power to stimulate the emotions.
True or False: Serious wine tasters do not smoke during tastings and do not come to them wearing perfume, after-shave, or with recently-brushed teeth.
The glasses for winetastings are not
This group of wines is served at the coldest temperature both in the restaurant and tasting laboratory:
sparkling and sweet wine
Which tasting order would place the second wine at a disadvantage?
sweet before dry
True or False: To inspect wine for a color, hold it up to a bright source of light such as a clear light bulb or candle.
False. To inspect a wine for color, hold it up to a white background.
True or False: Winetasters begin the olfactory stage of evaluating a wine by swirling the wine in the glass for 6 or 8 quick revolutions and putting their noses into the glass and taking 4 or 5 quick, deep sniffs.
False. Winetasters begin the olfactory stage of evaluating a wine by sniffing the wine without swirling and swirl 1-2 revolutions and sniff 2-3 times in the second stage.
True or False: Winetasters draw some air through the wine so that all their taste buds can come into contact with the wine and the tactile receptors in their mouths can sense its sweetness and tartness
False. Winetasters "chew" the wine so that all their taste buds can come into contact with the wine.
True or False: A winetaster who is evaluating the quality of a wine will take time to notice -among other things - if the wine has a lot of odors or flavors or just a few, how well the individual parts fit together, and if it pleases him or her.
True or False: Table wines are also referred to as natural wines and contain 14% alcohol or less.
True or False: A cone is a subgroup of a grape species and is distinguished from other clones by economically important hereditary traits such as its climactic adaptation.
False. A grape variety is a subgroup of a grape species and is distinguished from other varieties by economically important hereditary traits such as its climactic adaptation. Clones are "sub-varieties".
True or False: Varietal wines are made mainly from a single variety of grapes that should impart a characteristic aroma and flavor to the wine.
True or False: The wine type refers to a winemaker's characteristic way of combining and balancing the sensory features that distinguish a particular wine to create an individualistic expression of that wine.
False. Style refers to a winemaker's characteristic way of combining and balancing the sensory features.
True or False: You would expect a warmer glass of a wine to have more intense aromas compared to a colder glass of the same wine.
Which grape variety below would be most consistently used for premium wines rather than jug wines?
True or False: Weather refers to the generally prevailing weather conditions in a region - temperature, wind speed, rainfall, etc. - averaged over a series of years.
False. The definition is for climate.
The climate of the vineyard is called a
True or False: The degree to which a grapevine's foliage and fruit are exposed to light can determine the amount of distinctive flavor compounds in its grapes.
True or False: If the amounts of the chemicals responsible for the celery/fresh vegetable, herbaceous, or grassy character of Sauvignon Blanc are reduced, fruity flavors of grapefruit, pineapple, melon, and fig emerge.
According to the grape growers surveyed, which vineyard factor below does not promote grassiness in Sauvignon Blanc?
True or False: When grapes ripen, they get bigger and softer, their green color fades, aromatic compounds increase, sugars increase, and both total acid concentration and acid strength increase.
False. Both total acid concentration and acid strength decrease.
True or False: For winemaking the most important sugar in grape juice is sucrose.
False. The most important sugars in grape juice are glucose and fructose.
True or False: The amount of sugar in grape juice is estimated by measuring its density in units called "degrees Brix," which correspond to the percentage by weight of sugar in the juice.
If you were buying Chardonnay grapes for your winery, what composition listed below would you like them to have?
22.9 degrees Brix, .80 total acid
Why can grapes from two vineyards with the same hot daytime temperatures have different acid compositions?
On cool nights the grapes need less energy and use up less malic acid. Locations with cooler nighttime temperatures produce fruit that is higher in malic acid than that produced in sites where it stays warm all night.
True or False: The weakening of acid strength during ripening is more important for wine quality than is the decrease in the total amount of acid, because wines with stronger acid strengths have brighter colors, require smaller amounts of sulfur dioxide to protect them, and more easily resist spoilage.
True or False: Refractometers are used to estimate degrees Brix of a properly collected vineyard sample and can also be used to measure the disappearance of sugars during fermentation.
False. Hydrometers can do both of these measurements.
This winemaking step ideally involves only breaking the skins of the grape berries to allow the juice to flow out without any damage to the seeds or stems.
The mixture of skins, seeds, stems, juice, and pulp produced when the skin of the grape is broken and the juice flows out is called
True or False: Sulfur dioxide is added at the crusher to slow down the growth of microbes that can spoil wines and to protect the juice from reactions with oxygen that can lead to both browning of pigments and deterioration of aroma and flavor.
A typical sulfur dioxide in wine would be ______.
35-125 parts per million
True or False: Sulfur dioxide is only added once during winemaking, at the crusher-stemmer.
False. Sulfur dioxide levels are monitored throughout winemaking and small amounts are added whenever they are needed.
True or False: For premium wine varietal wine production skin contact means that the chilled must is pumped into a tank to sit for several hours.
True or False: Free-run juice has more sugar and less acid and tannin than press-run juice because press juice is extracted at higher pressures from must containing a higher proportion of stems, skins, and seeds.
