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World History Final Exam Review
Terms in this set (189)
The interest of Europeans in Iran intensified with what discovery in the region?
What was one result of the Sepoy Rebellion?
Parliament ended the rule of the East India Company.
At the Berlin Conference, European powers agreed that, in order to claim part of Africa, a European power had to
set up a government office there.
The Shona of Zimbabwe organized to resist European imperialism under the leadership of
The purpose of the Open Door Policy was to
protect U.S. trading rights in China.
The "self-strengthening movement" did not succeed in China because
the Qing government did not support it.
Which of the following was one of Sun Yixian's "Three Principles of the People?"
economic security for all Chinese
Which of the following was a Social Darwinist argument in favor of Western imperialism?
Westerners thought they had a duty to bring their civilization to inferior races.
In the Ottoman empire, tensions between Turkish nationalists and ethnic groups seeking independence sparked genocide against the
The Boer War was sparked by
the discovery of gold and diamonds on Boer-held lands.
The desire to return to the purity and simplicity of Muhammad's original teachings was the goal of what Islamic reform movement?
Which statement best describes how Catholic and Protestant missionaries interacted with African natives?
They saw natives as children in need of guidance.
economic situation that occurs when a nation imports more than it exports
promoted Indian cultural pride and is often called the founder of Indian nationalism
Ram Mohun Roy
leader of the powerful Zulu kingdom in the early 1800s
colony administered by local rulers with European advisors
economic situation that occurs when a nation exports more than it imports
leader who sparked an Islamic revival across West Africa in the early 1800s
Usman dan Fodio
the difference between how much a country imports and how much it exports
balance of trade
Indian tradition of isolating women in separate quarters
president of the new Chinese republic after the fall of the Qing dynasty
emperor who launched the Hundred Days of Reform in China
In the Treaty of Nanjing, Britain gained control of
What was a result of the Taiping Rebellion that began in China in 1850?
The Qing government survived but had to share power.
As the Ottoman empire crumbled, Russia plotted to seize the Bosporus and Dardanelles in order to
gain access to the Mediterranean Sea.
What ruler is sometimes called the "father of modern Egypt" due to the reforms he made?
Ethiopia was able to remain independent because
Ethiopia modernized and imported European weapons.
What colony did the British help create for freed slaves in West Africa in 1787?
Why did Social Darwinists favor Western imperialism?
Westerners thought they had a duty to bring their civilization to inferior races.
The Hundred Days of Reform in China was partly brought about by China's
defeat in the Sino-Japanese War.
Rifle cartridges greased with animal fat were a key cause of the
since the late 1800s, powerful banking and industrial families in Japan
assembly or legislature
western name for the colonial holdings of France on mainland southeast asia: present-day Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia
The king of Siam who ruled from 1851 to 1868. He studied foreign languages and read widely on modern science and mathematics. Used his knowledge to negotiate with western powers and satisfy their goals in Siam by making a agreements in unequal treaties.
A Hawaiian queen who tried to reduce foreign influence. American planter later overthrew her in 1893. They then asked thew United States to annex Hawaii, which it finally did in 1898. Supporters of annexation argued that if the US did not take Hawaii, Britain, or Japan might do so. By 1900, the US, Britain, France, and Germany had claimed nearly every island in the pacific.
people of mixed Native American and French Canadian descent
indigenous people of New Zealand
military dictator of Latin America
a liberal reformer of Zapotec Indian heritage, and other liberals gained power and opened an era of reform known as La Reforma. Oppressed people of mexico by revising the mexican constitution to strip the military power and end the special privileges of the church. they ordered the church to sell unused lands to peasants
A British penal colony during the 1700s
The Platt Amendment stipulated the conditions for U.S. intervention in Cuban affairs and permitted the United States to lease or buy lands for the purpose of the establishing naval bases (the main one was Guantánamo Bay) and coaling stations in Cuba.
