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a statement of how variables are expected to be related to one another, often according to predictions from a theory
a factor thought to be significant for human behavior, which can vary (or Change) from one case to another
one of six procedures that sociologists use to colect data: surveys, participant observation, secondary analysis, documents, experiments, and unobtrusive measures
a sample in which everyone in the target population has the same chance of being included in the study
stratified random sample
a sample from selected subgroups of the target population in which everyone in those subgroups has an equal chance of being included in the research
people who respond to a survey, either in interviews or by self-administered questionnaires
questions that are followed by a list of possible answer to be selected by the respondent
participant observation (fieldwork)
research in which the researcher participates in a research setting while observing what is happening in that setting
the extent to which the findings from one group (or sample) canbe generalized or applied to other groups (or populations)
in its narrow sense, written sources that provide data; in its extended sense, archival material of anysort, including photographs, movies, CDs, DVDs, and so on
the use of control and experimental groups and dependent and independent variables to test causation
a factor that causes a change in another variable, called the dependent variable
quantitative research methods
research in which the emphasis is placed on measurement, the use of statistics, and numbers
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