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20 terms

Chapter 6 vocabulary

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Stress
a force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume
Tension
Stress that stretches rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle.
Compression
stress that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks
Shearing
stress that pushes masses of rock in opposite directions, in a sideways movement
Normal fault
an inclined fault in which the hanging wall appears to have slipped downward relative to the footwall
Hanging wall
The block of rock that forms the upper half of the fault
Footwall
the lower wall of an inclined fault
Reverse fault
a type of fault where the hanging wall slides upward; caused by compression in the crust
Strike-slip fault
break in rock caused by shear forces, where rocks move past each other without much vertical movement
Anticline
a fold in rock that bends upward into an arch
Syncline
A downward fold in rock formed by compression in Earth's crust.
Plateau
an area of high, flat land
Earthquake
shaking and vibration at the surface of the earth resulting from underground movement along a fault plane of from volcanic activity
Focus
The area beneath the Earth's surface where the rock is under stress
Epicenter
point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's focus
P wave
a seismic wave that causes particles of rock to move in a back-and-forth direction
S wave
a type of seismic wave that moves the ground up and down or side to side
Surface waves
seismic waves that travel along the Earth's surface
Mercalli scale
a scale of earthquake intensity
Mangnitude
Is the number geologists assign based on the earthquake's size