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105 terms

Exam 2 sociology

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Social Stratification
a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy
social mobility
a change in position within the social hierarchy
caste system
social stratification based on ascription, or birth
class system
social stratification based on both birth and individual achievement
meritocracy
social stratification based on personal merit
status consistency
the degree of consistency in a person's social standing across various dimensions of social inequality
structural social mobility
a shift in he social position of large numbers of people due more to changes in society than to individual efforts
ideology
cultural beliefs that justify particular social arrangements, including patterns of inequality
Davis-Moore Thesis
the assertion that social stratification exists in every society because it has beneficial consequences for the operation of society
capitalists
people who own and operate factories and other businesses in pursuit of profits
proletarians
working people who sell their labor for wages
alienation
the experience of isolation and misery resulting from powerlessness
blue-collar occupations
lower-prestige jobs that involve mostly manual labor
white-collar occupations
higher-prestige jobs that involve mostly mental labor
Socioeconomic Status (SES)
a composite ranking based on various dimensions of social inequality
conspicuous consumption
buying and using products with an eye to the "statement" they make about social position
income
earnings from work or investments
wealth
the total value of money and other assets, minus outstanding debts
intragenerational social mobility
a change in social position occurring during a person's lifetime
intergenerational social mobility
upward or downward social mobility of children in relation to their parents
relative poverty
the deprivation of some people in relation to those who have more
absolute poverty
a deprivation of resources that is life-threatening
feminization of poverty
the trend of women making up an increasing proportion of the poor
global stratification
patterns of social inequality in the world as a whole
high-income countries
the richest nations with the highest overall standards of living
middle-income countries
nations with a standard of living about average for the world as a whole
low-income countries
nations with a low standards of living in which most people are poor
colonialism
the process by which some nations enrich themselves through political and economic control of other nations
neocolonialism
a new form of global power relationships that involves not direct political control but economic exploitation by multinational corporations
multinational corporation
a large business that operates in many countries
Modernization Theory
a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences between nations
Dependency Theory
a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitations of poor nations by right ones
gender
the personal traits abd social positions that members of a society attach to being female or male
gender stratification
the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between men and women
matriarchy
a form of social organization in which females dominate males
patriarchy
a form of social organization in which males dominate females
sexism
the belief that one sex is innately superior to the other
gender roles
attitudes and activities that a society links to each sex
minority
any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural difference that a society sets apart and subordinates
intersection theory
the interplay of race, class, and gender, often resulting in multiple dimensions of disadvantage
sexual harassment
comments, gestures, or physical contacts of a sexual nature that are deliberate, repeated, and unwelcome
feminism
the advocacy of social equality for women and men, in opposition to patriarchy and sexism
race
a socially constructed category of people who share biologucally transmitted traits that members of a society consider important
ethnicity
a shared cultural heritage
minority
any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural difference that a society sets apart and subordinates
prejudice
a rigid and unfair generalization about an entire category of people
stereotype
an exaggerated description applied to every person in some category
racism
the belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to another
scapegoat
a person or category of people, typically with little power, whom other people unfairly blame for their own troubles
discrimination
unequal treatment of various categories of people
institutional prejudice and discrimination
bias built into the operation of society's institutions
pluralism
a state in which people of all races and ethnicities are distinct but have equal social standing
assimilation
the process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture
miscegenation
biological reproduction by partners of different racial categories
segregation
the physical and social separation of categories of people
genocide
the systematic killing of one category of people by another
social institution
a major sphere of social life, or societal subsystem, organized to meet human needs
economy
the social institution that organizes a society's production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services
postindustrial economy
a productive system based on service work and high technology
primary sector
the part of the economy that draws raw materials from the natural environment
secondary sector
the part of the economy that transforms raw materials into manufactured goods
tertiary sector
the part of the economy that involves services rather than goods
global economy
economic activity that crosses national borders
capitalism
an economic system in which natural resources and the means of producing goods and services are privately owned
socialism
an economic system in which natural resources and the means of producing goods and services are collectively owned
welfare capitalism
an economic and political system that combines a mostly market-based economy with extensive social welfare programs
state capitalism
an economic and political system in which companies are privately owned but cooperate closely with the government
profession
a prestigious white-collar occupation that requires extensive formal education
politics
the social institution that distributes power, sets a society's goals, and makes decisions
power
the ability to achieve desired ends despite resistance from others
government
a formal organization that directs the political life of a society
authority
power that people perceive as legitimate rather than coercive
routinization of charisma
the transformation of charismatic authority into some combination of traditional and bureaucratic authority
monarchy
a political system in which a single family rules from generation to generation
democracy
a political system that gives power to the people as a whole
authoritarianism
a political system that denies the people participation in government
totalitarianism
a highly centralized political system that extensively regulates people's lives
welfare state
a system of government agencies and programs that provides benefits to the population
pluralist model
an analysis of politics that sees power as spread among many competing interest groups
power-elite model
an analysis of politics that sees power as concentrated among the rich
Marxist political-economy model
an analysis that explains politics in terms of the operation of a society's economic system
political revolution
the overthrow of one political system in order to establish another
terrorism
acts of violence or the thread of violence used as a political strategy by an individual or a group
war
organized, armed conflict among the people of two or more nations, directed by their governments
military-industrial complex
the close association of the federal government, the military, and defense indurstires
Sex
biological distinction between females and males
primary sex characterisitics
genitals, organs used for reproduction
secondary sex characteristics
bodily development, not genitals, females wide hips, breasts, lower voice
gender
is an element of culture and refers to the personal traits and patterns of behavior that a culture attaches to being female or male
intersexual people
people whose bodies (including genitals) have both female ad male characteristics (same as hermaphrodite)
Transexuals
people who feel they are one sex even though biologically they are the other
incest taboo
a norm forbidding seual relations or marriage between certain relatives
sexual counterrevoltion
conservative call for a return to family values and a change from sexual freedom back toward the sexual responsibility that had been valued by earlier generations.
sexual orientation
a person's romantic and emotional attraction to another person
heterosexuality
sexual attraction to someone of the other sex
homosexuality
sexual attraction to someone of the same sex
bisexuality
sexual attraction to people of both sexes
asexuality
no sexual attraction to people of either sex
homophobia
discomfort over close personal interaction with people though to be gay, lesbian, or bisexual
pornography
sexually explicit material intended to cause sexual arousal
prostitution
selling of sexual services
Rape
expression of power, a violent act, that uses sex to hurt, humiliate, or control another person
queer theory
growing body of research findings that challenges the heterosexual bias in US Society
heterosexism
a view that labels anyone who is not heterosexual as queer
abortion
deliberate termination of pregnancy