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PSYC231 Module 3
Terms in this set (77)
What did they do in the mental rotation experiment
-look at 2 block figures
-decide if they are the same
What are the 5 steps that are included in the mental rotation task?
What did the find with the mental rotation task?
Steady increase in time it takes for people to decide if they're different, actual slope for the experiment straight
Which of the 5 steps does the slope between RT and angle of rotation represent? And what does the Y intercept represent?
Y intercept - encode, compare, decide and response
What is the actual unit for the slope on the mental rotation experiment?
Measured second per degree
What would the slope look like for the mental rotation of simpler objects?
RT would be faster therefore the slope would be more shallow
What was found with the image scanning experiment?
The further the two points were on a map, the longer it takes people to be in one place and imagine another
What was the conclusion drawn from the image scanning experiment?
It takes people longer to see across a further distance mentally
What was the conclusion on the image scanning experiment?
We see the mental world behave like the physical world
What were the results of the size effects in imagery experiment?
People's answered questions about their mental images faster if they had a larger mental image of a bunny
What was the conclusion of the size effects in imagery experiment?
We use physical laws of the world regarding size in our mental imagery
What kind of task did the interactions between perception and imagery experiment involve?
What were the manipulations in the interactions between perception and imagery experiment?
Manipulated whether the letter that is imagined matched the letter shown in the box
What were the results for the interactions between perceptions and imagery experiment?
People had faster RT time when the letter was consistent with the one in the box than inconsistent
In the interactions between perception and imagery experiment, what did a consistent manipulation imply and what did an inconsistent manipulation imply?
Consistent - thought primed perception
Inconsistent - perception competes with thought
Does perception or thought win in a completion for attention?
What is an example of when thought wins over perception
Is mental space infinite?
No, it has a limited capacity and behaves as it if we're vision
What are the names of the people in the imagery debate?
Steven Kosslyn and Zenon Pylyshyn
How does Steven Kosslyn believe knowledge is represented?
Knowledge is represented as spatial
How does Zenon Pylyshyn believe knowledge is represented?
Knowledge is represented as propositional
What are the disadvantages of photos, paintings etc
They are only representations of the real thing, they will only represent some aspects but not all of them
What was yet basis of Pylyshyns argument for knowledge represented as propositional?
We can give a verbal description of an object without mental imagery of the object, you can construct a mental image when asked to
What is a proposition?
Abstract knowledge structures that somehow we represent in our brain
What did Pylyshyn believe we are doing when we are answering questions about items on a boat?
We are not making a mental image of the boat, we are creating a knowledge structure about it. Concepts of the objects are linked, length of time to acknowledge an object on a boat depends on the number of links between the concepts
What are some evidence for propositions?
- Ambiguous figures are hard to "flip" in imagery (Chalmers and Reisberg 1985)
- People without imagery can still answer imagery based questions
What was Kosslyn's conclusion of the dot and arrow task?
There is no time to memorize the distance as a proposition, must be using scanning of the mental image
How can we investigate whether perception and imagery share similar mechanisms in the brain?
- brain damage patients
- transcranial magnetic stimulation
What did we find with hemi-spatial neglect patients in the drawing task?
Their mental images have the same loss as their perception
What did we find with hemi-spatial neglect patients in the cathedral task?
They will only describe one side of their mental image, when imagining they are standing on the opposite end their mental image is of the other side
Can we have a double dissociation in perception and mental imagery?
What is the evidence of double dissociation for mental imagery and perception?
Patient CK - visual agnosia, can draw objects from memory but not when performing objects
Patient RM - can draw object when perceiving it, not from memory
If there is a double dissociation between mental imagery and perception, what can we conclude about hemi spatial neglect patients?
They have a problem with both perception from the world and retrieval/simulation from memory
What did they find when conducting neuroimaging during perceiving and mental imagery tasks?
Perception engages with the visual cortex heavily while mental imagery does not
What were the results of the TMS experiment?
RT for answering questions increased when zapped with TMS
What can we conclude form the TMS experiment?
When you disrupt visual pathways, you disrupt ability to engage in mental imagery- causal relationship between seeing and imagining
What is evidence for communication in another species?