True or False: Grappa can be produced when press juice is fermented and then distilled.
True or False: Modern premium winemaking equipment allows the extraction of about 135-185 gallons of juice per ton of grapes. This is made up of about 3 times as much press-run juice as free-run juice.
False. It's (about) three times more free-run than press-run.
True or False: The grape solids in the must are called pomace.
True or False: A juice with about 20 degrees Brix will yield a wine with about 10% alcohol through fermentation by yeasts, primarily from the genus Saccharomyces.
True or False: Because carbon dioxide gas is produced during fermentation, fermentation tanks are equipped with one-way valves that allow CO2 to escape while preventing air from entering.
True or False: Wild yeasts are not used by most wineries because they can produce off odors and typically stop fermenting at around 6-9% alcohol.
Why does the degrees Brix not drop much during the early stages of a white wine fermentation?
The degrees Brix does not drop because at this stage; while the yeast cells are metabolizing with the aid of the dissolved oxygen in the grape juice and increasing in number, they have not consumed enough glucose to change the density of the juice.
What additional evidence of yeast growth and metabolism besides the drop in degrees Brix do wineries measure during the active stage of fermentation?
Another indication of the increased fermentation activity of the yeasts in addition to the rapid drop in degrees Brix is the warming of the fermenting juice.
True or False: A stuck fermentation is one that cannot be started.
False. It's one that stops by itself before all the glucose has been used up.
Which procedure listed below would you not expect to be done before fermentation of Chardonnay?
A probable fermentation temperature for premium quality white table wines would be about ______ degrees Fahrenheit.
True or False: Wines of 2-3% residual sugar can be made by slowing down their fermentations before all the sugar has been used up by chilling them at about 4-8 degrees Brix and then centrifuging to remove the cold-inactivated yeast.
True or False: Sediments in wine tanks are called lees.
You are having dinner at a friend's house and drinking a delicious bottle of white wine. You pick it up and notice that the label says "CALLAWAY Vineyard and Winery 1990 'CALLA-LEES' Chardonnay. 'IN THE CLASSIC SUR LIE STYLE'. Your friend asks you what "the classic sur lie style" means. You explain...
If you were quoting Chapter 3 directly, you would say, "in some cases, most commonly for Chardonnay, the winemaker may want to add a yeast character similar to champagne bouquet to the wine and will allow the wine to remain in contact with the yeast for weeks or months; this is called sur lie aging"
True or False: The malolactic fermentation reduces the acidity in the fermenting grape juice and finished wine because it converts the malic acid from the grape juice to lactic acid, which is less tart.
What additional changes occur in wines that undergo the malolactic fermentation?
In addition to reducing acidity, the MLF causes other organoleptic changes: it produces gas and causes the wines to be less fruity and to have transient cheesy off odors, but it also allows them to develop greater complexity - including a buttery flavor - with aging.
True or False: The malolactic fermentation is most often used to reduce the acidity of warm-region or warm-to-hot-season grape juices.
False. The MLF is used in cool-regions or cool-seasons.
True or False: It is critical for winemakers to control the timing of the MLF to be sure that it is completed before bottling.
True or False: Because most of the world's white table wines emphasize the aroma of the grapes and the MLF reduces fruitiness, most winemakers take precautions to prevent the MLF altogether in these wines.
The process of transferring wine from one vat containing lees to another vat which is clean is called:
If wine can be made perfectly clear simply with settling and racking, why do few wineries rely on these methods?
Wineries do not use these slower, "natural" methods because the wine would be too old for contemporary tastes by the time it reached the market.
True or False: In filtering, the wine is forced through media that vary in "tightness" from those that trap and remove just the very largest particles (chunks of grape skins) to those that take out tiny malolactic bacteria.
True or False: Fining is a clarification process that is used as much to alter other important organoleptic properties of wines as to clarify them.
True or False: Fining agents (such as gelatin and egg albumen) react with the specific wine components (tannins in this case) that are to be removed and form particles that can be removed.
True or False: A wine is neither heat- nor cold-stable if it becomes cloudy when exposed to high temperatures and it forms crystals when subjected to temperatures around 32 degrees F.
True or False: Making sure wines are microbiologically stable is designed to prevent gassiness and the development of off odors and flavors from bacteria and yeast growth during barrel aging.
False. Microbiological stability is designed to prevent cloudiness as well and also to avoid undesirable changes other than off odor and flavor such as drop in the acidity of a hot-region wine. It is also very (more, actually) important to prevent changes in the bottle than in the barrels. Problems that occur when the wine is in the barrels can be fixed. After the wine is bottled, they cannot be remedied.
True or False: Sterile filtration followed by aseptic bottling are key strategies in creating microbiological stability.
True, even when other measures are taken as well.
True or False: Because vinegar bacteria can spoil wine only in the presence of oxygen, winemakers minimize air contact with wines in bulk storage.
True or False: Because nearly all white table wines are valued principally for their youthful, fruity characteristics, the vast majority of white wines are aged in neutral containers only for as long as it takes to clarify and stabilize them. Only a tiny minority of the world's white wines are candidates for aging in oak containers.