British North America Act of 1867
The act of Parliament of the United Kingdom by which in 1867 three British colonies in North America—Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Canada—were united as "one Dominion under the name of Canada" and by which provision was made that the other colonies and territories of British North America might be admitted. It also divided the province of Canada into the provinces of Quebec and Ontario and provided them with constitutions. The act served as Canada's "constitution" until 1982, when it was renamed the Constitution Act, 1867, and became the basis of Canada's Constitution Act of 1982, by which the British Parliament's authority was transferred to the independent Canadian Parliament. The British North America Act conferred on the new dominion a constitution "similar in principle to that of the United Kingdom."
How did the U.S. gain control of the land for Panama Canal?
Helping the Panamanians revolt against Colombia in exchange for the land.
How did Japan gain control of Taiwan
1st Sino-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War & Results
conflict between Russia and Japan in 1904-1905 over control of Korea and Manchuria. Resulted in Korea becoming a protectorate, and Japan ruled Korea for 35 years. The Japanese set out to modernize Korea. Koreans produced more rice than ever before. Japan set out to erase the Korean language and identity. Japanese ended up massacring many Koreans. March First Movement became a rallying symbol for Korean nationalists. Japan exapaned in Easat Asia during that years after annexation, seeking natural resources and territory.
How did Meiji reformers try to improve Japan
They were committed to replacing the rigid feudal order with a completely new political and social system and to building a modern industrial economy. They studied strong Western powers and adapted to the German model. Developed a diet, established a western-style bureaucracy with separate departments to supervise finance, the army, the navy, and education. Ended social privilege of the samurai. Ended legal distinctions between classes, thus allowing more people to become involved in nation building. Made Japan a homogeneous society.
The 1st British colonists to settle Australia in large numbers were...?
Conservative leaders in Latin America in the 1800s believed in...?
The traditional social order
a feature of the new Japanese political system created by Meiji?
Absolute power of the emperor
In Japanese society under the Meiji, women had...?
The same legal status as minors
Why did missionaries land in New Zealand in 1814?
To convert the Maori to Christianity
How did the people of Burma and Vietnam respond to European attempts to colonize them?
They responded in both similar and different ways. Both resisted colonial settlement and rule, sometimes violently, always persistently. The Buddhists resisted in both nations, but were more important in the Burmese resistance to colonialism by the British. The Brits also owned India at the time, and made Burma a province of that colony, so they had to deal with being subcolonized by India too.
Why did Filipino rebels renew their struggle for independence after the Spanish-American War?
They saw no difference between American and Spanish rulers.
Why did the Maori fight colonists in New Zealand?
Because they were settle farmers & wanted to keep their land
What ethnic tensions did Australia, Canada, and New Zealand face?
The indigenous people were all discriminated by the European settlers and had their land taken away.
Why did Britain agree to create the Dominion of Canada?
Britain had been worried about it's North American colonial possessions costing them money and getting them into a war with the USA. Britain did not just agree to create the Dominion of Canada many in Britain had been pushing for it. Editorials in British papers had made it clear that many would not support sending troops to protect Canada from American invasion and would support the Annexation of Canada by the United States.
Why did Britain agree to demands for self-rule in Australia?
Britain did not oppress Australia, and force it to remain a colony. There was not the same violence as seen in the American War of Independence, and perhaps Britain wanted to avoid replaying this event.
How did the cycle of economic independence continue after independence?
Latin American sold off goods to buy them back and sell them
Describe two ways the United States influenced Latin America.
Mexico created constitutions similar to the U.S.
U.S. took land
How did Latin American nations struggle for stability, and how did industrialized nations affect them?
Poverty, bad education, bad economy, and weak leaders. Industrialized nations affected them by taking their foods & goods for power.
Causes of Britain entering WWI
Britain felt threatened by Germany's rapid economic growth. Germany also feared that when Russia caught up to other industrialized nations, its huge population & vast supply of natural resources would get taken. But the trigger that eventually brought Britain into the war was the German Schlieffen Plan. This was thought up by German generals to avoid fighting a two-front war. The idea was that before Russia could fully mobilize, German troops would swing through Belgium avoiding French defenses and enter France from the north east capturing Paris quickly, thus knocking France out of the war leaving only Russia to deal with. Britain had given France a loosely worded statement that it might be "morally obliged" to offer assistance if France were ever attacked back in 1907, but it was not formally tied to anything on paper.
