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Australia and Oceania

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archipelago
a set of closely grouped islands, sometimes forming an arc
oceania
group of pacific islands
high islands
created by a volcano
low islands
created by a coral reef
great barrier reef
the worlds largest coral reef; 1,250 miles long; 2,500 reefs; 400 types of coral
voyaging canoes
developed by pacific islanders with double hulls; carries lots of weight; has sails that take advantage of the winds
outrigger canoe
has a frame with an atached float; used in lagoons of islands; float helps balance canoe
atoll
ringlike coral island or string of small islands surrounding a lagoon
bikini atoll
testing site U.S. atomic weapons; still radioactive
micronesia
means tiny islands
melanesia
means black islands
polynesia
means many islands
subsistence activities
Activity in which a family produces only the food, clothing, and shelter for themselves.
copra
dried coconut meat
penal colony
place to send prisoners
aboriginal people
natives of australia;migrated to Australia 40,000 years ago from asia; 500 groups; 200 languages
maori
Natives of New Zealand; migrated from Polynesia 1,000 years ago; live by fishing, hunting, and farming
treaty of waitangi
in 1840; British tricked Maori into giving control of their land
pakehas
maori term for white people
assimilation
occurs when a minority group gives up its culture and takes the majorities culture
stolen generation
100,000 mixed race children taken from Aboriginal homes and given to white people as servants
Land Rights Act of 1976
gave Aboriges the right to claim land in the northern territory
Mabo case
proved that Aborigines owned the land before the British
pastoral leases
renting land from the government
Wik case
Aborigines could claim land under pastoral leases