How groups form and organize to pursue their goals or objectives, including how to get individuals and groups to participate and cooperate.
indv. must agree on what they want, what they're prepared to contribute, and how to coordinate those efforts with others
Free Riders Dilemma
Collective action problem when a person receives the benefit of the group without contributing anything themselves
EX: voting, people choose not to vote yet they receive the benefits that the elected leader provides
Collective action problem when someone decides that they are better off pursing an option that will benefit them individually then something that will benefit the group
EX: law and order, a person confesses to a crime first and rats the other person out so they will get a lesser sentence
Tragedy of the Commons
When a public good is misused with no regards or respect to what is good for the community.
EX: when in a drought a person continues to water their lawn as much as they please
How much the decision that has been reached differs from what you would ideally want
Relationship between Trans. and Conform. Costs
EX: If it takes a lot of time to pass a bill because a lot of changes keep being made, those changes are designed to make individuals happier, therefore lowering the conformity costs because the outcome will be close to what the people desire
When one person (principal) delegates power or authority to someone else (agent)
A type of electoral system in which victory goes to the individual who gets the most votes in an election, but not necessarily a majority of the votes cast
The body of electors who formally elect the United States president and vice-president
If a majority is not reached, the vote is thrown into the House of Representatives
Problems With Articles
No power to tax
Could not regulate commerce
No executive/judicial branch
Weak central government
Declaration of Independence
This document was
adopted on July 4, 1776. It
established the 13 American colonies as independent states, free from rule by Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson wrote the
majority of this document.
a political system in which a weak central government has limited authority, and the states have ultimate power.
A 1787 rebellion in which ex-Revolutionary War soldiers attempted to prevent foreclosures of farms as a result of high interest rates and taxes
The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government
Key components: bicameral legislature, strong national government, representation based on population
New Jersey Plan
Key components: single-chamber legislature, weak national government, representation equal for all states
Combined VA and NJ plans creating a bicameral legislature with lower chamber (house) based on population, and upper chamber (senate) having equal representation for all states
Necessary and Proper Clause
Constitutional clause that gives congress the power to make all laws "necessary and proper" for executing its powers
1st Continental Congress
September 1774, 12 delegates met in Philly to discuss the Intolerable Acts, only Georgia did not attend. The result was a boycott on all British goods, stop exporting goods to Britain, and they urged each colony to set up and train it's own militia.
2nd Continental Congress
The congress met in Philadelphia on May 10, 1775. Three delegatres added to the Congress were Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and John Hancock. The Congress took on governmental duties and united all the colonies for the war effort. They selected George Washington as commender of the army. They encouraged the colonies to set themselves up as states. On July 4, 1776 they adopted the Declaration of Independence. The Congress ended March 1, 1781 when a Congress authorized by the Articles of Confederation took over.
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
Article 1 Constitution
Establishes Legislative Branch, creates congress, details about two houses of congress, house of reps and senate, spell out procedures for making laws, list types of laws congress may pass, specify powers that congress does not have
Work toward the passage of some legislation by exchanging political favors such as trading votes
step 1: amendment proposed by 2/3 vote of both houses of congress OR a constitutional convention called by congress on petition of 2/3 out of 50 states. THEN amendment ratified by 3/4 of the 50 state legislatures OR 3/4 of special constitutional conventions called by 50 states
Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.
People who opposed ratification of the Constitution, thinking it gave too much power to the Federal Government. Advocated for a bill of rights. Patrick Henry.
The thought that a balanced government can control factions and prevent one faction from gaining to much power
Argues that separation of powers within the national government is the best way to prevent the concentration of power in the hands of one person or a single group.
recognizes that the national and state governments jointly supply services to the citizenry; while each has exclusive authority over some policy realms, state and federal powers intersect over many of the most important functions
Doctrine holding that the national government is supreme in its sphere, the states are supreme in theirs, and the two spheres should be kept separate.
When the government takes ownership
2 examples in history: Roosevelt's New Deal Coalition and Johnson's Great Society
Why? Solution to collective action problems
Federal government requires the states to enforce legislation without the funding necessary
When a condition on one federal grant is extended to all activities supported by federal funds, regardless of their source (example: discrimination).
When the federal government uses federal grant dollars in one program to influence state and local policy in another (example: highway funds and drinking age).
Powers of National Government
Coin money, regulate interstate commerce, enter into treaties, declare war, postal system
Powers of State Government
Run elections, protect public health and safety, all powers not delegated to national government by the constitution
When the federal government agrees to match however much it takes to carry out a program
House/Senate District lines
House lines redrawn every 10 years after census
***HOUSE MEMBER CAP AT 435
Senate lines=state lines
Wesburry v. Sanders
A case that issued the ruling that all congressional districts must contain relatively the same population.