Honeybees can communicate direction, distance and amount of honey in an area through their honeybee dance
What are the 4 universal feature of linguistics that distinguish language from communication systems?
What are the five units of language?
What are the basic units of sound?
How do phonemes differ?
In place, voicing and manner
What is phonemic competence?
Extensive knowledge of the rules of permissible English sound combinations
What did the find with the wug test?
Children knew what phoneme to use to create a plural for wug, children have phonemic competence
How are sound waves created when speaking?
Air molecules are hit with the vibrations from the vocal chords, which causes vibrations in the air molecules, causing rarefactions and compressions
What does a spectrogram show?
It is a map of energy that's in the sound wave
What is frequency?
How fast sound waves are compressing in and out
How is frequency created?
What are the features shown in a spectrogram?
The fundamental frequency and formats
How is noise created?
When all frequencies are combined together, when there is no pattern in sound
In what part of a word do for manta mostly occur?
In vowels - open tones
How are consonants usually shown in spectrograms?
Thy have frequencies all the way up and down the spectrum, seen as noise
What are three problems with speech perception?
- phonemes are altered by surrounding phonemes ( coarticulation)
- individual voices vary
What is the problem with segmentation?
Pauses happen within a word than between words
What is the problem with coarticulation?
We hear 2 different letters as if they are the same
What is categorical perception?
Physical different sounds are all put in the same phonemic category and all heard as the same speech sound
What are four characteristics that account for voice variation?
- dialect/ accent
What are the threes solutions to speech perception?
- Language experience
- Visual cues
What is the irony in becoming a good speech hearer?
Losing your ability to discriminate between similar sounds
How do children learn words associated with objects?
Statistical mapping - particular chunks of sound are always around when a particular object is around
What did Millar and Isard conclude?
Speech processing is conceptually driven, we are able to use sense of meaning to prepare for the next word ( priming due to context)
What did Pollack and Pickett (1964) do to test the importance of context? (isolate words)
Isolate the word "think" in the sentence "I don't think so" and played it to participants
What did Pollack and Pickett conclude (context, isolate words)?
When you lose the context, you lose the ability to identify speech
What did Wheeler (1977) do to to test the importance of context?
Replace a phoneme with a cough in a word of a sentence and manipulated the end of the sentence with different pbjects
What two things did Wheeler find? (cough)
Found that participants replaced the cough with a phoneme that created a word to match the context of the last word given in the sentence.
Also found that most participants could not specifically point out what phoneme was missing in the sentence
What two things did Wheeler conclude? (cough)
- context is a conceptually driven process
- phonemic restoration effect - allows one to "hear" the missing phoneme/letter within a word ( mind creates the missing sound as if you physically heard it)
What is the McGurk effect?
Speech processing uses auditory input and visual input and fuses them together to make about brains best guess as to what is being said
Does speech use only the auditory sense?
No, speech is multisensory
What are morphemes?
A string of phonemes that has meaning
What two types of morphemes can you have?
- Root morpheme (stand alone)
- Bound morpheme (prefix and suffix)
How is language productive ( using reference to morphemes)?
You can combine into unique words that may have never been said before, and you can combine words into sentences in unique ways that may have never been said beofre
What are the two types of words?
- content words ( have meaning)
- function words ( link content words in sentences/ support syntax)
What were the findings of Swinneys experiment? (ambiguous)
People are equally fast at recognising 'spy' and 'ant' as a word associated with the ambiguous word "bug" even when primed for one, if there is no delay between offset of spoken word and onset of visual word (shorter SOA). However, they found priming for a particular word that had previous context when there was a delay between offset of spoken word and on set of visual word (longer SOA)
What are four examples of figurative meaning?
What did Swinney (1979) conclude? (ambiguous)
At short SOA all meanings are activated (automatic)
At longer SOA we use the context to access the right meaning (controlled)
What did Lakoff and Johnson conclude about metaphors?
Metaphors are grounded in cognition, abstract concepts need to be represented in a concrete way
How do we appropriated meaning without context?
We use meaning dominance to select an interpretation of an ambiguous word
What is syntax?
The set of rules that govern how a language combines words into sentences
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