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The fibrous skeleton of the heart serves as electrical insulation between the atria and the ventricles
Repolarization of a ventricular cardiocyte takes longer than repolarization of a typical neuron.
Endurance athletes commonly have a resting heart rate as low as 40 bpm, and stroke volume as low as 50 mL/beat.
Obstruction of the _____ will cause a more severe myocardia infarction (MI) than the obstruction of any of the others.
left coronary artery (LCA)
When the left ventricle contracts the ____ valve closes and the ____ valve is pushed open.
The mechanisim that keeps the testes cooler than the bodys core temp. is called descent of the testes?
At early puberty, follic stimulating hormone (FSH) and lutenizing hormone (LH) stimulat enlargment of the testes.
From their formation to ejaculation, sperm cells take the follwiing pathway?
seminiferou tubule, rete testis, epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, urethra (SRED)
Which of the following hormones directly stiumlates the development of male secondary sex characteristics?
The most important role of meiosis in sexual reproduction is?
that it prevents the chromosome number from doubling in each generation
A sperm count any lower than ____ million sperm per mL of semen is usually associate with infertility.
20 to 25
The outermost wall of an arter or vein is called the ____ and in large arteries and veins contains the ____.
tunica externa; vasa vasorum
These are all possible circulatory routs from the hear except....
heart > arteries > capillary bed >vein > capillary bed > arteries > heart
_____ are powerful vasoconstrictors, and _____ also increases heart rate.
Epinephrine and angiotensin II, epinephrine
The principal venous drainage of the thoracis organs is accomplished bythe way of?
the azygos system
__ are secreted by one cell into the tissue fluid, diffuse to nearby cells in the same tissue, and stimulate their physiology.
The ___ secretes several hormones that stimulate the development of lymphatic organs and regulates development and activity of T cells (white blood cells).
During the exhaustion stage of the general adaptation syndrome (stress response) stress overwhelms homeostasis. A characteristic of this stage is that?
energy demandands are primarily met by CARBOHYDRATE metabolisim
Rh incompatibility between a sensitized Rh+ woman and an Rh- fetus can cause hemolytic disease of the newborn.
An increased erythropoietin (EPO) output by the kidneys would lead to all of the following except?
______________ is more likely to cause anemia than any of the other factors below.
RhoGAM is an antibody given to Rh- women who give birth to a Rh+ child. RhoGAM is what type of plasma protein?
gamma (y) globulin
The main reason why an individual AB, Rh-negative cannot donate blood to an individual A, Rh-positive is because?
anti-B antibodies in the RECIPIENT will agglutinate RBCs of the donor.
Most strokes and heart attacks are caused by the abnormal clotting of blood in an unbroken vessel. Moreover, a piece of the ____________ (clot) may break loose and begin to travel in the bloodstream as a(n) ______________.
Human chronic gonadotropin (HCG) stimulates the corpus luteum to grow and secrete estrogen and progesterone.
The ___ arteries rhythmically consrict and dialate causing the uterine mucose to blanch and flush with blood.
Most of the natural lubrication during female sexual excitment is proveded by the?
greater vestivular (Bartholin) glands
_____ are found in both male and femal external genitalia, but the ____ is/are only found in the female.
Corpora cavernosea; vestibular bulbs
After expelling the oocyte, the follicle becomes the ____ and secreates_____.
corpus luteum; ESETROGEN AND PROGESTERONE
The ____ phase is the one associasted with menstrul cramps and typically occurs _____ of the cycle.
premenstrual; days 27 to 28
During the plateau phase, the flans and clitoris swell as the _____ arteries dilate and the corpus and corpora _____ engorge with blood.
The basis of pregnancy test kits is the presence of ___, which is secreated by the _____.
human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG); blastocyst and placenta
The most abundant estrogen of pregnancy is ___, but one that accounts for the most of the estrogenic effects in pregnancy is ____.
Milk ejection, stimulation of nerve endings in the ____ leads to the release of _____ from the pituitary.
nipple and areola; oxytocin
Premature infants suffer especially from multiple dysfunctions resulting from inadequate liver function.
In the slow block to polyspermy, sperm penetration releases an inflow of _____, which in turn stimulates the ______.
