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The Great Depression and The New Deal

great depression

the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s

hebert hoover

was the 31st president of the US, promoted partnerships between government and business under the rubric "economic modernization," Hoover tried to combat the ensueing Great Depression with volunteer efforts, none of whice produced economic recovery during his term.

franklin d. roosevelt

President of the US during Great Depression and World War II

john steinbeck

United States writer noted for his novels about agricultural workers (1902-1968)

dorothea lange

United States photographer remembered for her portraits of rural workers during the Depression (1895-1965)

dust bowl

Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.

new deal

the historic period (1933-1940) in the U.S. during which President Franklin Roosevelt's economic policies were implemented


shanty-towns that housed many who had lost everything. Shelters were built of old boxes and other discards.

fireside chats

informal talks given by FDR over the radio; sat by White House fireplace; gained the confidence of the people

eleanor roosevelt

wife of Franklin Roosevelt and a strong advocate of human rights (1884-1962)

relief, recovery, reform

These were the categories into which the New Deal was split. Relief defined by the acts implemented in the area of aid to the unemployment. Recovery put forth measures that would help aid in the speedy recovery of areas hit hardest by the depression. Reform tried to recreate areas that seemed faulty

National Recovery

allowed industries to create "codes of fair competition" and set minimum wages and max hours of work for workers.

banking crisis

When individuals and companies lose confidence in the banking system and withdraw their deposits in what is called a 'run on banks.'

Agriculture. Adjustment Acts

payments to farmers who agreed not to grow wheat, corn, tobacco, and other crops so farm prices went up and farmers better off

civilian conservation corps

Relief: (CCC) March 31, 1933; reduced poverty/unemployment, helped young men and families; young men go to rural camps for 6 months to do construction work; $1/day; intended to help youth escape cities; concerned with soil erosion, state/national parks, telephone/power lines; 40 hr weeks

federal reserve

the central bank of the United States

gold standard

a monetary standard under which the basic unit of currency is defined by a stated quantity of gold

fiat money

money that the government declares to be legal tender although it cannot be converted into standard specie

twenty-second amendment

Passed in 1951, the amendment that limits presidents to two terms of office.

schechter poultry v. u.s.

Supreme Court case which declared the NRA (National Recovery Administration) unconstitutional

court-packing plan

President FDR's failed 1937 attempt to increase the number of US Supreme Court Justices from 9 to 15 in order to save his 2nd New Deal programs from constitutional challenges

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