How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

1,877 terms

longest set ever science math english history spanish music

STUDY
PLAY
Universe
The system made up of all the matter and energy there is, including the galaxies, and their stars, planets, and moons. First there was a ball of matter/gravity and everything else. Then gravity fell off and that was thus the big bang
galaxies
A huge group of single stars, star systems, star clusters, dust, and gas bound together by gravity. Galaxies are like dust bunnies, every spec of dust is a star.
types of galaxies
spiral- shaped as a pin-wheel
elliptical- shaped as a flat ball
irregularly- strangely irregularly shaped
milky way
The name of our galaxy, a spiral galaxy that contains about 400 billion stars
terrestrial
of or relating to or characteristic of the planet Earth or one like it
comets
...
asteroids
...
meteors
...
meteorites
...
electromagnetic spectrum
...
doppler effect
change in the apparent frequency of a wave as observer and source move toward or away from each other, apparent change in the wavelength of light that occurs when an object is moving toward or away from the earth
magnitude
...
measure distance to stars
LY, astronomical unit, parsec, parallax
LY
...
astronimical unit
...
parsac
...
parallax
...
star composition
...
star mass
...
star size
...
star luminosity
...
star temperature
...
star hertzpsprung-russell diagrams
...
life cycle of stars
...
astronomers - main facts, time alive, major contributions, where lived, where studied
...
Pythagoras
• Born about 570 B.C. in what is now Greece
• Made his discoveries while in Greece
• He recognized that the earth was a sphere and that the sun, moon, and planets had one of their own
• His astronomical concepts were acknowledged by Copernicus as a forerunner to his theory that the earth and other planets rotate in orbit around the sun
• Famous for formulating the Pythagorean theorem
Hipparchus
• Born 180 B.C. Turkey
• Credited with discovering the procession of the equinoxes, calculated size of earth, distance to sun and moon, many other observations
• Compiled first catalog of stars (brightness/position)
• His discoveries formed the basis of Ptolemy's system of astronomy.
• He was born near what is now Istanbul
Ptolemy
• Born 100 A.D. in Egypt
• Made discoveries in Alexandria, Egypt in about 150 A.D.
• Pointed out that the earth is spherical and rejected the idea that the earth moved, claimed that everything in the universe moved around or toward the earth's center, had small epicycles to make retrograde motion work.
• His system of astronomy was accepted throughout Europe until 1543, when Copernicus came up with the theory that the earth is a moving planet
• Ptolemy's map of the world encouraged Columbus to make his famous voyage across the ocean
Nicholas Copernicus
• Born in 1473 Poland
• Studied law and medicine in Italy but returned to Poland in 1606
• He proposed that the earth is a moving planet and that the sun is the center of the solar system
• He was the first astronomer to correctly describe the solar system and paved the way for Galileo and Kepler
• The Catholic Church refused to accept the heliocentric theory
Tycho Brahe
• Born in1546 Denmark
• He build an elaborate observatory on the island of Hven
• Developed a systematic approach for observing the planets and stars
• His observation were far more precise than previous astronomers and resulted in a much more accurate understanding of planetary positions, all done without a telescope
• He sighted a supernova in 1572 which helped disproved the ancient idea that no change could occur past the orbit of the moon
Galileo Galilei
• Born in Italy on February 15, 1564
• Called the founder of modern experimental science
• He made most of his key discoveries while in Pisa
• While teaching astronomy at the University of Padua he built his first telescope, in 1609, saw sun spots and suns rotation, moon craters, defended Copernicus
• His first astronomy related discovery was that the moon was not smooth but it was mountainous and pitted, also he discovered the four moons circling Jupiter in 1610, which he named Medicean Planets in hope of winning the Medicis the ruling family of Florence's favor
Johannes Kepler
• Born in 1571 Germany
• He worked in Prague
• Discovered three major laws of planetary motion
• Isaac Newton later used Kepler's three laws to arrive at the principle of universal gravitation
• Kepler was Brahe's assistant and when Brahe died the Holy Roman emperor appointed Kepler to be Brahe's successor
Isaac Newton
• Born in 1642 England
• He worked in England around Cambridge University
• He discovered the composition of white light; discovered how the universe is held together by laws of gravitation
• His theories on Gravity explained why the sun keeps the planets in their orbits and formed the basis for many discoveries and has helped expand our knowledge of the universe
• Three laws of Motion
• While in the countryside to avoid the plague, the concept of a universal force came to him when he was stuck in the head by a falling apple is not proven
William Herschel
• Born in 1738 Germany
• Settled in England 1757
• Discovered Uranus and its two brightest moons; discovered Saturn's moons; discovered the icecaps of Mars, several asteroids and binary stars; cataloged 2,500 deep sky objects; founded stellar astronomy, discovered nebulae, discussed stellar evolution
• He increase the size and understanding of our solar system
• He built a 4ft diameter mirror lens telescope which was the worlds largest until 1845