CA2+; cortical reaction
The optimal "window of opportunity" to conveive a child is?
a few days before ovulation to less than a day after
In the blastocyst, the trophoblast will become_____, wheras the embryoblast will become______.
part of the placenta; the embryo
During implantation, the trophoblast divides into a deep layer, the ____, composed of individual cells, and a superficial layer, the _____, composed of multinucleate mass of cytoplasm.
Prior to ejaculation, ____ in the sperm membrane prevents premature release of ____.
cholesterol; acrosomal enzymes
By the end of 8 weeks, the individual is considered a fetus because...
all of the organ systems are present.
In fetal circulation, the ____ bypassses the liver and the _____ bypasses the lungs.
ductus VENOSUS, ductus arteriosus
Which of these organ systems faces the greatest physiological challenge in the transitional period after birth?
Urine retention is greater problem for elderly men than for elederly women because men
usually develop benign prostatic hyperplasia
Mucous membranes prevent most pathogens from entering the body because of the stickiness of the mucus and the presence of lysozymes.
Some antibodies against foreign antigens can react to similar self-antigens causing an autoimmune disease.
Special lymphatic vessels called lacteals absorb dietary ___ that are not absorbed by the blood capillaries.
_____ are the largest of the lymphatic vessels and they empty into the ____.
Collecting ducts; subclavian veins
____ are found especially in the myucous membrane, standing guard against parasites, and allergens.
____ are secreted by cells infect with viruses, alerting neighboring cells and protection them from becoming infected.
T cells undergo positive selection in the thymus which means?
they multiply and form clones of identical T cells
Beta cell destruction that causes type 1 diabetes mellitus is a(n)
type IV (delayed) hypersensitivity
____ states that the total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressure of its individual gases.
Which of the following would slow down gas exchange between the blood and alveolar air?
an increase in membrane thickness
Which of the following enzymes in an RBC breaks H2CO3 down to water and carbon dioxide?
Nitrogen bubbles can form in the blood and other tissues when a scuba diver ascends too rapidly, producing?
Your breath rate is 12 breaths/min; your tidal volume is 500 mL; your vital capacity is 4700 mL; and your daed air space is 150 mL. Your alveolar ventilation rate is ___ mL/min.
According to the Bohr effect, a low level of oxyhemoglobin enables the blood to transport more CO2.
Which are primarily responsible for maintaining teh salinity gradient of the renal medulla?
In response to a drop in the overall blood pressure, ___ stimulates constriction of the glomerular inlet and even greater constriction of the outlet.
Because of the great deal of active transport that occurs here, the ___ of all the nephrons collectively account for about 6% of ones daily resting ATP and caloric consumption.
proximal convulated tubules
Which of these induces renin secretion, constricts afferent arterioles, and reduces GFR and urine volume?
A hospital patient produces 4 mL of urine with a urea concentration of 8 mg Venous blood draw reveals urea concentration of .4 mg. What is the percentage of cleared urea from glomerular filtrate?
Ethyl (drinking) alcohol stimulates the secreation of ADH, thereby reducing reabsorption by the collection duct.
The countercurrent multiplier mechanism for water conservation was discovered by limiting studies to humans thus hypothesizing how form detemines function.
Angiotensin-converting enzy is found only in the kidneys and converts angiotensiongen to agiotensin I.
The fenestrated endothelium of the capillary has pores small enough to exclude blood cells from the filtrate.
The ___ gland is an extrinsic savilary gland; whereas the ____ gland is an intrinsic savilary gland.
Acid refulx into the esophagus ("heartburn") isnormally prevent by?
the lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
___ , which is secreted by ____ cells, is necessary for Vitamin B12 absorption.
Inrinsic factor; parietal
The enterogastric reflex serves to?
inhibit gastric motility when there is chyme in the small intestine.
The small intestine has very large absoptive surface associate with all these structures except?
Carbohydrate digestion begins in the ___, whereas protein digestion begins in the ____.
Amino acids and monosaccharides are absorved in the ____, and fatty acids are absorved in the ____.
small intestine; small intestine too.
___ transport lipids to the surface of the intestinal absorptive cells, which process them into ___.
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