What three things happen when wines age in oak barrels?
Three things happen: alcohol and water evaporate through the sides of the container, concentrating the wine; some oxygen dissolves in the wine, allowing oxygen-dependent maturation reactions to occur slowly; and substances - color, odor, and flavor components and tannins - from the wood are extracted into the wine.
Why has oak become the traditional aging container for wines?
Oak has become the traditional wood for aging premium wines because the trees are large enough to make wine containers of useful sizes, the wood is tight-grained, strong, and resilient and can be worked into the curved shapes needed for barrels, and the flavors extracted are desirable in wines.
True or False: American oak barrels will impart more oak or vanilla flavor to wines than will European oak barrels.
True or False: For winemaking, oak from the forests of France is all pretty much the same.
False. Winemakers find significant differences in oak from various forests in France: the trees in the warmer Limousin forest produce a more open-grained wood that contributes oak extract to wines relatively quickly, while slower-growing trees in the more central forests of Nevers and Troncais produce tight-grained woods that give up their flavors and tannins to wines more gradually.
True or False: Larger barrels will impart more oak character to wines than small barrels.
False. Smaller barrels give wines more oak flavor.
Under which aging conditions will the components of the wine in a barrel become concentrated?
The barrels are stored in a relatively dry environment such as an above-ground warehouse in California.
Describe the aging regime you would use for White Riesling or other wine to which you want to add very little or no oak flavor.
Such wines are either aged in stainless steel tanks or large, typically oval-shaped oak barrels of 500-2000 gallons capacity.
You are going to make your mark in the wine world by creating a rare style of dry Chenin Blanc with a lot of oak character. What aging regine would you use?
You could begin by fermenting Chenin Blanc in juice in oak barrels and add more oak by aging the wine for several months in new 60-gallon American oak barrels.
True or False: Many California wineries have found that oak chips or oak structures added to wines in stainless steel tanks can satisfactorily duplicate all aspects of the barrel aging process and are much cheaper.
False. Even though these alternatives add oak character to the wines, they cannot have the same effect on a wine's other sensory properties because they will not be concentrated by the evaporation of water the way they can be in wooden cooperage.
True or False: There are certain conventions based on flavor and structural compatibility that are followed by many producers when making varietal blends. For example, Chardonnay and Chenin Blanc are often blended.
False. Chardonnay and Pinot Blanc are more often blended.
True or False: The bottle shape and color are chosen for a particular wine based on the traditional shapes and colors used in the European wine. Clear Bordeaux bottles are often used for Sauvignon Blanc and Sémillon varietal wines.
True or False: Corks come from the bark of an oak, Quercus Suber
True or False: The date that bottles in the case were filled is stamped on the box. This is useful for estimating the approximate drinkability of wines without vintage dates.
You have been hired by Château Prestigious Wine Cellars to project their cash flows in the first year of operation. Based on your extensive knowledge of the white wine making process, you calculate that the first income from the sale of their oak-aged Chardonnay wines could come at about _______ months after the harvest.
You lost your job when Château Prestigious Wine Cellars folded because its first year cash flows were gobbled up by the owner's high-living son-in-law. Luckily, you have been hired by the neighboring wine cellar, Chateau Very Ordinary, and asked you to project their cash flows. Based on your extensive knowledge of the white wine making process, you calculate that they could expect to first earn income from the sale of their Jus' Plain Mountain Chablis wines about ______ months after the harvest.
True or False: Blends are typically made the same day as the wines are bottled.
False. Blends are made well in advance of their bottling dates to allow flavors to marry and to provide time to correct any unforeseen problems.
True or False: California's coastal wineries store bottled wines an average of four months at the winery until they are released for sale.
White item on the list is not part of "the best possible aging conditions" for bottled wines?
True or False: The best wines will improve indefinitely after bottling if kept under the proper conditions.
False. Sadly, all wines will improve only up to a certain point and then deteriorate - except for the publicity that they can bring their buyers.
Pick the worst wine on this list for bottle aging:
True or False: For premium white varietal grapes grown in California, cooler growing regions produce wines with greater aging potential.
True - and for other areas too, not just California.
What changes would you expect when white wines age in the bottle?
You can expect increased complexity and moderated tartness.
True or False: California wineries use sensory evaluation in quality control and the average tasting situation involves five tasters examining no more than 10 to 30 wines per day.
False. The average tasting situation, involves five tasters who examine 30 wines per day in one to three sessions.
Which components of white table wines 1. originate from the grapes; 2. are fermentation end products; and 3. are developed during agin?
1. color, sugar, acidity, varietal aroma and flavor; 2. alcohol and carbon dioxide; 3. malolactic fermentation and/or oak barrel and/or sur lie-aging flavors
What winemaking steps would you use to make a Sauvignon Blanc without grassiness?
Harvest at 22 degrees Brix or above, no skin contact, ferment in barrels and at warmer temperatures, age in oak sur lie, and blend with Sémillon or Chardonnay.
