many workstations or servers attached to the same segment of cable, which creates a single point of failure if it is broken (similar to cable TV cabling). Exceeding cable length is a source of failure.
(CAT3 and CAT 5) The difference between the two has to do with the tightness the copper wires are wound. Tightness determines its resistance to interference. CAT3 is older. Cable length is a common failure
Immune to EMI. Longer usable length (upto 2kms). Drawback is costs.
Most Popular Extremely resistance to failure, especially in a star-wired config.
Since token is passed by every station on the ring NIC set at wrong speed or in error state can bring the network down.
FDDI - Fiber Distributed Data Interface
Dual rings fault tolerance (if first ring fails, the secondary ring begins working) Sometimes uses second ring for improved performance.
T1 and ISDN - go with multiple vendors to reduce failures.
Public switched WAN. Highly Fault Tolerant. Bad segment diverts packets. Can use multiple vendors for high availability.
Other Single Points of Failure
- Can be any device where all traffic goes through a single device - Router, firewall, hub, switch. - Power failure - surges, spikes - install UPS.
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)
- Good for router configuration. - Otherwise inherently insecure.