What were the reasons for the Schlieffen Plan failing?
The Schlieffen Plan was designed so that the German Army would not have to fight on two fronts. It was launched on 3rd August 1914 as they invaded Belgium. However, it had failed by mid-September of the same year for a number of reasons. These reasons are:
-The Belgians were able to hold up the German advance at forts at Antwerp, Liege and Namur
-The French then had time to move North to confront the German army
-The Russians were able to mobilize their troops in 10 days instead of the expected 6 weeks
This meant that the Germans were forced to fight on two fronts and they would be no quick end to the war that was supposed to end by Christmas 1914.
What was Russia controlled by near the end of WWI (1917) ?
In March 1917, bread riots in St. Petersburg erupted into a revolution that brought down the Russian monarchy. At first, the Allies welcomed the overthrow of the tsar. They hoped Russia would institute a democratic government and become a stronger ally. The Bolsheviks took over.
What were the reasons for the U.S. entering WWI?
1) Germany declared unrestricted warfare on all Atlantic shipping.
2) Allegedly, the Germans were trying to cut a deal with Mexico to join them in a war against the U.S. (AKA The Zimmerman Telegram). This has been highly disputed with just cause.
3) France and Britain had borrowed so much money from America, that it was now essential that they defeat the Central Powers. The only way to ensure this was actual participation on our part.
Members of the Triple Alliance included...
Germany and Austria allied because they had similar cultures, and so they were the obvious partner for Bismark's alliances. Italy was added in later to bring both to 3.
Members of the Triple Entente included...
France and Russia allied mainly to protect against the dual alliance (triple alliance before Italy joined), but France also got economic concessions. Britain joined later, because they didn't want to be left out, and were in the naval arms race with Germany.
What were the reasons for the Russia entering WWI?
Russia was allied with Serbia. Russia agreed to defend Serbia against Austrian aggression because Russia saw itself as the guardian of all Slavs.
What were the reasons of the overthrow of the Russian Tsar?
More than half of the Russian population were living in poverty, while the Tsar and his family were living a life of luxury. The commoners were sick of this, and the decided to protest peacefully. They approached the Winter Palace and were viciously attacked by the guards. The Duma was then set in place, but they could not challenge the Tsar's ruling. The Bolsheviks were a Communist Party and after all of this, they appealed to the Russians, and they caused the uprising, and began the Russian Revolution.
Reasons for Nationalism increasing tensions just before WWI?
Germans were proud of their new empire's military power and industrial leadership. The French were bitter about their 1871 defeat in the Franco-Prussian War and yearned to recover the lost border province of Alsace and Lorraine. Austria-Hungary worried that nationalism might foster rebellion among the many minority populations within its empire. Ottoman Turkey felt threatened by new nations, such as Serbia. If realized, Serbia's dream of a South Slav state could take territory away from both Austria-Hungary and Turkey.
Leader of the Bolsheviks was..
Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, and Joseph Stalin
the counterrevolutionary, were made up of tsarist imperial officers, Mensheviks, democrats, and other, all of whom were united only by their desire to defeat the Bolsheviks. Allies hoped that the whites might overthrow the communists (reds, whom they were fighting) and support the fight against Germany. Britain, France, and the United States sent forces to help the Whites.
Mexican president who approved the Constitution of 1917
a policy of rigid segregation practiced in South Africa
movement in which writers expressed pride in their African roots and protested colonial rule
doctrine that Gandhi preached
pledge by the United States to lessen its involvement in Latin American affairs
Good Neighbor Policy
led the Chinese Communist Party during the Long March
rejected Confucian traditions and learning from the West
May Fourth Movement
advocated the establishment of a national home for the Jewish people in Palestine
shah who modernized Persia
large plantations controlled by the Mexican elite
How did the Allies anger Chinese Nationalists at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference?
They gave Japan control over some former German possessions in China.
As part of the struggle for Indian independence, Mohandas Gandhi urged Indians to
boycott British goods.
In 1922, Japan agreed to limit the size of its navy
to protect its relations with the West.
Which statement correctly describes the Japanese economy after World War I?
Japan became a true industrial power.