True or False: In 1990, white table wines, rosés, and blush varietals constituted 53% of the shipments from California wineries to domestic markets.
False. They made up 85% of the shipments.
True or False: Mild cheeses such as baby swiss are enjoyed with wines because they reduce the perception of the wines' acidity.
You are preparing a plate of appetizers for dinner. You will serve a dry Gewurztraminer with the appetizers. You do not include green apple slices on the plate because ______.
eating the apple will bring out the acid in the wine.
Dry white varietal wine most likely improve with bottle aging.
White varietal wine whose wines acquire "subtle, oily scents" as they age
The most important step in red wine production for determining the style of a wine.
management of the extraction during fermentation
Which wine component protects red wines during the longer aging periods that allow them to develop complex bouquets?
Name two grape varieties of French origin and three from Italy that are used to make red varietal table wines in California.
From France: Pinot Noir and Cabernet Sauvignon (and Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Syrah, and Gamay); from Italy: Zinfandel, Barbera, Gignolino, and Sangiovese (and Charbono)
True or False: Its inherent qualities make Pinot Noir a good candidate for Blanc de Noirs wine production.
Which red wine grape is preferred when grown in Region I?
What are the preferred viticultural regions for most red wine grapes?
Regions II and III
True or False: Cooler growing conditions produce red wines with more pleasing colors because their juices are of a stronger acidity - that is lower in pH - than hot region juices.
True or False: One thing a grower or winemaker does not have to worry about in Pinot Noir production is using the right clone.
False. Pinot Noir is very mutable and there may be as many as 150 different clones used in Burgundy, France.
True or False: In general, the results of canopy management studies for Cabernet Sauvignon have shown results like those for Sauvignon Blanc.
What soil conditions in the Napa area were found in preliminary studies to be associated with more cherry or berry flavors in Cabernet Sauvignon wines?
Older, typically hillside soils with a higher percentage of gravel and less ability to hold water were correlated with smaller crops and fruiter wine flavors.
The juice of Zinfandel and most other red wine grapes is
During red wine fermentation the ______ on the fermenting must be kept wet by "punching down" or "pumping over" in order to prevent growth of undesirable microorganisms and to promote ______ from the skins.
True or False: Pumping over circulates about 1% of the volume of juice over the solid on the top of the fermentation about once a week.
False. From 10 to 100 percent of the juice will be sprayed over the cap one to three times a day.
True or False: Red wines often benefit from some exposure to air after fermentation and during barrel aging.
True or False: The longer the extraction goes on during fermentation, the more varietal flavor, color, and tannins from the skins end up in the juice.
The average maceration time for California Napa Gamay is about four days and for Cabernet Sauvignon is 7-8 days. This means that the average _________ is intended for more aging than the average __________.
Cabernet Sauvignon, Napa Gamay
True or False: Pinot Noir has naturally low concentrations of lighter pigments and is low in tannins, so California winemakers commonly collect the stems at the crusher and add them to Pinot Noir fermentations to produce premium wines.
False. Winemakers who tried this found that peppery, green, "stemmy", flavors can result in the wines.
True or False: One simple, straightforward rule that can be stated for red table wine making is that the longer the skins are in contact with the wine, the harsher and more bitter and more astringent the wine will be.
False, because an extended maceration of Cabernet Sauvignon can produce a wine with softer tannins.
Red wine fermentations are conducted at temperatures in the rage of __________ degrees Fahrenheit.
The alcoholic fermentation in red wine production is _________________ than for white wine production.
shorter, hotter, messier, more labor-intensive, more likely to occur in an open-topped tank, less likely to happen in a barrel
True or False: The malolactic fermentation is both more common and more crucial in premium red table wine production than in premium white table wine production.
Why is producing cold stability immediately after fermentation not a concern for many red wines?
Because they will age through one or two winters at the winery before bottling the cooling that occurs will often cause tartrate crystals to precipitate and tannins will react with and remove the heat-unstable proteins.
The amount of tannin in a red wine can be reduced by adding ______ to the wine which removes tannin.
Gelatin - egg whites are also used.
Which red wine is most likely to be aged in French Oak?
How would a wine be aged in barrels to minimize its exposure to air?
The barrels would be sealed tight, rotated 30 degrees to wet the bung and tighten the seal, and not opened until the aging was complete.
True or False: Pinot Noir is less likely to be blended than other red wines.
Which variety is blended with Cabernet Sauvignon to "soften" its tannins?
California wineries age their red wines ________ months in the bottle before releasing them.
One-half month to 48 months
What factors are important for slower bottle aging?
Higher tannins, lower pH, lower storage temperatures, more uniform temperatures, darkness, and larger bottles.
True or False: On average, the overall process of making red wines from grape to bottle takes longer than the overall process of making white wines.
Intensely fruity red wines can be produced by creating an anaerobic environment that modifies the metabolism of the grape cells so that they form alcohol without the need for yeasts. This process is called __________.
True or False: The conventional, yeast-catalyzed alcoholic fermentation plays no role in the carbonic maceration method of winemaking.
