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32 terms

Sociology Chapter 5

STUDY
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Hypothesis
a statement of how variables are expected to be related to one another, often according to predictions from a theory
variable
a factor thought to be significant for human behavior, which can vary (or Change) from one case to another
Research definition
the way in which a researcher measures a variable
Research method
one of six procedures that sociologists use to colect data: surveys, participant observation, secondary analysis, documents, experiments, and unobtrusive measures
validity
the extent to which an operational definition measures what it was intended to measure
reliability
the extent to which research produces consistent or dependable results
replication
repeating a study in order to test its findings
survey
the collection of data by having people answer a series of questions
population
the target group to be studied
sample
the individuals intended to represent the population to be studied
random sample
a sample in which everyone in the target population has the same chance of being included in the study
stratified random sample
a sample from selected subgroups of the target population in which everyone in those subgroups has an equal chance of being included in the research
respondents
people who respond to a survey, either in interviews or by self-administered questionnaires
self-administered questionnaires
questionnaires that respondents fill out
interview
direct questioning of respondents
interviewer bias
effects that interviewers have on respondents that lead to biased answers
structured interviews
interviews that use closed-ended questions
closed-ended question
questions that are followed by a list of possible answer to be selected by the respondent
unstructured interviews
interviews that use open-ended questions
open-ended questions
questions that respondents answer in their own words
rapport
a feeling of trust between researchers and the people thy are studying
participant observation (fieldwork)
research in which the researcher participates in a research setting while observing what is happening in that setting
generalizability
the extent to which the findings from one group (or sample) canbe generalized or applied to other groups (or populations)
secondary analysis
the analysis of data that have been collected by other researchers
documents
in its narrow sense, written sources that provide data; in its extended sense, archival material of anysort, including photographs, movies, CDs, DVDs, and so on
experiment
the use of control and experimental groups and dependent and independent variables to test causation
experimental group
the group of subjects who are exposed to the independent variable
control group
the group of subjects who are not exposed to the independent variable
independent variable
a factor that causes a change in another variable, called the dependent variable
unobtrusive measures
ways of observing people who do not know they are being studied
quantitative research methods
research in which the emphasis is placed on measurement, the use of statistics, and numbers
qualitative research methods
research in which the emphasis is placed on observing, describing, and interpreting people's behavior