As a result of the Treaty of Sèvres, the Ottoman empire
lost its Arab and North African lands.
One of Atatürk's reforms in Turkey was to
reject religion in laws and government.
In the 1930s, what effect did the Great Depression have in Latin America?
People lost faith in the ideas of liberal government.
The militarists who came to power in Japan in the 1930s
used schools to teach students absolute obedience to the emperor.
What key event convinced many Indians that India needed to govern itself?
the Amritsar massacre
Which of the following was an important factor in bringing about the Mexican Revolution?
The urban middle class wanted democracy.
Why did many Muslim religious leaders in Persia disapprove of the reforms introduced by Reza Khan?
He replaced Islamic law with secular law.
Indian leader Mohandas Gandhi
preached that the power of love could change wrongdoers.
The Twenty-One Demands
sought to make China a Japanese protectorate.
The Mexican Constitution of 1917
made Church land "the property of the nation."
What party dominated Mexican politics from the 1930s through the free election of 2000?
the Institutional Revolutionary Party
Which statement is true about Japanese politics in the 1920s?
Japan moved toward more widespread democracy.
What was the eventual result of Sun Yixian's efforts to rebuild China based on the Three Principles of the People?
China fell into chaos and Sun stepped down.
American philosopher Henry David Thoreau influenced Mohandas Gandhi through his ideas on
In 1931, Japanese ultranationalists seized the Chinese province of
Which of the following is an example of the rise of cultural nationalism in Mexico in the 1920s and 1930s?
the revival of mural painting
The purpose of apartheid in South Africa was to
ensure white economic, political, and social supremacy.
Turkish nationalists, led by Atatürk
overthrew the Ottoman sultan and declared Turkey a republic.
In 1927, the second Sino-Japanese War
united the Guomindang and Communists.
Which of the following was a turning point in the Indian independence movement in 1919?
Hundreds of Indians were killed at Amritsar.
Chinese who turned to the revolutionary ideas of Marx and Lenin gained strong support from
the Soviet Union.
encouraged world-wide communist revolution
militant supporters of Benito Mussolini
Nazi secret police
renounced war as an instrument of policy
a system of brutal Russian labor camps
liberated young women of the Jazz Age
an artistic movement that attempts to portray the workings of the unconscious
a class of wealthy farmers whom Stalin destroyed
a one-party dictatorship that tries to regulate all aspects of its citizens' lives
"Night of Broken Glass"
Sigmund Freud's method of studying how the mind words and treating mental disorders is called
Which of the following could be described as a conservative reaction to the rapid changes in society in the United States after World War I?
the Scopes trial
Eventually, right-wing dictators emerged in every Eastern European country except
Czechoslovakia and Finland.
In the early 1930s, which of the following contributed to the spread of economic problems around the world?
Governments raised tariffs to protect their economies.
After most of Ireland became self-governing in 1922, why did the Irish Republican Army (IRA) continue to fight the British?
Northern Ireland remained under British rule.
What was a cause of Stalin's Great Purge?
Stalin feared rival party leaders.
How did the League of Nations respond when Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931?
It condemned Japan's action but did nothing to stop it.
What was a result of prohibition, which was made law in the United States in 1919?
an increase in organized crime
What was the appeal of Mussolini's fascist government to Italians?
The fascists ended political feuding in government.
What measure did the Nazis take that was a rejection of the Versailles treaty?
They rearmed Germany.
U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt proposed a massive package of Depression relief called the
What was a key characteristic of fascism in the 1920s and 1930s?
supremacy of the state
What 1924 agreement reduced German reparations and provided U.S. loans to Germany?
Which group sharply criticized the Weimar Republic as too weak and longed for another strong leader like Bismarck?
On Stalin's collectives,
the government provided tractors, fertilizers, and seed.
Stalin attempted to make the cultural life of the Soviet Union more Russian by promoting a policy of
The Eastern European nations that were carved out of old European empires after World War I
lacked capital to develop industry.
What was a drawback of being among the Soviet elite under Stalin?
The elite often suffered from Stalin's purges
In 1928, Scottish scientist Alexander Fleming discovered
Which statement is correct about the economy of the United States in the 1920s?