False. A conventional, yeast-catalyzed alcoholic fermentation is used to create the carbon-dioxide-saturated environment into which intact clusters are loaded and is the means by which the remaining grape sugar is metabolized in the juice after pressing.
True or False: In the carbonic maceration method of winemaking, free-run juice is often used for higher quality wines than press-run juice.
False. The press juice is better because it comes from inside the grapes where the carbonic maceration occurred.
True or False: Pinot Noir wines are fermented at the lowest temperatures for red table wines, 60-65 degrees F.
False. Pinot Noir is fermented at 80-90 degrees F.
Red wines make up about __________% of the U.S. wine market during the 1980s.
What do carbonic maceration and méthode champenoise have in common?
Both winemaking techniques were developed in France and both start with uncrushed, whole grape clusters, an absolute requirement for carbonic maceration and a very common practice for méthode champenoise.
True or False: In California red grapes for varietal table wine making are harvested at higher "degrees Brix" and lower total acids than are white grapes for varietal table wine making.
How is the evaluation of color and clarity modified for red wines?
You tilt the glass so that you can look through a thinner layer of wine
What might lead you to have more olfactory fatigue while tasting red wines?
Their higher alcohol contents and stronger odors.
What element of red wines will probably cause you to have palate fatigue? How can you minimize it?
The astringency from tannins seems to get stronger with each sip and that tires the palate. If tasters wait 40 seconds or more between sip the effect is lessened.
True or False: Descriptors from the floral and tropical fruit segments of the aroma wheel are used less often for red table wines than they are for white table wines.
When is a wine "dead"?
When off odors, particularly the acetaldehyde odor of oxidation, predominate.
Which odor descriptors would you expect to find in the bottle bouquet of a fine, well-aged 1978 Napa Valley Cabernet Sauvignon
tobacco, coffee, chocolate, soy
Which odor descriptors would you expect to find in a fine bottle of 1992 Napa Valley Cabernet Sauvignon?
bell pepper, eucalyptus, mint, maybe berries, cassis
Which odor descriptors would you expect to find in a bottle of Napa Valley Cabernet Sauvignon that was spoiled by vinegar bacteria?
acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate
A california wine made from Pinot Noir grapes with warmer fermentation temperatures and oak aging would be?
a Burgundian-style wine
What sensory change would you not expect as a fine bottle of Cabernet Sauvignon ages?
The total acid content increases.
True or False: Sparkling wines are a kind of table or natural wine which contain large amounts of dissolved carbon dioxide gas.
Which is the most common method of producing sparkling wines?
Trap the CO2 from a second alcoholic fermentation
In order to make sparkling wine you need to build a winery for the _______________ process.
According to the legend, the methode champenoise was discovered by ______ sometime during the period ______to______.
Dom Perignon, 1668-1715
True or False: The term "champagne" may be used on the label for a wine made in any part of France as long as the precise steps that are prescribed by the French law for the methode champenoise process are followed.
False. Champagne may only be used for wines produced in the Champagne district of France.
Which grape variety is not likely to be used for methode champenoise sparkling wine production in France or California
To emulate the characteristics of grapes produced under conditions in France's Champagne district, _______ grape growing regions are preferred and the grapes are harvested ______ wherever methode champenoise wines are made.
True or False: Recognizable varietal aroma is not usually sought in grapes to be used for the methode champenoise.
The blended wine that will be bottled for a second fermentation is called the vin de ______.
True or False: Pressing whole clusters is one fruit-handling procedure which was originally developed to minimize color extraction from dark skinned Pinot Noir grapes.
Why are the fruit-handling techniques developed to minimize color extraction from Pinot Noir also used to handle Chardonnay for methode champenoise.
Because those procedures minimize tannin extraction as well
True or False: In sparkling wine production, as in white table wine production, the wines produced from the free-run juices are of higher quality and those from the harder pressings are distilled.
The most prestigious wine of a sparkling wine producer may be called ______.
Tête de cuvée
What is reserve wine and how is it used in methode champenoise sparkling wine production?
Reserve wines are blends of still wines from previous vintages which are added to cuvées to minimize vintage-to-vintage variation, especially in a producer's non-vintage champagnes.
About how much of a cuvée would be made up of reserve wine?
as much as 20-30%
True or False: You would expect to see about the same proportion of vintage-dated wines among the sparkling wines as among the varietal table wines on the shelves of your wine shop.
False. Vintage-dated varietal table wines are much more common than vintage-dated sparkling wines.
True or False: The wines to be blended into a cuvee would not be very attractive as still table wines because they would seem too tart, too low in alcohol, and lacking in varietal character.
Why is experience particularly important for winemakers who are blending the wines for a cuvee?
Because they must be able to envision what the wine will be like in 2-4 years
A cuvee blended from white grapes only is called ______ and if only red grapes are used, it is ______.
Blanc de Blancs, Blanc de Noirs.
Why are sugar and yeast nutrients added along with an actively growing yeast culture to start the prise de mousse?
Because the wines blended to make the cuvée had been fermented to dryness, there is no fermentable sugar in the cuvée.
