Civics Finals 2015: Lessons 15 & 27
Terms in this set (42)
A change in or addition to a document.
The power of the courts to say that the Constitution does not allow the government to do something.
Independence, freedom, or the right to self-governance.
Classes or categories of individuals
Under most legal systems members of certain classes or categories of individuals within a society are recognized in the law as holding certain rights. For example, laws may grant such rights to children, the mentally ill or disabled, veterans, and those who hold professional qualifications, such as teachers, doctors, attorneys, building contractors, and airplane pilots
Rights essential to citizens that allow them to earn a living, to acquire and transfer property, and to produce, buy, and sell goods and services in open and free markets.
Those rights that prohibit government from acting in certain ways; rights that are not to be interfered with.
Rights that allow a person to do as he or she wishes so long as those actions are consistent with the public order and do not interfere with the rights of others.
All rights of a citizen in a free society that are clearly expressed and guaranteed by the Constitution and implied by natural laws.
Those rights that require overt government action, as opposed to negative rights that require government not to act in specified ways. Examples of positive rights are those to public education and, in some cases, to medical care, old age pensions, food, or housing.
Moral or legal claims justified in ways that are generally accepted within a society or the international community.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution. It lists some basic rights of the people that the federal government may not interfere with and must protect.
English Bill of Rights
An act passed by Parliament in 1689 that limited the power of the monarch. This document established Parliament as the most powerful branch of the English government.
This document, also known as the Great Charter, was agreed to by King John of England in 1215 at the demand of his barons. The Magna Carta granted certain civil rights and liberties to English nobles, such as the right to a jury of one's peers and the guarantee against loss of life, liberty, or property, except in accordance with law. In doing so, it also limited the power of the monarch. The document is a landmark in the history of limited constitutional government.
Virginia Declaration of Rights
The first state declaration of rights, adopted on June 12, 1776, which served as a model for other state declarations of rights and the Bill of Rights and influenced the Declaration of Independence.
Freedom of religion (establishment & free exercise clauses), speech, press, assembly, and petition.
Right to arm bears. Regulated miltia is neccessary to the security of a free country
Restricts quartering of troops in private homes.
No "unreasonable" searches and seizures without a warrant or probable cause that a search will produce evidence of a crime; Exclusionary Rule.
Right of Accused Persons/ Indictment of Grand Jury (1) No Self-Incrimination (Miranda) (2) No Double Jeopardy (defendant cannot be tried again on the same, or similar charges) (3) No deprivation of life liberty or property without "due process of law" (fair treatment) (4) Eminent domain.
The right to counsel in criminal trials (1) Speedy and public trial (2) Accused must be told charges (3) right to counsel (free lawyer if poor) (4) right to jury in criminal cases.
Right to jury in civil trials.
Government cannot inflict cruel and unusual punishment or excessive bail. Meaning of "cruel" based on "evolving standards of decency that mark the progress of a maturing society." Categorical bans on death penalty: juveniles, retarded, non-murder crimes...
Unenumerated Rights Amendment. Citizens have unenumerated rights in addition to those stated in the Constitution. Not been developed by Supreme Court. Not everything can be written down.
Powers not expressly given to federal government by the Constitution are reserved to states or the people. Also known as "reserved powers amendment" or "states' rights amendment"
One State cannot be sued by another state
federal courts from hearing cases lodged against a state.
Separation of votes for President and Vice President.
Abolished slavery. First of three "Reconstruction Amendments" passed after Civil War (1865-70)
(1) All persons born in the U.S. are citizens; (2) no person can be deprived of life, liberty or property without DUE PROCESS OF LAW; (3) no state can deprive a person of EQUAL PROTECTION of the laws. Second of three "Reconstruction Amendments" passed after Civil War.
States cannot deny any person the right to vote because of race. Third of three "Reconstruction Amendments" passed after Civil War. First Voting Rights Amendment (with 19, 24 & 26).
Gives Congress the power of income tax.
Established the direct election of senators (instead of being chosen by state legislatures).
Prohibition of alcohol.
States cannot deny the right to vote based on gender.
Congress begins on January 30th; President starts on January 20th.
Repeal of Prohibition.
Limits the president to two terms.
Gives Washington DC electoral college votes as if it were a state (DC still has no representation in Congress).
Abolishes poll taxes.
(1) Succession of VP if president dies or become incapable to do his job. (2) if there is no VP, president must appoint one, and congress must approve.
States cannot deny the right to vote based on age (18+).
Congressional pay raises are not begin until the next election.
Civil War amendments
Thirteenth Amendment, Fourteenth Amendment & Fifteenth Amendment: 13 -Abolished slavery. First of three "Reconstruction Amendments" passed after Civil War (1865-70). 14- (1) All persons born in the U.S. are citizens; (2) no person can be deprived of life, liberty or property without DUE PROCESS OF LAW; (3) no state can deprive a person of EQUAL PROTECTION of the laws. Second of three "Reconstruction Amendments" passed after Civil War. 15 - States cannot deny any person the right to vote because of race. Third of three "Reconstruction Amendments" passed after Civil War. First Voting Rights Amendment (with 19, 24 & 26)
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