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English Language Arts and Reading 4-8 (117)
Terms in this set (31)
Basic Linguistic Concepts
Linguistics is the study of these knowledge systems in all their aspects: how is such a knowledge system structured, how is it acquired, how is it used in the production and comprehension of messages, how does it change over time? Linguists consequently are concerned with a number of particular questions about the nature of language
Phonemes - (The sounds represented by "c" and "b" are different phonemes, as in the words "cat" and "bat.")
the smallest unit of speech that can be used to make one word different from another word
Segmentation - (sun = s/u/n)
the process of dividing something into parts or segments
Phonetics - (a.Auditory Phonetics: The study of speech perception and how the brain forms perceptual representations of the input it receives during the course of communication.
b.Articulatory Phonetics: The study of the positions and movements of the lips, tongue, vocal tract, and other speech organs.
c.Acoustic Phonetics: The study of the properties of the sound waves and how they are perceived by the inner ear.)
the study of speech sounds in their physical aspects
the study of the speech sounds used in a language
Semantics - (One of the central issues with semantics is the distinction between literal meaning and figurative meaning. With literal meaning, we take concepts at face value (i.e. If we said, 'Fall began with the turning of the leaves,' we would mean that the season began to change when the leaves turned colors.) Figurative meaning utilizes similes and metaphors to represent meaning and to convey greater emotion. (i.e. 'I'm as hungry as a bear' would be a simile and a comparison to show a great need for sustenance.)
the study of meaning
Syntax - (In casual conversations, we can simply say, "I cannot go out" to convey our inability to go out. P J Kavanagh's in his poem Beyond Decoration does not rely on merely stating a prosaic "I cannot go out". Rather, he shifts the syntax and says "Go out I cannot", which lays a much stronger emphasis on the inability to go out conveyed by the word "cannot".)
is a set of rules in a language. It dictates how words from different parts of speech are put together in order to convey a complete thought.
dealing with the problems that exist in a specific situation in a reasonable and logical way instead of depending on ideas and theories
Knows characteristics and uses of informal and formal oral language
assessments and uses multiple, ongoing assessments to monitor and
evaluate students' oral language skills.
Select and use multiple and varied assessments before, during, and after instruction to guide instruction and monitor progress.
Interpret the results of formal and informal reading assessments, and use results to know when in-depth evaluation and additional intervention are warranted.
Use assessment results to help design instruction that promotes reading skills by building on strengths and addressing needs for students who are English Language Learners.
Use assessment results to help design instruction that promotes reading skills by building on strengths and addressing needs for students with reading difficulties, dyslexia, and reading disabilities.
Phonological and Phonemic Awareness
Know expected stages and patterns in the development of phonological and phonemic awareness, implications of individual variations in the development of phonological and phonemic awareness, and instructional sequences that develop and accelerate students' phonological and phonemic awareness and are based on a convergence of research evidence.
Know when student delays or differences in phonological and phonemic awareness warrant additional assessment, evaluation, and intervention.
Phonological and Phonemic Awareness
Provide explicit, systematic instruction and reinforcing activities in phonological and phonemic awareness.
Plan, implement, and monitor instruction that is responsive to individual students' strengths, needs, and interests and is based on ongoing informal and formal assessment of individual students' phonological and phonemic awareness.
Select and use instructional materials and strategies that reflect both cultural diversity and an awareness of instructional progressions that are based on a convergence of research evidence and that promote students' phonological and phonemic awareness.
Graphophonemic Knowledge is the recognition of letters and the understanding of sound-symbol relationships and spelling patterns. Graphophonemic Knowledge is often referred to as phonics. Instructions
Emergent literacy is a term that is used to explain a child's knowledge of reading and writing skills before they learn how to read and write words. It signals a belief that, in literate society, young children—even one- and two-year olds—are in the process of becoming literate.
"Conventional readers and writers read and write in ways that most people in our literate society recognize as 'really' reading and writing. For example, they use a variety of reading strategies, know hundreds of sight words, read texts written in a variety of structures, are aware of audience, monitor their own performances as writers and readers, and spell conventionally." (p. 30)
Sight words is a common term in reading that has a variety of meanings. When it is applied to early reading instruction, it typically refers to the set of about 100 words that keeps reappearing on almost any page of text.Apr 20, 2011
a systematic means of communicating by the use of sounds or conventional symbols; "he taught foreign languages";
have data which support the conclusions made from the test. We usually refer to these types of tests as standardized measures. These tests have been tried before on students and have statistics which support the conclusion such as the student is reading below average for his age. The data is mathematically computed and summarized. Scores such as percentiles, stanines, or standard scores are mostly commonly given from this type of assessment.
are not data driven but rathercontent and performance driven. For example, running records are informal assessments because they indicate how well a student is reading a specific book. Scores such as 10 correct out of 15, percent of words read correctly, and most rubric scores; are given from this type of assessment.