The U.S. became the world's leading economic power.
In Britain during the 1920s, the Labour party supported
a gradual move toward socialism.
France occupied Germany's coal-rich Ruhr Valley in 1923
because Germany had fallen behind in reparations.
In 1935, the Nazis passed the Nuremberg Laws which
deprived Jews of German citizenship.
Which of the following was a result of the work of Marie Curie and Albert Einstein?
the discovery of atomic fission
Under Mussolini's rule in Italy,
there was a one-party dictatorship.
government led by religious leaders
having unlimited power
Skilled speaker for Kenya during when African colonies were trying to gain independence
the forcible overthrow of a government
political and diplomatic independence from both Cold War powers
Nasser's successor who in 1979 became the first Arab leader to make peace with Israel. He weakened ties with the Soviet Union and sought U.S. aid. Muslim Fundamentalists assassinated him in 1981; Islamist's denounced the undemocratic government's failure to end corruption and poverty
a collective farm in Israel
Jawaharlal Nehru's daughter who also led India as a prime minister from 1966-1977 and again from 1980-1984. Her goal was to prove the world that women could hold powerful positions and shouldn't be discriminated against.
headscarves and loose-fitting, ankle-length, garments meant to conceal the body
Benigno Aquino's wife who was a leader of the Philippines since 1986, who was elected after Ferdinand Marcos was forced to resign
Who was the Egyptian leader who nationalized the Suez Canal
Gamal Abdel Nasser
What was the essential goal of the U.S. In the Middle East
to maintain access to oil resources
What rights do Islamic women have
1.)Equal Reward & Equal Accountability
2.)Equal Right to Knowledge
3.)Equal Right to Choose a Spouse
4.)Love & Mercy in Spousal Relations
5.)have to wear hejabs anywhere they go
What was the reaction of the United Nations planning to divide Palestine
The Jews accepted the plan, but the Arabs rejected it.
Process by which national economies, politics, cultures, and societies become integrated with those of other nations around the world
Branch of biology dealing with heredity and variations among plants and animals
Common currency used by members of the European Union
First artificial satellite
Man-made object that orbits a larger body in space. On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik I.
Use of tariffs and other restrictions to protect a country's home industries against competition
Outbreak of a rapidly spreading disease
Deliberate use of random violence, especially against civilians, to achieve political goals
The practice of sending work to companies in the developing world in order to save money or increase efficiency
Manipulation of living organisms' chemical code in order to produce specific results
Destruction of forest land
Form of pollution in which toxic chemical in the air come back to the earth in the form of rain, hail, or snow
Effects of globalization on developing nations
-Global Trade Organizations formed
-international organizations deal specifically w/ economic issues
-GATT was signed in 1947 to expand world trade + reduce tariffs
-more than 100 nations joined the WTO to strengthen GATT
-Nations formed regional blocs, or groups made to promote trade + meet common needs
-NAFTA is a trade bloc made to facilitate trade among the U.S., Canada, and Mexico.
-APEC promoted trade among Pacific Rim Nations
Purpose of the International Space Station
it serves as a space laboratory, allowing scientists from many different countries to observe space, conduct research, and develop new space related technologies.
Qualities of the "information age"
-Computers allowed businesses to become more organized. allowed difficult tasks to be performed quickly and easily.
-they help scientists conduct advanced research, and when connected to satellites, make global communications possible
-computers increasingly aid scientists and architects in developing models to predict disaster, understand environmental changes, and plan urban development
-with the internet, a person can instantly communicate with other users around the world. linked individuals, governments, and businesses around the world.
