Terms in this set (79)
how did the earliest settlers begin to arrive in the americas
they crossed the bering land bridge, or beringia, an american/asia connected by frozen land bridge. the siberian hunter gatherers migrated
what was the timeframe of that period of migration?
what was the "mother culture" of mesoamerica and why?
the olmecs; they laid the foundation for future civilizations
what kind of economy did the olmecs/zapotec have?
traditional; depended on agriculture for food & economy. they had wet/hot summers and cold/short winters which were ideal for agriculutre
what kind of culture did the olmecs/zapotec have?
warlike; they used obsidian weapons
what religion were the olmecs/zapotec?
polytheistic , animistic, belief in sun god and ritual bloodletting
what is the social hierarchy of the olmec/zapotec society?
kings and priests on top
nobles and warriors next
peasants, slaves, war captives on bottom
NO TRUE MIDDLE CLASS
what was the time frame of the mother culture?
1200-100 BCE 1st known civilization
what was the time frame of the zapotec civilization?
what did the zapotec feature
urban planning, plazas, marketplaces, palaces (evidence of urban planning) BALL COURTS, a population of 25k
what were the olmec heads was evidence of what?
religious beliefs .. glorification of the kings and gods
what was the ball court evidence of?
entertainment and maybe politics? ( as ritual that honored the conclusion of treaties )
First advanced city in Mesoamerica?
Time frame of the Maya
300BCE- 900 CE
where was the mayan civilization located
present day southern mexico and northern central america on the Yucatan Peninsula
Time frame of the aztec
1200 to 1521
where was the aztec civilization located
the valley of mexico; has very fertile soil and lakes
timeframe of the Inca
where was the incan civilization located
in the andes mountains on the pacific coast of south america
in what ways did the aztecs and incas adapt to difficult physical environments to improve agricultural production?
aztecs developed the chinampa system of agriculture ( they dredged a rich and fertile muck from the lake's bottom and built it up into small plots of land) while the Inca used terraced farming and the domestication of camel like animals
what wa the purpose for the construction of roads in mesoamerica
enabled the central govt at cuzoco to communicate with all parts of the far-flung inca empire and dispatched large military forces rapidly to distant trouble spots. two roads linked the inca realm from north to south
what else did the inca build that enabled trade and travel in the andes besides roads?
footbridges ** ? postal service? ??? bureaucratic govt?????
why can the olmec and mesoamerican religions be classified as animistic?
their worship of spirits and animals, the jaguar, and the sun god was the chief deity in their culture
bloodletting ceremonial rituals was meant to??
satisfy the gods
the extensive temple building throughout mesoamerican territories reveal they have
advanced architecture, advanced technologies, access to raw materials, and availability of labor
who was the most powerful and highly educated group in mayan society? and why
Priest class because of their knowledge of astronomy and math in order to understand the gods
why did the mayan and aztec master math and astronomy?
to create complex calendar systems
what was the ball court?
a mayan, and later aztec, arena where athletic competitions were held.
name an olmec city
name mayan capital city
tikal ; political and economic center
name aztec capital city
tenochtitlan (political, economic center, mexico city)
what cities are associated with the inca (capitals)?
cuzco (capital) , machu picchu
who were a part of the aztec empire and who did the empire control? who did they have tributary relationships with?
mexica, texcoco, and tiacopa, they controled most of mexico, they have tributary relationships with other regions and they had to pay some sort of tribute (slaves, crops, obsidian) to enter the region
what kind of culture did the aztecs have?
warlike culture. for example; they engage in mini wars with neighbors, beat them up a little and take back people to sacrifice; also the warriors have elite status. BUT they did not have metal so no strong weapons
what writing systems were there in the aztec and mayan civilizations
glyphs; very similar to hieroglyphics
what was the codex
mayan book of history, religions, astronomy
writing system of inca?
didnt have one, used the quipa (knots to record trade, populations, distance, etc)
T or F the aztec were more centralized and urban than the maya
why did the aztec and maya take war captives in war/combat?
sacrifice to gods
only mesoamerican civilization to have a complete writing system? what did they write?
maya; popul vuh (mayan creation epic)
what kind of innovative agriculture system did the mayans have
terrace farming; like the inca
advancements of the mayans?
astronomy, math, 365 day calendar (17 seconds off), architectural development
how did the mayans decline?
overpopulation, disease, internal conflict, abandonment of cities
what name of the people were there between the maya and aztec
toltecs, and mexica (aztecs)
what was the aztec empire ?? who was in it
a combination of most of mexica. texcoco, tiacopan tribes, empire controls most of mexico
innovative agriculture of aztecs??
what things did the aztecs trade?
obsidian, tropical feathers, cotton
Did the incas have a bureaucratic govt? T or F
trueeeeee!! it was established and ruled by a king
how did the aztec civilization decline???
The SPANISH were amazed at aztec centralization and urban development, especially tenochtitlan, and desired their gold and sugar crops (natural resources). they brought diseases; small pox kills population, they also have superior weapons since aztecs only have obsidian weapons whereas the spanish have guns, steel, and canons..................
in 1519-21 Hernan cortes came to aztec territory and spanish alliances with anti aztec tribes (who were oppressed by aztec overlords and were targets of sacrifice), they support rebellion and work together to overthrow the aztec govt
how did the inca decline?
spanish conquest of pizarro who was impressed by the wealth of kings (atahualpa from document); *constant warfare and intro to new diseases led to decline ( or maybe just the aztecs idk)
T or F the inca were more developed than aztecs
differences between writing systems of aztec, inca, and maya?
aztec and mayan are similar to hieroglyphics and are pictographic inscriptions whereas the inca used the quipa rope system
By the middle of the fifteenth century, the Mexica had formed a triple alliance with
Texcoco and Tlacopan.
how was life for inca women different than in aztec and maya?
women preformed tribute in the form of textiles, pottery, and jewelry in inca, for most they did housework and rearing of children... women's main roles in aztec and maya was to obey men (?)
did the inca have sacrifice?
what groups made up a majority of the mesoamerican populations?
similarities between all civilizations
traditional ecnomy, climate zones, warlike culture, social hierarchy,
ball court purpose
to gain sacrificial victims and entertainment
how was the inca treatment of deceased rulers similar to egypts
they mummified them after death
after civilization of maya declined... what happened?
they were abandoned
were social hierarchies of mesoamerica strict?
ummmmmmmmmm i guess
what was the most important mesoamerican god
how were mayan cities similar to indus RV cities
relating to, or believing in the principle that all people are equal and deserve equal rights and opportunities.
relating to theocracy, ruled by a priest or religious leader
was the mayan and olmec a theocratic?
Yes, kings represented gods
monte alban was a city in...
maya society and politics was organized by....
a collection of city states
aztec society and politics were centralized control of various tribes through
the feathered serpeny who was borrowed from the toltecs (maya) and believed to be defeated by another god and exiled and he promised to return
possibly most important god in mesoamerica???
islands of pacific ocean basin
people who began to explore and settle on the islands of the pacific ocean basin
the earliest austronesian migrants to sail out into the blue water of the pacific ocean and establish settlements
nickname for the olmecs
the rubber people (bc rubber trees)
staple crop of olmecs
central american sociey that was centered around the city of tula (i think it has something to do with maya?)
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