The term for drawing off the cuvee with its yeast, sugar, and nutrients into bottles for the second fermentation is:
True or False: Because the conditions are so different - low sugar, high alcohol, increasing CO2 pressure - from those of the first alcoholic fermentation, yeast for the prise de mousse are often of a different strain or species.
In methode champenoise, the wine ages with the yeast for about.
What are the two processes that occur during aging of the champenoise sur lie?
The wine matures and gains the complexity which comes from bottle aging and yeast autolysis.
The process of collecting yeast for removal is
After the yeast cells are collected, the bottles may be stored neck down until the yeast cells are removed during:
The sugar is adjusted in the methode champagne after the yeast is removed. The step is called
The neck of the bottles are frozen in the ______ step in order to _______ collected by ________.
Disgorging, trap the yeast, riddling
True or False: You should wait 6-9 months after the yeast removal and sugar addition steps to drink methode champenoise wines. This period is recommended to allow the added sugar to become integrated into the wine.
True or False: After the re-corking that follows the removal of the yeast and adjustment of sugar, sparkling wines develop in the bottle in much the same way as do white table wines.
False. Because they are saturated with CO2, sparkling wines don't undergo the same chemical changes as white table wines.
True or False: Most methode champenoise sparkling wines are best if drunk within 2-3 years after they are released.
About ____% of sparkling wine made in the U.S. is produced by the methode champenoise process.
The _______ process is a method of producing sparkling wines in which the wines undergo their second fermentation in bottles which are then opened and their pooled wine filtered to remove the yeast, receive a dosage, and be rebottled
True or False: Sparkling wines made by the Charmat process reflect the fruity, youthful characteristics of the grapes they are made from because the process can be completed relatively quickly.
Charmat process wines have ________ yeast character compared to methode champenoise wines.
Imported sparkling wine makes up about ______% of the U.S. market.
An example of a sparkling wine made up by trapping the CO2 from only one alcoholic fermentation is:
True or False: A Brut Charmat Process wine will probably be drier than a Brut sparkling wine made by the methode champenoise.
False. It will probably be the opposite, Charmat being sweeter.
True or False: Scrupulous rinsing of glasses is important to avoid accelerated bubble dissipation while tasting sparkling wines.
True or False: To fully enjoy a sparkling wine it should be served in a flute so its bubbles will be displayed properly, and unlike table wine, the glasses would be filled nearly all the way to the brim.
Why is it not necessary to swirl sparkling wines when making a sensory evaluation?
Because the CO2 rising from the wine carries volatile odor components out of the wine and into the air.
Why is it detrimental to sparkling wines to swirl them while making a sensory evaluation?
Swirling makes the dissolved CO2 leave the wine prematurely and makes a proper evaluation of the bubble display and mousse impossible.
True or False: Under appearance, the bubble display of sparkling wines is evaluated and tasters look for small bubbles that evolve from the wine over a long time and form a smooth, white foam on the surface of the wine.
True or False: Because they're called Blanc de Noirs, we expect all sparkling wines made from red grapes to be white, that is a very pale straw yellow to yellow color.
False. Although some Blanc de Noirs sparkling (and still) wines are a very pale yellow, many are appreciated for their light bronze, peach, or salmon colors.
True or False: When the sparkling wine aroma wheel is compared to the more general wine aroma wheel, we find more spicy, floral, and fruity odors and fewer vegetative and herbaceous odors.
Which spice would you not expect to find in sparkling wines but would be anticipated in red table wines?
True or False: If you come upon a group of winetasters uttering the descriptive terms "fresh bread, sour cream, burnt chocolate, cocoa, hazlenut, and toasted grains," you have probably stumbled onto a tasting of tank-fermented sparkling wines.
False. These terms describe the champagne's bouquet and you've more likely come upon a sampling of bottle-fermented sparkling wines.
True or False: Among the positive structural organoleptic elements of sparkling wines are tart acidity, soft finish, freshness, and dryness.
True or False: Dessert wines are all sweet and the category includes still and sparkling natural wines as well as fortified wines.
True or False: Botrytis-affected dessert wines made in California are modelled after Hungarian Tokai.
False. They are modelled after French Sauternes and German late-harvest Rieslings.
True or False: Botrytis cinerea is a widely-occurring destructive disease organism that can attack grapevines and many other plants.
A typical disease cycle of Botrytis begins with the germination of spores that have overwintered in ______ following ______ and can produce shoots and leaves that look like they have been scorched.
Plant debris; spring rain
Because they contain plenty of nutrients, the ________ are the best site for the Botrytis to multiply.
True or False: A botrytis infection cannot develop in the fruit unless the skins of the grapes are first cracked or broken by some other agent.
False. Botrytis can penetrate an intact grape skin.
A successful Botrytis infection requires limited fall ______ or a series of foggy days to initiate the germination of spores.
When Botrytis grow on the surface of a grape it penetrates the skin enabling water to evaporate during a period of __________ weather.
True or False: A successful Botrytis infection - from the point of view of the winemakers, if not the mold - is one in which the disease cycle is interrupted before the berries are broken and secondary infections develop.
