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72 terms

Cranial Nerves

The name and function of the 12 cranial nerves
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I
Olfactory
Sensory
What categories does Nerve I have?
Sensory: smell
What does Nerve I do?
II
Optic
III
Oculomotor
IV
Trochlear
V
Trigeminal
VI
Abducens
VII
Facial
VIII
Vestibulocochlear
IX
Glossopharyngeal
X
Vagus
XI
Accessory
XII
Hypoglossal
Sensory
What categories does Nerve II have?
Motor, Parasympathetic
What categories does Nerve III have?
Motor
What categories does Nerve IV have?
Sensory, Motor
What categories does Nerve V have?
Motor
What categories does Nerve VI have?
Sensory, Motor, Parasympathetic
What categories does Nerve VII have?
Sensory
What categories does Nerve VIII have?
Sensory, Motor, Parasympathetic
What categories does Nerve IX have?
Sensory, Motor, Parasympathetic
What categories does Nerve X have?
Motor
What categories does Nerve XI have?
Motor
What categories does Nerve XII have?
Sensory: vision
What does Nerve II do?
Motor: contracts medial rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye.
Parasympathetic: contracts intrinsic muscles of eye for near vision and pupil constriction
What does Nerve III do?
Motor: contracts superior oblique muscle(eye)
What does Nerve IV do?
Sensory: touch from face/upper cranium
Motor: moves mandible (chewing; speech)
What does Nerve V do?
Motor: contracts lateral rectus muscle (eye)
What does Nerve VI do?
Sensory: taste(anterior 2/3 of tongue)
Motor: facial expression
Parasympathetic: salivary glands; lacrimal glands
What does Nerve VII do?
Sensory: hearing and balance.
What does Nerve VIII do?
Sensory: taste (posterior 1/3 of tongue)
Motor: swallowing
Parasympathetic: salivary glands.
What does Nerve IX do?
Sensory: taste; sensory from thoracic and abdominal organs
Motor: tongue and throat
Parasympathetic: decreases heart rate; increases digestion
What does Nerve X do?
Motor: contract sternocleidomastoid and trapezius
What does Nerve XI do?
Motor: contracts extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of tongue
What does Nerve XII do?
Olfactory (I)
Optic (II)
Oculomotor (III)
Trochlear (IV)
Trigeminal (V)
Abducens (VI)
Facial (VII)
Vestibulocochlear (VIII)
Glossopharyngeal (IX)
Vagus (X)
Accessory (XI)
Hypoglossal (XII)
Medulla Oblongata
Where does Vestibulocochlear (VIII) originate?
Loss of hearing, and issues with sense of balance, vertigo.
What happens when you damage Vestibulocochlear (VIII)?
Medulla Oblongata
Where does Glossopharyngeal (IX) originate?
Loss of "gag reflex"
What happens when you damage Glossopharyngeal (IX)?
Medulla Oblongata
Where does Vagus (X) originate?
Sometimes "overactive", and affects the stomach, which causes the stomach to overproduce acid. This can lead to ulcers.
What happens when you damage Vagus (X)?
Medulla Oblongata
Where does Accessory (XI) originate?
Shoulder drop, generally due to the fault in Trapezius.
What happens when you damage Accessory (XI)?
Medulla Oblongata
Where does Hypoglossal (XII) originate?
Tongue cannot stick out tongue straight when asked to stick it out.
What happens when you damage Hypoglossal (XII)?
Pons
Where does Trigeminal (V) originate?
Trigeminal Neuralgia (tic douloureux): When, for an unknown reason, the trigeminal nerve freaks out and causes intense, random excruciating.
What happens when you damage Trigeminal (V)?
Pons
Where does Abducens (VI) originate?
Eye cannot move to the side, or laterally.
What happens when you damage Abducens (VI)?
Pons
Where does Facial Nerve (VII) originate?
Bell's palsy: Cannot smile on one half of the body, taste is altered, facial expression inactive on one side, eyes may also start to dry out. Generally goes away, but we don't really know what causes it.
What happens when you damage Facial Nerve (VII)?
Midbrain
Where does Olfactory (I) originate?
Loss of the sense of smell.
What happens when you damage Olfactory (I)?
Midbrain
Where does Optic (II) originate?
Loss of vision out of one eye, if you cover up the non-damaged eye they can see nothing.
What happens when you damage Optic (II)?
Midbrain
Where does Oculomotor (III) originate?
Difficulty in moving at least one eye, droopy eyelids, abducted a little bit in general, since lateral rectus is still working. Also generally have pupil dilation.
What happens when you damage Oculomotor (III)?
Midbrain
Where does Trochlear (IV) originate?
Downward gaze of the eye, head will often be tilted simply to compensate for the weakness and the downward gaze. Find it rather tricky when going down stairs.
What happens when you damage Trochlear (IV)?