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History Chapter 5

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Who were the seven kings of Rome?
Romulus, Noma Pompilius, Tulius Hostilius, Aneus Marciss, Servius Tullius, Tarquinius Seuperbus
Romulus organized the gentes into larger groups called what? And how many of them were there?
Curiae, 30 total
What was the assembly called that the Curiae met in?
Comitia Curiata
What did Romulus establish?
The Senate
What was the Senate also known as
Council of Elders
Patricians=?
Nobility
How many Patricians advised the king?
100
Who was excluded from the Senate and the Comitia Curiata as well as the military?
Plebians
What is a Fasces?
an axe surrounded by rods that is a symbol of power
What did Tarquinius Priscus use as a symbol of power?
The Fasces
What are three things Priscus is responsible for in Rome?
Cloaca Maxima, Capitoline Jupiter, and a wall around the 7 hills of Rome
Servius Tullius?
A Plebian who was eventually murdered by his son in law
What is Servius Tullius responsible for?
expanded Curiae to include Plebians, expanding size of army, raised more money, Hoplites became important, used census to expanded Curiae
How many classes were there in Rome?
5
1st class?
Men who could supply a full set of armor
2nd class?
Men who could afford some armor
3rd class?
men who could afford less armor/weapons
4th class?
Men who could afford even less armor
5th class?
Only armor was sling shots and crude weapons
Equites?
men who could afford to maintain a horse for the service of state
Proleteni?
Didn't have armor, acted as servants to armored men
Who did Servius induct more to the army?
wealthy citizens
Why did wealthier citizens have more say in voting?
they outnumbered poor citizens
What differed from the Delian League and the Latin League?
Every member had a bound alliance with Rome and not everyone
What are the three alliances?
Full Citizenship, Partial citizenship, Buffer Zone areas
Full Citizenship?
reserved for the areas closest to Rome. they gained full rights of citizenship, overseen by a Roman governor.
partial citizenship?
areas a little further from Rome. Maybe moving up to full citizenship, overseen by Roman governor.
Buffer Zone areas?
outlying areas of roman territory and defended their own area, but had no other ranks of citizenship
Why didn't Rome demand payment/tribute form c/s?
The military was funded by Roman tax payers
What two things abled Rome to take over Italy very quickly?
diplomacy and a vast system of Roads
What did the Greek c/s do when Rome started to invade them?
They asked King Pyrus of Epros to assist
Who fought in the punic wars?
Rome and Carthage
What did Rome and Carthage fight over in the first punic wars?
increased control of trade and commerce in the mediterranean sea
What c/s started the first punic war?
Messina
How long to the PUNIC WARS last (all of them)
over a century
What advantages did Carthage have in the first punic war?
larger, wealthier and a more dominating navy
How did the Romans create a navy?
They found an abandoned Carthaginian warship, and maybe 100 duplicates in 2 months
Who won the sea battles in the first punic war?
Rome won every one
Who won the first punic war?
Rome
What did Carthage have to do after losing the 1st punic war?
they had to pay a large indemnity
Who dominated the Second Punic War?
Hannibal
What strategy did Hannibal use that was never done before?
He crossed the Rhone River, then across te Pyrenees through Southern Gaul and finally the Alps
How many of Hannibal's men survived after his voyage?
1/2
Why was Cannae such a horrible defeat for the Romans?
50,000 Romans lost to 6,000 Carthaginians
How come Hannibal never attacked Rome?
he didn't have the equipment to invade Rome
How long was Hannibal unbeaten for?
12 years
What was Rome's strategy in the second punic war?
they cut off Hannibal's supply lines and attacked Carthage
Who defeated Carthage?
Scipio
What did Hannibal do when the Romans were sure to win?
He fled
Why did Hannibal flee?
He made a promise to his father that he would never surrender to Rome
After the Second Punic War how did Carthage come to some wealth?
trading of olives and wine
What happened when Carthage defended themselves against the Numidians?
They violated there treaty with Rome, and Carthage was destroyed
What did Rome do to Carthage land to make sure no one could ever live there?
They sowed salt in there soil so nothing could ever grow
What were the results of the Punic Wars?(its long so just have an idea)
1.Rome is undisputed masters of mediterranean. 2. The new conquests provided the necessary materials for further expansion. 3. Creation of Roman Navy. 4.Victory encouraged the Romans to pursue imperialism. 5.Roman victory helped lay the foundation for European civilization
Nobiles?
men whose families were elected to more important political offices of the Republic
Navus Homo?
when a new man won consulship, he and his family became members of the oligarchy
Optimates?
aristocratic leaders who tended to be nobiles who controlled the senate and wished to maintain oligarchical privileges
Populares?
aristocratic leaders who used peoples assemblies as an instrument to dominate the optimates
Latifundia?
large estates developed by taking over state owned land and buying of peasant lands
What are three good things Tiberius Graccus did?
redistribution of land, enacts and old law fro 367 b.c., limiting land ownership to 300 acres
What were the things in Caesars reform?
Julian Calendar, appoints himself dictator for life, reduced debt obligations of poor, public works