The drawing of legislative district boundaries to benefit a party, group, or incumbent
At least 25 years old and a citizen for 7 years and must live in the state the represent
Special Powers of Senate
Ratifies treaties, confirms presidential appointments (ambassadors, supreme court justices)
An election rule in which the candidate with the most votes wins regardless of whether it is a majority
Passed in 1913, this amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters.
Assistance given to constituents by congressional members, answering questions/doing favors
Ability of a successful presidential candidate to pull members of his party into other positions
Positions in House
Speaker of House: leader of majority party. Appoint committees, make rules, manage legislative process.
A standing committee of the House of Representatives that provides special rules under which specific bills can be debated, amended, and considered by the house.
A senator or representative who helps the party leader stay informed about what party members are thinking
Positions in Senate
President Pro Tempore: leader when VP is absent, representative of the majority party
Reduces transaction costs
Committee heads appointed by majority leader
Seniority rule for selecting committee heads
Appointed to resolve differences between the senate and house versions of a bill
Unanimous Consent Agreement
A unanimous resolution in the Senate restricting debate and limiting amendments to bills on the floor also decides when a bill will be debated.
Bill to a Law
1) Bill is presented
2) Sent to committee
3) Voted on and moves to other chamber for a vote
4) Will be sent to a conference committee if necessary, if not...
5) Sent to President
6) Four options- sign bill into law, ignore bill and it becomes law after 10 days, pocket veto, or veto
Process when President Vetoes a Bill
Bill is sent back to congress and must get a 2/3 majority vote in both chambers to become a law
When a president does not either sign a bill or veto it before congress adjourns, it automatically becomes a law
A formal agreement between the U.S. president and the leaders of other nations that does not require Senate approval.
Presidential power to strike, or remove, specific items from a spending bill without vetoing the entire package; declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
War Powers Act
Notify Congress within 48 hours of deploying troops; had to gain congress' approval to stay longer than 90 days; designed to curtail President's power
Take Care Clause
The constitutional requirement (in Article II, Section 3) that presidents take care that the laws are faithfully executed, even if they disagree with the purpose of those laws.
Executive Office of the President
10 committees that work together with the White House staff to gather information and maintain organization of the executive office.
Office of Management and Budget
Creates annual federal budget and compiles information on enrolled bills
Article 3 Constitution
Outlines the Judicial branch
Does NOT outline lower courts system, amendment 10 leaves this power to the states
the authority to hear cases for the first time, usually exercised in lower courts
the authority of a court to hear a case appealed from a lower court, exercised by supreme court
the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional
Structure of Courts
District, Appellate, Supreme
District: 94 courts, 1 judge resides over case
Appellate: 13 courts, 4 judges reside over case
Supreme: 1 court, 9 justices reside over case
An opinion that agrees with the majority in a Supreme Court ruling but differs on the reasoning.
Writ of Certiorari
Order by the Supreme Court directing a lower court to send up the records of a case for review
refers to the body of law that deals with relationships between individuals and the government and governmental agencies
Complex process by which people get their sense of political identity, beliefs, and values (family, school, media, religion, national events-all help to socialize)
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
Voting based on what a candidate pledges to do in the future about an issue if elected.
organizations that raise money for political campaigns not yet regulated by campaign finance laws.
Political Action Committees
Organizations that collect money to distribute to candidates who support the same issues as the contributors.
Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971, which limited amounts that candidates for federal offices can spend on advertising, required the disclosure of the sources of campaign funds as well as how they are spent, and required PACs to register with the government and report all major contributions and expenditures - amended in 1974 and set limits on contributions to candidates (individuals = $1000, PACs = $5000), spending limits for candidates, limits on independent expenditures, created Federal Election Commission (FEC) and system to disperse presidential campaign fund
Incentives for Party Building
develop new electoral techniques
enforce collective responsibility under party label
A meeting of local party members to choose party officials or candidates for public office and to decide the platform.
Private ballot with every candidate and their party, vote in privacy of a voting booth
o Origin of parties
o Organized parties
o Party machines
o Republicans move to major party
o New deal coalition
o 6th? Polarization
interest group activity that includes normal lobbying on capitol hill, working closely with members of congress, and contributing money to incumbents' campaigns
interest group activities designed to influence elected officals by threatening to impose political costs on them if they do not responds; tactics include marches, demonstrations, campaign contributions to opponents, and electoral mobilization
Reasons for proliferation
Social fermentation, increase of gov in social programs, opposition to other interest groups
particular benefit that is made available to members of an interest group but is not available to the public as a whole
Doing something for a moral reason, usually because you know that you are doing the right thing