True or False: In a typical Botrytis infection all the berries in a cluster become infected at the same time.
False. A typical Botrytis infection spreads from one site to infect adjacent berries. A cluster with an advanced infection will contain berries in all stages from shriveled to healthy.
True or False: The change in sugar and acid composition following a Botrytis infection differs from the changes of normal grape ripening because acid and sugar both increase in concentration.
True or False: Both growers and wineries feel that, for Botrytis-infected fruit, the higher the sugar, the better.
False. Even though higher sugars can be obtained, harvest sugars between 35 and 45 degrees Brix are optimal for well-balanced wines.
Why is harvesting Botrytis-infected fruit slow?
Because each cluster must be smelled to be sure it does not have a secondary infection and handled carefully so it doesn't fall apart.
True or False: The water evaporation that occurs in a vineyard successfully infected with Botrytis can reduce yields to as little as 1/3 to 1/2 of normal.
True or False: Even though vineyard yields are reduced by a Botrytis infection, in the winery, the juice yield per ton of grapes is the same as for non-infected fruit.
False. The yield of juice per ton is reduced to 75-90 gallons per ton.
True or False: Fermentations of the high-sugar juices of Botrytis-affected fruit are hard to start and slow to progress.
Botrytis-affected wines from ________ are more likely to be aged in small oak barrels.
Sauvignon Blanc and Semillon
True or False: Although the cultivation of a vineyard can be modified to encourage or discourage the growth of Botrytis, a successful infection cycle has never been completed on harvested fruit.
The concentrated alcohol used to fortify wines is called _______.
True or False: For ordinary fortified wines hot growing regions are beneficial for both high vineyard yields and high sugar content grapes.
About ______ the fruit for dessert wine production goes to produce the alcohol for fortification, making the per ton yield of finished wine __________ gallons.
More distinctive grape varieties - many from Portugal - and cooler growing regions are associated with this group of fortified dessert wines.
Winemakers taste the fortifying alcohol and match it to the wine being made because
Wine spirits can vary in their flavors depending on the starting wine and the method of distillation, and those flavors need to be compatible with the wine being fortified
Which style of port takes on its important sensory characteristics during long barrel aging?
What are two purposes for blending port?
Ports of different sugar contents can be combined to give the desired final sugar concentration and varietal ports can be mixed to enhance complexity
True or False: Port production from Portugese grape varieties is being done on a small scale in California.
In California, ruby and vintage ports are aged in ________ barrels that do not contribute much wood flavor.
Which type of sherry is oxidized in the absence of flor yeast?
Sherries referred to as ______ will have 7.5-10% sugar
Light brown sherries made with flor yeast and ranging from dry to medium sugar are called by their spanish name. __________
True or False: Sherries are fortified before oxidation and their sugar content is adjusted afterwards.
Oxidation without flor by _________ rather than aging for long periods in barrels is a common procedure for low-priced sherries and inexpensive fortified wine products called "Malaga" "Marsala" and "Madeira"
The system for blending a new vintage of sherry with older wines so that variations from year to year are minimized is called a ___________.
The flavors of this group of fortified dessert wines are closest to those of their grapes: ______________.
Dessert wines are served in ____________ portions than table wines.
True or False: Tasting dessert wines requires careful placing because these wines are all higher in alcohol content than table wines.
False. Only the fortified dessert wines are higher in alcohol content than table wines.
True or False: When tasting dessert wines, take small sips to avoid palate fatigue
False. You can take big sips if you spit, cleanse your palate more often, and take more breaks.
True or False: Color that extends all the way to the rim reflects deeper color intensity and is associated with greater overall flavor concentration and quality in ports.
True for ports and wines in general
Why is it especially important to catch your first impressions when tasting port?
It's because with repeated sniffing the alcohol will begin to interfere with your ability to smell.
What textures should you expect in a young port and an old port?
A young port - or young red table wine for that matter - should be astringent because it possesses tannins for longevity and an older wine should be velvety smooth because the tannins have polymerized, softening the texture and forming a sediment.
True or False: Compared to a glass of plain water, an alcohol solution should seem sweeter, smoother, heavier, and warm.
Why do winemakers dilute wine spirits with water when they taste them.
For two reasons: 1. The high alcohol content of wine spirits can interfere with a winemaker's odor perception. 2. Diluting a solution that has a high concentration of alcohol changes the spectrum of perceptible odors. The spirits will be diluted in the wine and must be diluted for tasting to observe the "new odor spectrum" that will be part of the wine.
The number of vines per acre in the Mosel region is about
What is the affect of a dry summer climate on the vigor of unirrigated vines?
Dry summers reduce vigor because they do not replenish soil water. As a consequence the vines deplete their water supply and stop growing.
A key factor that separates premium white grape vineyards from mediocre vineyards is
Quantitatively distinguish between thin and thick canopies.
When photographed, about 40 percent of the canopy surface of a thin canopy appears as light patches. The value is much lower with thick canopies. Also, the leaf layer number of thin canopies is 1.5 or lower.
