1. Ample genetic variation arises and is contained in populations by the random process of mutation, recombination, and chromosomal changes, not by directed responses according to the needs of an organism (ie not acquired characteristics
2. Evolution in populations is influenced by natural selection inparticular, as well as by gene flow and random genetic drift, and is characterised by changes in gene frequencies
3. Adaptive genetic variation produces small stepwise changes in phenotypes, which accumulate gradually in evolutionary lineages over long periods of time.
4. The divergence of geographically isolated populations is unimpeded and gradually leads to speciation of reproductively isolated groups
5. The continued gradual accumulation of genetic differences, under the principal guiding force of natural selection, results in new taxa above the species level (genera, families etc.) by the same processes that produce new species.