The Development Gap- GCSE Geography
Terms in this set (16)
Gross Domestic Product
The total values of goods and services a country produces in a year
Gross National Income
The total value of goods and services people of that nationality produce in a year.
GNI Per head?
The GNI divided by the population
Human Development Index?
Life expectancy, literacy rate, education level and income per head
Why is using 1 measure not very accurate?
They are misleading- they show averages not the elite groups in a nation.
What environmental a factors effect how developed a country is?
Poor climate- Really hot countries won't be able to grow much, very little food production
Poor farming land- They won't produce a lot of food
Natural Hazards- Lots of natural hazards require a lot of money to rebuild after the devastation
Limited water supply- No water makes it hard to produce food
-Few raw materials- No income from selling products, some countries with resources don't have the money to exploit them
What are the political factors that slow down development?
-If a country has an unstable government it might not invest in things like education, health care and improving the economy
-Some governments are corrupt, this means some people in the country become rich while others stay poor
-If there is a war in the country the country will lose money which could have been spent on development.
What are the economic factors that affect development?
Poor trade links-If a country has poor trade links it won't make a lot of money
Lots of debt- Poor countries borrow money from bigger countries that they have to pay back usually with interest. They either can't afford the money or spend all their money which could be spent on development
Economies based on selling Primary Product- primary products are raw materials like wood, metal and stone. There is very little profit to be made however creating little income for a country.
What are the social factors that affect development?
Drinking water- a country will be more developed if lots of drinking water is available
Women in society- countries where women have an equal place in society are more developed, women become educated and contribute to the economy and development
Child education- The more children going to school, the more that get jobs in the future improving the development of the country.
Global inequalities case study?
Hurricane Mitch hit Honduras and Nicaragua in 1998. In Nicaragua 3000 were killed, 50,000 animals died, 70% of roads were unusable. 23,900 houses were destroyed, and 40 schools were damaged or destroyed.
In Honduras 7000 people were killed, 70& of the countries crops were destroyed. 70-80% of transport routes were severely damaged, 35,000 homes were destroyed and 20% of schools were destroyed.
Nicaragua: the GDP grew less than expected, exports of rice and corn went down meaning less money was earnt. The total damage equalled $1.2 billion and the number of children who went to work instead of school rose by 8.1%.
Honduras:In the 2 years after the hurricane the GDP from crops had dropped by 18%. GDP grew by 2% less than expected, the cost in repairs was %439 million. The president claims they were set back 50 years in development.
How does Fair Trade work?
Fair trade is about getting a good amount of money to places where the goods are produced (poor countries). Buyers also pay money on top to help with development in the are i.e. schools and health centres
How do trading groups work?
These are groups of countries which agree to reduce barriers which inhibit trade. Countries in these gain more money from trade and generally develop better.
What is the difference between bilateral and multilateral aid?
Bilateral is directly to the recipient, multilateral is through the use of an organisation (charity)
What are some long term development projects which can be used?
-Providing farming knowledge
What is Tree Aid
Tree Aid was set up in 1987 with the aim to break the vicious cycle of droughts, poverty and environment destruction. They operate in the Sahel region in Ethiopia, Burkina Faso, Ghana and Mali. They help communities set up tree nurseries, this brings an income to the family and brings them food sources. SO far they have received £1.25 million in donations.
Inequalities in the EU?
Bulgaria and the UK
Bulgaria joined the EU in 2007 and is much less developed than the UK. Bulgaria's GNI per capita is 11,180 and the UK's is 33,800. The UK has a good climate, not too hot or too cold, it has good trade links and it has very strong manufacturing industries.
Bulgaria however has fluctuating weather patterns, it is very mountainous making farming difficult, it used to be communist and there are problems with political corruption.
The EU has introduced the URBAN Community Initiative, which is giving money to cities to develop jobs, reduce crime and increase the green space areas.areas. They've also introduced the Common Agriculture Policy, meaning farmers are paid to grow certain crops. Finally they have Structural Funds meaning money is provided for research and development, improving employment opportunities.