Thick canopies adversely affect
Grape composition, next year's crop, and grape berry health.
What is photosynthesis?
Photosynthesis is the use of solar energy to snythesize sugar from carbon dioxide and water.
True or False: An increase in light intensity is accompanied by a proportional increase in the rate of photosynthesis.
False. If at low light levels a one unit increase in light intensity yields, for example, a one unit increase in photosynthetic rate, then at higher light levels a one unit increase in light intensity will yield less than a one unit increase in photosynthetic rate.
The curve describing the relationship between light intensity and photosynthesis rate plateaus when the light is
50% as intense as full sunlight on a clear summer day
True or False: The intensity of light per unit area of leaf is greatest if the leaf is perpendicular to the light rays.
Leaves in deep shade
use sugars synthesized by illuminated leaves
True or False: Shade decreases the concentration of monoterpenes in Gewürtztraminer.
True or False: Because the essence of grape growing is converting sunlight into wine, it follows that grape growers should maximize their vines' interception of sunlight.
False. If growers maximize light interception, the vine canopies will be thick and shady and grape yields and quality will be lower.
How does a vineyardist determine leaf layer number?
A vineyardist can determine leaf layer number - the measure of canopy "thickness" - by randomly selecting a number of sites at fruit cluster height along the vine row, pushing a rod through the canopy curtain at each site, and recording the number of leaves it contacts. The average number of leaf contacts is the leaf layer number.
If canopy heigh remains constant, then increasing between-row spacing
decreases light interception by the vineyard
True or False: The canopy surface area should not exceed twice the soil surface area.
True or False: The curtains of the Bordeaux and Burgundy vineyards are shorter and closer together than those of most New World vineyards.
True or False: Leaf layer numbers differ significantly among premium wine grape vineyards.
False. Leaf layer numbers are about the same in premium winegrape vineyards.
Grape shoots emerge from
True or False: Leaves export sugars to developing grapes
When are grape plants most resistant to low temperatures?
When they are dormant.
Shoots that grew in summer are termed canes after they lose their leaves in winter.
Are spurs longer or shorter than canes?
Shorter. They have 1-4 or 5 nodes while canes have 8 or more nodes.
Explain why the shoots on a severely pruned vine tend to grow very long
The limited number of shoots do not compete for stored sugars, light, water, and mineral resources, so shoot growth is not restricted by shortages of these resources.
Explain why severe pruning decreases crop size.
Severe pruning reduces the number of nodes from which will emerge the shoots bearing the next season's crop.
What is overcropping?
A vine's production of more crop than it can satisfactorily mature.
About how many leaves does a shoot need to mature its grape clusters?
About 10 to 20, if they are well exposed to sunlight.
What is the purpose of flower cluster removal?
To prevent overcropping and its accompanying loss of grape quality.
True or False: Upright shoots grow more slowly than pendant ones.
True or False: It is good to keep basal buds in the shade.
False. Shade reduces the number of clusters on the shoots that emerge the following year from the nodes.
If canopies are thin, leaf layer numbers low, but shoot growth is excessive, the pruner should leave more nodes next year than he left last year. Explain.
Leaving more nodes will increase the number of crop-bearing shoots the following year, and the increased competition for resources among the more numerous shoots will decrease their growth.
True or False: Dividing a thick, single-curtain canopy doubles the number of curtains and decreases canopy thickness.
True or False: If shoot spacing along cordons remains constant, then dividing a canopy curtain into two fruiting tiers doubles the number of shoots per curtain.
True or False: Increasing grape yield lowers grape quality.
False. In some cases quality increases as yields increase.
___________________ is the theory that increased node number per vine, but with little change in nodes per meter of row, devigorates the vine.
Big Vine Theory
True or False: Legume cover crops will help devigorate grapevines.
False. Legumes add nitrogen fertilizer to the soil which will invigorate the vine.
True or False: Irrigation decreases wine grape quality.
False. Under the right circumstances, irrigation improves winegrape quality.
Roonstocks are used to control
True or False: Strong winds stimulate photosynthesis and speed the accumulation of sugar by the grapes.
False. Leaf pores close in strong winds and carbon dioxide, which is essential for photosynthesis, cannot enter the leaf.
Describe the calculation of degree-days for a day.
Subtract 50 degrees from the day's average temperature.
True or False: Region I is cooler than Region V
True or False: California has more Region I acres than Region V acres.
False. More Region V acres.
True or False: Gewürztraminer is less suited to hot regions than is French Colombard.
True or False: During radiation frosts, the valley floors are warmer than the adjoining hillsides.
False. Colder air settles in low lying areas.
True or False: Wind may warm a vineyard if a layer of warm air exists above the vineyard.
True or False: If ice encrusts a shoot, the shoot will freeze.
False. If water keeps flowing over the ice, the ice will remain at 32 degrees F and the grape shoot will be uninjured.
True or False: "Organic growers" eschew pesticides.
False. Many organic growers use pesticides.
Which is a botanical pesticide?
Growers control phylloxera by means of
Leaf-roll virus is spread by
True or False: Several grape clones may share the same name