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79 terms

Family Studies Exam

STUDY
PLAY
the text observes that we remain hopeful about family commitment because
families are central to society as an institution and to our everyday lives
traditionally both law and social science specified that the family consisted of people related by
blood marriage, or adoption
The U.S. census bureau defines a family as
two or more persons sharing a household and who are related by blood marriage, or adoption
Throughout much of the twentieth century in America, the __________ family has been considered the traditional family.
nuclear
As families have become less traditional, the legal definition of a family has
become much more flexible
According to the text, in recent years, people have been
postponing marriage
Over the past four decades, fertility in the US has
declined
The text reports that divorce rates
have stabilized, although they remain at high levels
the text concludes that the best way to make decisions about our personal lives is to make them
knowledgeably
Children are _____ likely than the general population or the elderly to be living in poverty
more
Theoretical perspectives or theories can increase our ____ families and family life
understanding of
The climate, soil, plants, and animals are all part of the _____ environment
natural physical-biological
Which of the following theoretical perspectives is directly concerned with the influence of family policy
family ecology
The sequence of single hood, marriage, parenthood, grand parenthood, and widowhood, are a focus of which of the following perspectives?
family systems
The view that the family is an enduring social institution because of the important tasks it performs for society-reproduction, emotional support, socialization of children is the ____ perspective
structure-functional
The ____ perspective looks at the family as a whole; for change to occur, the family system as a whole must change.
family systems
The centeral focus of the feminist perspective is _____ issues.
gender
The ___ perspective argues that hums evolutionary biology affects much of human behavior and, more specifically, many family-related behaviors.
bio social
Representative samples are important to family survey research because they are most likely to
produce the most generalizable figures
Collecting data over a period of years on a particular topic would reflect a
longitudinal study
Jean is attracted to opposite-sex partners. Jean is
heterosexual
Pauline is attracted to persons of either sex. Pauline is
Bisexual
The ____ perspective sees sex as a focus of norms designed to regulate sexuality so that it facilitates responsible reproduction
Structure functional
From a ____ perspective, we consider that humans are designed for the purpose of transmitting their genes to the next generation
bio social
The interactionist perspective emphasizes the interpersonal negotiation of relationships in the context of
sexual scripts
According to one model (troiden), the process of homosexual constructing their sexual identities occurs in stages. Which of the following is NOT one of these?
denial
Which standard of non-marital sex reflects "recreational sex"?
permissiveness without affection
Which standard of non-marital sex reflects "recreational sex"?
permissiveness without affection
David and Susan have been married for 20 years. Both are less interested in sex than they were at the beginning of their marriage, and their sexual frequency has declined over this period of time. David and Susan's circumstances reflect what the text refers to as
habituation
HIV/AIDS has now been known for almost _____ years.
twenty-five
Almost _____ people are living with AIDS in the US.
400,000
______ theory posits that during infancy and childhood individuals develop a general style of bonding with others.
Attachment
____ refers to male or female anatomy and physiology and includes the different chromosomal, hormonal, and anatomical components of males and females that are present at birth
Sex
Which of the following is NOT an example given by the text of women in nontraditional roles?
housewife
Consider the statement: "Due to social pressures, firms frequently have to hire under qualified women." This illustrates ____ sexism
modern
According to the text, more and more women are entering nontraditional occupations such as
the military
Our culture has formed a "_____" message, according to which a good wife and/or mother also efficiently attains career success and/or supports children by herself.
Superwoman
The process by which society influences members to internalize attitudes and expectations is called
socialization
The text observers that children imitate models for behavior and re rewarded by parents and others for whatever is perceived as sex-appropriate behavior. This reflects which theory of socialization?
Social learning
Some psychologists think that what comes first is not rules about what boys and girls should do, but rather the child's awareness of being a boy or a girl. This thinking reflects which theory of socialization?
self-identification
Overall, gender schema theorists see genders schema as ______ traditional stereotypes.
maintaining
Which of the following age categories has the least stable marriages?
teenagers
when both spouses come from a divorced family, the probability of their own divorce is higher. Family scholars refer to this phenomenon as the ____ risk.
inter generational transmission of divorce
in terms of mate selection patterns, the US is an example of what cross-cultural researchers call a ____ culture.
free-choice
the ideas of bargaining, market and resources used to describe relationships such as marriage come to us from ____ theory.
exchange
Americans tend to marry people of similar race, age, education, religious background, and social class. This behavior reflects
homo-gamy
When the first meeting is ____, interaction often depends upon physical attraction
face-to-face
Researchers have found it discouraging that about ____ of abusive datingrelationships continue rather than being broken off.
half
Psychologist Lawrence Kurdek has applied ____ theory to whether couple relationships continue.
exchange
During the 1990s, the proportion of cohabitors who eventually married their partners
declined
In 1976, the U.S. total fertility rate dropped to the lowest level ever recorded, which was
1.738
The text points our that in American society, having children is taken for granted, whereas not having children seems to need a justification. This reflects a
pronatalist bias
Traditionally in American Society, children were viewed as
economic assets
An estimate of the cost of raising a child born in 2001 to the age of 18 for middle-income families was
$231,470
What percent of US women surveyed in 2001 said "no" to the question of whether a "woman needs the experience of motherhood to have a complete life?"
70
By, 2002, ____ percent of all births were to unmarried women.
34
which racial/ethic group has the highest proportion of non-marital births?
African American
the increase in childbearing among older single women is largely a ____ phenomenon.
white
of any industrialized country, which nation has by far the highest teen pregnancy, abortion, and birthrates
the United Sates
in 2000, there were more than ____ adopted children in the US households.
2 million
The labor force emerged during the ____
Industrial Revolution
The pronounced tendency for men and women to be employed in different types of jobs is termed
occupation segregation
Women who wored full time in 2006 earned ___ cents for every dollar earned by men
81
Sociologist Jessie Bernard asserted that the ____ role for men emerged in the US during the 1830s
good provider
Today, the statistical norm among married couples is the ____ marriage
two-earner
______ involves the necessary tasks f attending both the emotional needs of all family members and the practical needs of dependent members, as well as maintaining the family domicile
Unpaid family work
University of Michigan researchers cited in the text use the term "____" in nothing that, as men and women are both putting in more hours of employment, the total amount of time a couple spends on housework has declined.
vanishing housework
The term ___ refers to child care provided in a caregiver's home.
family child care
____ involves providing assistance with daily lining activities to an elderly relative who chronically frail, ill, disabled, or just in need of assistance
Elder care
____ involves an employee being able to take extended period of time from work, either paid or unpaid, for maternity, paternity, ill-child and elder-care purposes.
family leave
Alice Rossi has observed that transition to parenthood is more difficult than the transition to other adult roles for several reasons. Which of the following is NOT one of these?
Unlike other adult roles, the transition to parent hood is extremely gradual
An opposite image from "good" father are "____," who "are eschewing even minimal responsibility for their children."
deadbeat dads
Which parenting style is preferred by child psychologists?
authoritative
According to the text, spanking refers to
hitting a child with a open hand without causing physical injury.
Children make up _____ percent of the homeless
one-quarter
The _____ census was the first to offer citizens the option of identifying themselves as more than one race.
2000
Ethnicity is often associated with
religious belief
It is estimated that ___ children under age eighteen are ling in a grandparent's household.
more than 3.6 million
It is estimated that ____ US children are in foster care.
more than 500,0000