World History chapter 24
Terms in this set (26)
How did the League of Nations respond when Italy invaded Ethiopia
They did nothing
The agreement made between France, Britain, and Germany at the Munich conference was an example of the policy of
By the summer of 1941, what nation was the last holdout against Germany's complete domination of Europe
Why did the Allies bomb the German city of Dresden
To weaken civilian morale
How did the Allied forces liberate France from the Nazis?
They crossed the English channel and invaded northern France
The Battle of the Bulge in Belgium marked Germany's
last offensive in the war
The Battle of the Coral Sea in May 1942 was the first naval battle in history fought
entirely with planes based on aircraft carriers
Historians estimate that the number of people killed in World War II, including civilians may be as high as
The practice of making unprovoked attacks or other military encroachments on the territory of another country
EX: In the decade after World War I, Japanese aggression declined.
a belief in increasing a nation's military strength as the way to become or remain powerful; the glorification of military virtues and ideals
EX: The worldwide economic depression of the 1930s further weakened Japan's democracy. Japanese leaders began to believe that expansion through conquest would solve Japan's economic problems. This belief moved Japan toward a policy of militarism
a measure, often involving suspension of diplomatic or economic relations, taken by a nation or group of nations against another nation to pressure it to change its behavior
EX: The League was intended to serve as an instrument of international law. In theory, it could impose boycotts and other economic sanctions or use the combined military force of its members to keep unruly nations in line.
the name given to Italy and Germany, and later also to Japan and other German allies, during World War II
EX: In October, he and Mussolini joined in a treaty of friendship that forged an alliance, known as the Rome-Berlin axis, between their countries. Because of this alliance, Germany and Italy were called the Axis Powers.
making concessions to an aggressor in order to avoid conflict
EX: During this time, Great Britain and France did little to stop him, choosing instead to follow a policy of appeasement.
a settlement reached in September 1938 in which Britain and France agreed to let Germany annex part of Czechoslovakia
EX: By signing the Munich Pact in September 1938, he acquired the Sudetenland, a German-speaking region of Czechoslovakia.
a government order involving trade with another nation that forbids the buying or selling of something
EX: When Mussolini invaded Ethiopia, for example, the League of Nations considered an oil embargo against Italy.
a policy of limiting a nation's international relations so that it can exist in peace and harmony by itself in the world
EX: Americans passionately supported this isolationism. Like Europeans, they recalled the horrors of World War I and wanted to avoid getting drawn into a new conflict.
German for "lightning war," a military tactic that combined swift, massive, and highly coordinated attacks by planes, tanks, and infantry to overwhelm and quickly conquer an enemy
EX: Hitler's attack on Poland introduced a new kind of warfare—the Blitzkrieg, or "lightning war."
a government that is appointed by and whose actions are controlled by an outside authority
EX: On June 22, France surrendered to Germany. Under the terms of the armistice, Germany occupied three fifths of the country. A puppet government ruled the unoccupied region. It was called Vichy France, for the town that was its capital.
the statement of principles and war goals reached by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill in 1941, which later formed the basis for the charter of the United Nations
EX: There they prepared a declaration of post-war aims known as the Atlantic Charter, which later influenced the charter of the United Nations.
a section of a city in which members of a minority group live, especially because of force or social, legal, or economic pressures
EX: As German rule expanded, more Jews came under Nazi control and the "Jewish question" grew more critical to the Nazis. In some places, the Nazis forced Jews into overcrowded ghettos, small sections of cities that could be walled off and guarded.
an attack made in response to an enemy's attack
EX: Then, in November, the Soviet Red Army began a counterattack, sending its troops forward against the Nazi assault.In a few days, the Soviets had encircled the German troops.
June 6, 1944, the day that Allied forces invaded France to free it from Nazi rule and eventually defeat Germany in World War II
EX: Troops would cross the English Channel by ship to Normandy, in northern France.
D-Day—the day the invasion began—came on June 6, 1944. Allied planes overhead and warships offshore provided covering fire, while landing craft delivered some 50,000 soldiers and 1,500 tanks to five Normandy beaches.
the systematic, state-sponsored, persecution and murder of Jews by the Nazis
EX: The Holocaust was the systematic, state-sponsored, persecution and murder of Jews by the Nazis.
a violation of internationally accepted practices related to waging war
EX: The Allies did not want to inflict more suffering on the people of these defeated nations. However, they did want to punish those who had committed war crimes.
trials the Allies held in Nuremberg, Germany, after World War II to hold Nazi leaders and other Germans accountable for war crimes and other atrocities they committed during the war
EX: Twelve defendants were condemned to death by hanging, seven received prison terms, and three were acquitted in the Nuremberg Trials
freedom from external control
EX: Japan was restored to full sovereignty in 1951. However, many more years would pass before Germany regained full independence.
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