-E-commerce, or or buying and selling on the Internet, contributed to economic growth. shaped life in developing nations
Purpose of the Kyoto Protocol
its purpose is to lower the emissions of carbon dioxide and other "greenhouse" gases that contribute to global warming. many developing nations refuse to sign because they say they must exploit their resources in order to develop fully. The U.S. has't signed the treaty because it believes the treaty could strain economic growth
How did the world display economic interdependence?
by sharing goods, resources, knowledge, and labor from other parts of the world
-improved transportation and communication, the spread of democratic systems, and the rise of free trade (the buying and selling of goods by private individuals and corporations in a free market)
-created multinational corporations (Company with branches in many countries)
-Companies outsourced (sent work to the developing world in order to save money or increase efficiency)
-created global trade organizations
Describe the economies of the developing world
-rapid population growth
-economic dependence on foreign lenders and on exports
-repressive, authoritarian governments
How have women's rights changed overtime
-women won right to vote in european nations in 1950
-"perform nearly two thirds of all working hours, receive only one tenth of the world's income, and own less than one percent of world property"
-United Nations and other groups carefully monitor the human rights of women. They also condemn violence and discrimination against women. More than 165 countries have ratifired a new women's human rights treaty
What countries have chemical weapons? Biological weapons? Why?
Chemical: US, Northern Africa, Libya, Egypt, India, Syria, Russia, South & North Korea (Sudan, Pakistan, Iran, and China are suspected to have them)
Biological: Northern Africa (Cuba, Libya, Sudan, Egypt, Syria, Iran, China, Russia, North Korea, and Taiwan are suspected to have them)
Terrorist groups began to use them for their own purposes. "rogue states"(nations that ignore international law and threaten their neighbors and the world) saw them as a way both to defend themselves and to increase their power. Rogue states are also dictatorships that brutally mistreat their own citizens
What were Yeltsin's actions after the breakup of the Soviet Union
Yeltsin eliminated most price controls, privatized a slew of major state assets, allowed for the ownership of private property and otherwise embraced free market principles. Under his watch, a stock exchange, commodities exchanges and private banks all came into being. But although a select few oligarchs became shockingly wealthy, many Russians lapsed deeper into poverty due to rampant inflation and the rising cost of living. Yeltsin's Russia also struggled with the taint of being an ex-superpower and with corruption, lawlessness, decreased industrial output and falling life expectancies. Moreover, Yeltsin began treating himself to some of the perks, such as chauffeured limousines, that he had previously criticized.
As president, Yeltsin broke from his Soviet predecessors by generally supporting freedom of the press, permitting public criticism and letting Western popular culture seep into the country. He also agreed to nuclear arms reductions and brought home soldiers from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet republics. Nonetheless, he did not completely disavow military action. After surviving impeachment proceedings, Yeltsin disbanded the communist-dominated parliament in September 1993 and called for elections to a new legislature. He then resolved the ensuing standoff by ordering tanks to shell the parliamentary building. The following year Yeltsin sent troops into the breakaway republic of Chechnya, an action that left roughly 80,000 people dead—the majority of them civilians. Though the fighting ceased in August 1996, it picked back up again in 1999 and lasted most of the next decade.
What did the Russian government try to do with Russia's nuclear weapons after the breakup of the Soviet Union?
They tried to dismantle the bombs and secure the materials properly, but they didn't have the funds to do so
What countries tried to help Russia secure its nuclear weapons?
The United States and Europe. US and Russia also signed agreements to reduce the size of their nuclear arsenals, but both have backed off from these agreements
Five advantages of agricultural economy
-Produce food crops
-Produce raw material for products
-Some crops can be used as fuel
-Crop rotations provide improved water quality
-Food produced on pastures is healthy and can help body fight diseases
Six advantages of industrial economy
-Decreased Time to Market
-Less Dependence on Human Labor
- Longer Shelf-Life and Availability
-Fewer Geographic Limitations
-Greater Variety and Availability
Consequences of industrialism
Despite its many positive effects, industrialization had a negative impact on Europe too. Urban areas doubled, tripled, or quadrupled in size which led to over crowding in cities. Sometimes a large population is a good thing, but in this case the population was too big and caused many health problems. Living conditions were dirty and unhealthy. Cities were unsanitary and diseases filled the streets. There were no sanitation codes in cities. Many citizens got very sick.
Work in Factories:
Factory work was dirty and dangerous. Bosses strictly disciplined their employees and treated them harshly. The workers were underpaid and overworked. They didn't get enough money for the labor they were providing. One also had a short life expectancy if they worked in a factory. The hours in a workday were very long too because the factories were indoors and didn't have to use sunlight to decide business hours. The government also provided no regulations for the treatment of a businesses employees.
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