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Skeletal and Muscular Systems
Why are bones hard?
because they contain minerals, mainly phosphorus and calcium
What are the bones in your moveable joints held together with?
What are the 3 types of muscles?
smooth, cardiac and skeletal
What does the periosteum look like?
it is soft and thin but tough layer that covers all ends of bones, contains nerves and blood vessels
What is the function of periosteum?
it covers and protects the bone
What is the function of the compact bone?
provide structure, stores minerals, allows body to resist stress and compaction
What does the compact bone look like?
hard,dense part of bone, but not solid, contains blood vessels and nerves
What do ball and socket joints allow you to do?
it allows you to have the greatest range of motion, for instance: the ball and socket in your shoulder allows you to swing your arm freely in a circle (going up to bat)
What does the spongy bone look like?
porous, looks like a sponge with small spaces, found at the end of bones
What does the marrow look like?
soft, thick jelly like substance
What is the function of the marrow?
makes blood cells, helps with growth, stores fat
What is the function of the spongy (cancellous) bone?
stores the bone marrow, provides bone with light weight structure and strength
What is the role of cartilage?
it covers the ends of bones, reduces friction and cushions the joint
What is a voluntary muscle?
under your conscience control, example: smiling
What affects a lifetime of healthy bones?
your diet and exercise
What are the major sturctures of the skeletal system?
bones, cartilage, ligaments and tendons
What are the major functions of the skeletal system?
provides shape and support, enables you to move, protects your organs, produces blood cells, stores minerals and other materials
what are the major functions of the muscular system?
protects organs, enables movement, provides shape and support
What are the major structures of the muscular system?
the muscles (3 types: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth) and the tendons
What is an involuntary muscle?
not under your conscious control example: digesting food
What type of muscles are voluntary?
Where are many smooth muscles found?
in our internal organs Example: stomach, diaphragm
Which muscles are automatic and has some characteristics of both smooth and skeletal muscle?
What muscles are only the involuntary type?
cardiac and some smooth
What are some common bone diseases?
osteoporosis - bones lose density and minerals
arthritis - joint become stiff and difficult to move
What are some common skeletal injuries?
a sprain (most common), fracture, dislocation
What are the pros and cons of an MRI?
Pros: can detect soft tissue, detailed images, does not harm cells
Cons: expensive, can take a long time
What are the pros and cons of an X-Ray?
Pros: fast, cheap
Cons: can not detect soft tissue, harms body cells
Where are gliding joints found?
spine, wrist and ankle
Where are pivot joints found?
neck and arm
Where hinge joints found?
elbow and knee
Where are immovable joints found?
skull and pelvis