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Combo with Medical terminology a short course respiratory/ digestive
Terms in this set (106)
air sac; alveolus
Extreme decrease in the amount of oxygen in the body with increase of carbon dioxide leads to loss of consciousness or death.
Spasm and narrowing of bronchi, leading to bronchial airway obstruction
Hyperinflation of air sacs with destruction of alveolar walls. Along with chronic bronchitis and asthma, emphysema is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Spitting up of blood
Blood in the pleural cavity (space between the pleural membranes).
Abnormal condition of dust in the lungs
Inflammation and infection of alveoli, which fill with pus or products of the inflammatory reaction.
An infectious disease caused by bacteria (bacilli). The lungs and other organs are affected. Signs and symptoms are cough, weight loss, night sweats, hemoptysis, and pleuritic pain.
Visual examination of the bronchial tubes with an endoscope
Chest x-ray film:
X-ray image of the chest in the AP (anteroposterior), PA (posteroanterior), and lateral (side) views.
Computed tomography (CT) scan:
Cross-sectional x-ray images of the chest.
Visual examination of the larynx via the placement of a flexible tube- (laryngoscope) through the nose or mouth and into the larynx.
magnetic resonance imaging:
Magnetic waves and radiofrequency waves create images of the chest in three planes of the body.
X-ray images are taken of the blood vessels in the lung after the injection of contrast material into a blood vessel. A blockage, such as a pulmonary embolism, can be located with this procedure.
Pulmonary function test (PFTs):
Measurement of the ventilation (breathing capability) of the lungs. A spirometer measures the air taken into and breathed out of the lungs.
Pulmonary ventilation-perfusion scans:
Procedures that show air flow (ventilation and blood supply (perfusion) to the lungs via the distribution of radioactive material in the lung tissue after the radioactive material is intravenously injected or is inhaled.
A patient expels sputum by coughing and the sputum is analyzed for bacterial content.
Agents are applied to the skin with punctures or injection and the reaction is noted. Redness and swelling result in people sensitive to the test substance and indicate previous or current infection with tuberculosis.
A tube is placed through the nose or moth into the trachea to establish an airway during surgery and for placement on a respirator (a machine that moves air into and out of the lungs).
A needle is inserted through the skin between the ribs and into the pleural space to drain a pleural effusion.
Incision of the chest to remove a lung (pneumonectomy) or a portion of a lung (lobectomy).
Creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck and the insertion of a tube to create an airway.
removal of a portion of a lung
removal of a lung
Carbon dioxide (gas expelled from the lungs)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (chronic bronchitis and emphysema)
Oxygen (gas entering the bloodstream through the lungs)
Pulmonary embolism (blockage of vessels in the lung by a blood clot)
Pulmonary function tests
Shortness of breath
Upper respiratory infection
Video-assisted thoracic surgery (using small incisions and an endoscope)
appendix CF (2)
colon CF (2)
mouth CF (2)
anus and rectum CF
sigmoid colon CF
abnormal condition of gallstones
chronic disease of the liver with degeneration of liver cells
condition in which polyps protrude from the mucous membrane lining the colon
abnormal condition of small pouches or sacs (diverticula) in the wall of the intestine
inflammation and infection within a diverticula
gastroesophageal reflux disease GERD
a condition in which contents of the stomach flow back into the esophagus
inflammation of the liver
inflammatory bowel disease IBD
inflammation of the terminal portion of the ileum or inflammation of the colon
A form of inflammatory bowel disease, symptoms include Crampy abdominal (belly area) pain Fever Fatigue Loss of appetite Pain with passing stool (tenesmus) Persistent, watery diarrhea Unintentional weight loss
chronic inflammation of the colon with the formation of ulcers
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
condition characterized by gastrointestinal signs and symptoms, including constipation, diarrhea, gas, and bloating, all in the absence of organic pathology; also called spastic colon.
Cancer (primary) of the liver
yellow-orange coloration of the skin and other tissues from high levels of bilirubin in the bloodstream (hyperbilirubinemia)
Abdominal computed tomography (CT scan)
a series of cross-sectional x ray images that show abdominal organs
abdominal magnetic resonance imaging MRI
magnetic and radio waves create images of abdominal organs and tissues in all three planes of the body
process of beaming sound waves into the abdomen to produce images of organs such as the gallbladder
A small ultrasound probe is installed on the tip of an endoscope that is inserted into the body; useful to detect enlarged lymph nodes and tumors in the upper abdomen
X-ray examination using liquid barium mixture to locate disorders of the GI tract.
barium enema (lower GI series)
barium is injected into the anus rectum and x-ray images are taken of the colon.
barium swallow (upper GI series)
barium is taken in through the mouth and x-ray images reveal the esophagus, stomach, and small intestines
X-ray examination of the bile ducts after injection of contrast material through the liver or through a catheter from the mouth, esophagus, and stomach into the bile ducts
visual examination of the GI tract with an endoscope
feces are placed on paper containing the chemical guaiac, which reacts with hidden (occult) blood. This is an important screening test for colon cancer.
Liver function tests (LFTs)
measurements of liver enzymes and other substances in the blood. Enzyme levels increase when the liver is damaged (as with hepatitis). Enzymes include ALT, AST, and alkaline phosphatase (alk phos), and bilirubin.
feces are placed in a growth medium to test microorganisms such as bacteria
surgical creation of an opening between two gastrointestinal organs
surgical creation of a new opening of the colon to the outside of the body
surgical creation of a new opening of the ileum to the outside of the body
removal of organs or tissues via a laparoscope inserted into the abdomen through a small incision
Alanine transaminase and aspartate trasaminase (liver enzymes measured as part of LFTs) (abv.)
barium enima (abv.)
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (abv.)
inflammatory bowel disease (abv.)
Liver function tests (abv.)
Nothing by mouth
NPO (nil per os)
Total parenteral nutrition
TPN (IV solutions given to maintain nutrition)
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