• Know the relationship between reading fluency and comprehension. • Know expected patterns of development in reading fluency (including benchmarks for fluency for typical students at each developmental stage), implications of individual variations in the development of fluency, and instructional sequences that develop and accelerate students' fluency and are based on a convergence of research evidence. • Know when student delays or differences in reading fluency warrant further assessment and additional intervention.
Plan, implement, and monitor instruction that is responsive to individual students' strengths, needs, and interests and is based on ongoing informal and formal assessment of individual students' reading fluency. • Select and use instructional materials and strategies that reflect both cultural diversity and an awareness of instructional progressions that are based on a convergence of research evidence and that promote students' reading fluency. • Provide explicit, systematic instruction and reinforcing activities to promote students' reading fluency.
Alphabetic Principle - (
The alphabetic principle is the understanding that there are systematic and predictable relationships between written letters and spoken sounds
is the understanding of the letters in the alphabet, the relationship between sounds and symbols, and the basic morphological elements of language, word reading, and spelling. Students with graphophonemic knowledge can decode words and are aware of the irregular words that do not follow the conventional rules of spelling or pronunciation.
Decoding - (please read the following words aloud: dog, table, jump)
Decoding refers to the process of translating a printed word into a sound. First, please read the following words aloud: dog, table, jump. This is an example of decoding regular words, and is sometimes called word identification skills
Metacognition is the process of thinking about thinking. It is the process of developing self-awareness and the
ability to self-assess. It is contemplation about one's education and learning -- past, present, and future. Since
adults are largely self-determining, helping them develop metacognitive skills is an essential element in any
program intended to increase their autonomy
to mix or combine words or sentences
is the way that parts of a word are interpreted to form the entire word. Structural analysis can help readers determine the way a word is pronounced and the way that it is being used in a sentence
Site Word Vocabulary - (a, not, did, was)
often also called high frequency sight words, are commonly used words that young children are encouraged to memorize as a whole by sight, so that they can automatically recognize these words in print without having to use any strategies to decode.
High-Frequency Irregular Words
are techniques teachers use to help students become independent, strategic learners. These strategies become learning strategies when students independently select the appropriate ones and use them effectively to accomplish tasks or meet goals. Instructional strategies can:
Stage I: Kindergarten
Pre-phonetic Spellers - (read aloud and often
• display words in students'
environment and label
• create big books and picture
• use dictations and experience
• have students chant and choral
read familiar stories and dictations
• have students categorize words by
• develop word bags or banks)
use random strings of letter-like
forms and scribbles to represent
• use a few letters repeatedly
• mix upper and lower case letters,
but show preference for upper case
• write randomly on page
• show no understanding of soundsymbol
• produce text not readable by others
Stage II: Elementary Grade 1-5
Phonetic Spellers - (have students develop word
families for basic vowel sounds in
• discuss and have students practice
identifying the spelling patterns
and sounds heard in words
• have students identify familiar
words with one and two syllables
• use the cloze procedure with
• use word bags or banks)
are aware of sound-symbol
• represent all essential sound
features of a word
• use blends, consonant digraphs, and
long vowel patterns
• have some sight words
• leave spaces between words
Stage III: Grade 6-9
Transitional Spellers - (review common consonant and
• have students sort familiar pasttense
words by the ending sound
• focus on the connection between
vowel spelling and spelling
changes when adding ing or ed
• have students do simple word
• encourage and provide
opportunities for regular writing
• have students develop personal
• have students proofread their own
and others' writing have students identify their own
• have students look for spelling
patterns in two, three-, and foursyllable
use basic word conventions and
• begin to use morphological and
visual strategies in addition to
phonetic information to determine
spellings of unfamiliar words
• demonstrate greater understanding
of vowel digraphs, long vowel
patterns, diphthongs, and
• often include all necessary letters in
a word, but reverse some use alternate spellings for the same
sound in different words, but do not
fully understand the conventions
that dictate these differences
• begin to make meaning-spelling
• spell many words correctly
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
TEXES 117: ELAR 4-8th
English Language Arts & Reading, 4-8, 117
Generalist 4-8, Competency 003, Word Identificatio…
TExES Generalist 4 - 8 English Section
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