Like this study set? Create a free account to save it.

Sign up for an account

Already have a Quizlet account? .

Create an account


a statement of how variables are expected to be related to one another, often according to predictions from a theory


a factor thought to be significant for human behavior, which can vary (or Change) from one case to another

Research definition

the way in which a researcher measures a variable

Research method

one of six procedures that sociologists use to colect data: surveys, participant observation, secondary analysis, documents, experiments, and unobtrusive measures


the extent to which an operational definition measures what it was intended to measure


the extent to which research produces consistent or dependable results


repeating a study in order to test its findings


the collection of data by having people answer a series of questions


the target group to be studied


the individuals intended to represent the population to be studied

random sample

a sample in which everyone in the target population has the same chance of being included in the study

stratified random sample

a sample from selected subgroups of the target population in which everyone in those subgroups has an equal chance of being included in the research


people who respond to a survey, either in interviews or by self-administered questionnaires

self-administered questionnaires

questionnaires that respondents fill out


direct questioning of respondents

interviewer bias

effects that interviewers have on respondents that lead to biased answers

structured interviews

interviews that use closed-ended questions

closed-ended question

questions that are followed by a list of possible answer to be selected by the respondent

unstructured interviews

interviews that use open-ended questions

open-ended questions

questions that respondents answer in their own words


a feeling of trust between researchers and the people thy are studying

participant observation (fieldwork)

research in which the researcher participates in a research setting while observing what is happening in that setting


the extent to which the findings from one group (or sample) canbe generalized or applied to other groups (or populations)

secondary analysis

the analysis of data that have been collected by other researchers


in its narrow sense, written sources that provide data; in its extended sense, archival material of anysort, including photographs, movies, CDs, DVDs, and so on


the use of control and experimental groups and dependent and independent variables to test causation

experimental group

the group of subjects who are exposed to the independent variable

control group

the group of subjects who are not exposed to the independent variable

independent variable

a factor that causes a change in another variable, called the dependent variable

unobtrusive measures

ways of observing people who do not know they are being studied

quantitative research methods

research in which the emphasis is placed on measurement, the use of statistics, and numbers

qualitative research methods

research in which the emphasis is placed on observing, describing, and interpreting people's behavior

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again


Reload the page to try again!


Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

Voice Recording