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Extended period when glaciers covered most of the North American
Staple crop that formed the economic foundation of Native American
Important ancient Anasazi Indian center in New Mexico that included a
pueblo of six hundred interconnected rooms.
First European nation to send explorers around the west coast of
Flourishing West African Kingdom that had a major Islamic university
in the city of Timbuktu.
Mistaken term that the first European explorers gave to American lands
because of the false belief that they were off the coast of Asia
Animal introduced by Europeans that transformed the Indian way of life
on the Great Plains
one of the major European diseases that devastated Native
American populations after 1492.
Sexually transmitted disease originating in the Americans that was
transmitted and spread among Europeans after 1492.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Treaty that proclaimed a Spanish title to lands in the Americas by
dividing them with Portugal
Wealthy and populous capital of the Aztec empire
Term for a person of mixed European and Indian ancestry
A major Pueblo uprising of 1680 caused by Spanish efforts to suppress
the Indians' religious practices.
Spanish term for the night of June 30, 1520, when war began between
Aztecs and Spanish, leading to Spanish conquest of Mexico.
Roman Catholic religious order of friars that organized a chain of
missions in California
Ferdinand and Isabella
Financiers and beneficiaries of Columbus's voyages to the New World
Cortes and Pizarro
Spanish conquerors of great Indian civilizations
Inland sea left by melting glaciers whose remnant is the Great Salt Lake
Dias and da Gama
Portuguese navigators who sailed around the African Coast
Italian-born explorer who thought that he had arrived off the coast of Asia rather than on unknown continents
Female Indian slave who served as interpreter for Cortés
Powerful Aztec monarch who fell to Spanish Conquerors
Legendary founder of the powerful Iroquois Confederacy.
Founded in 1565, the oldest continually inhabited European settlement in United States territory
Italian-born navigator sent by English to explore North American coast in 1498
Franciscan missionary who settled California
Bartolome de las Casas
Dominican friar who sympathized with Indians and protested cruel Spanish policies in the New World