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27 terms

Chapter 1

STUDY
PLAY
Ice Age
Extended period when glaciers covered most of the North American
Continent.
corn
Staple crop that formed the economic foundation of Native American
Civilizations
Chico Canyon
Important ancient Anasazi Indian center in New Mexico that included a
pueblo of six hundred interconnected rooms.
Portugal
First European nation to send explorers around the west coast of
Africa.
Mali
Flourishing West African Kingdom that had a major Islamic university
in the city of Timbuktu.
Indians
Mistaken term that the first European explorers gave to American lands
because of the false belief that they were off the coast of Asia
horse
Animal introduced by Europeans that transformed the Indian way of life
on the Great Plains
smallpox
one of the major European diseases that devastated Native
American populations after 1492.
syphilis
Sexually transmitted disease originating in the Americans that was
transmitted and spread among Europeans after 1492.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Treaty that proclaimed a Spanish title to lands in the Americas by
dividing them with Portugal
Tenochtitlan
Wealthy and populous capital of the Aztec empire
mestizo
Term for a person of mixed European and Indian ancestry
Pepe's Rebellion
A major Pueblo uprising of 1680 caused by Spanish efforts to suppress
the Indians' religious practices.
noche triste
Spanish term for the night of June 30, 1520, when war began between
Aztecs and Spanish, leading to Spanish conquest of Mexico.
Franciscans
Roman Catholic religious order of friars that organized a chain of
missions in California
Ferdinand and Isabella
Financiers and beneficiaries of Columbus's voyages to the New World
Cortes and Pizarro
Spanish conquerors of great Indian civilizations
Lake Bonneville
Inland sea left by melting glaciers whose remnant is the Great Salt Lake
Dias and da Gama
Portuguese navigators who sailed around the African Coast
Columbus
Italian-born explorer who thought that he had arrived off the coast of Asia rather than on unknown continents
Malinche
Female Indian slave who served as interpreter for Cortés
Montezuma
Powerful Aztec monarch who fell to Spanish Conquerors
Hiawatha
Legendary founder of the powerful Iroquois Confederacy.
St. Augustine
Founded in 1565, the oldest continually inhabited European settlement in United States territory
John Cabot
Italian-born navigator sent by English to explore North American coast in 1498
Junipero Serra
Franciscan missionary who settled California
Bartolome de las Casas
Dominican friar who sympathized with Indians and protested cruel Spanish policies in the New World