the sun's layers
Core - where fusion takes place
Radiation zone
Convection zone
Photosphere - the surface of the sun
Chromosphere - the red color layer
Corona - the sun's hottest and outer layer
how does the sun create heat
fusion
solar wind
...
sun spots
...
magnetic storms
...
origin of moon
...
origin of earth
...
origin of earth
...
origin of sun
...
layers of the moon
...
features of the moon
...
phycial characteristics of the moon
maria, rills, highlands, soil, rays
moon's orbit
...
waxing
...
waning
...
phases of the moon
...
rotation vs. revolution
evidence for each and effects of each
phytoplankton
Microscopic, free-floating, autotrophic organisms that function as producers in aquatic ecosystems.
diatom
microscopic unicellular marine or freshwater colonial alga having cell walls impregnated with silica
zooplankton
microscopic animals that swim or drift near the surface of aquatic environments
coral
marine colonial polyp characterized by a calcareous skeleton
nekton
free-swimming organisms whose movements are independent of the tides, currents, and waves.
smokers
spew water of about 380 degrees C from underwater volcano chimneys.
phytoplankton affect marine animal lives
food energy source
zooplankton helps recycle recourses
moderate salinity mantain balance and are food
deep water creatures affect life higher up
using chemosynthesis bacteria make harmful gasses useful and prevent other things from dieing
people can protect sea life
no pollution no " bombing or poisoning" fish
polarity
uneven distributation of charge
hydrogen bonding
the intermolecular force in which a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom is attracted to an unshared pair of electrons of an electronegative atom in a nearby molecule
aqueous solution
salt dissolved in water
boiling point
the temperature at which a liquid boils at sea level
freezing point
the temperature below which a liquid turns into a solid
salinity
a measure of the amount of dissolved salts and other solids in a given amount of liquid
water mass
a body of water with distinct properties based on where it originates
mixed layer
The upper layer of ocean in which temperature and salinity are relatively constant with depth. Depending on local conditions, the surface zone may reach to 1,000 meters (3,300 feet) or be absent entirely. Also called the surface zone.
thermocline
in water, a distinctive temperature transition zone that separates and upper layer that is mixed by the wind and colder, deep layer that is not mixed.
Battle of Antietam
the single, bloodiest day of the entire Civil War in which nearly 6,000 Union and confederate soldiers were killed and another 17,000 seriously injured
Richmond, Virginia
city in Virginia that became the capital of the Confederacy
Jefferson Davis
president of the Confederacy
West Virginia
state that was created in 1863 when 48 western Virginia counties seceded from the state of Virginia and rejoined the Union
Army of the Potomac
the name given to the union army in the East
General George McClellan
appointed by Lincoln to head the Union army of the East; Lincoln was frustrated when he failed to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond
Battle of Shiloh
Grant narrowly defeats the Confederates during this battle and forces them to retreat to Corinth; together both Union and Confederates have 20,000 casualties during this battle
David Farragut
leader of the Union naval forces who captured the city of New Orleans, which was the largest city of the South; The Union's victory under him gave the North control of almost all the Mississippi River
boomtowns
grew almost overnight near big mining areas
ore
mineral inside of a lode
lode
rictockh streak of ore
comstock lode
rich lode named after Henry Comstock-worth 100s of millions of dollars
subsidies
financial aid and land grants given to railroad companies to benefit globally
National Grange
1st farmers organization-local self help organizations
cooperatives
stores where farmers bought products from each other
populists party
goal was populism
free silver
unlimited production of silver
reservations
land set aside for Native Americans
Sand Creek Massacre
attack on chief Black Kettle and Cheyenne by Chivington and Colorado volunteers 1864
George Custer
leader of 7ty cavalry ordered to scout Native American encampment at Little Big Horn
dawes act
law that eliminated nomadic traditions and lack of private property
wounded knee
creek in South Dakota where Lakota Sioux gathered after Sitting Bull died
consolidation
practice of combining companies
Cornelius Vanderbilt
one of the first railroad barons-formed NY Central line
standard gauge
4 ft 8.5 inches as width of the track
George Pullman
developed pullman sleeping car
rebates
secret discounts
pools
secret agreements among railroad barons
Menlo Park
city in NJ where Edison developed his inventions
George Westinghouse
developed tranformers
assembly line
each person performed a specific task-less expensive way to manufacture goods
mass production
produce in large numbers more quickly
corporation
company that sells shares
stocks
shares
shareholders
partial owners of stocks
dividends
cash payments from the corporarions profits
Rockerfeller
made Standard Oil Company in Ohio 1870
horizontal intergration
combining competing firms into one corporation
trust
group of companies managed by the same board of directors
monopoly
almost totally controlled by 1 producer
vertical intergration
buying companies that have supplies needed to make your product
J.P.Morgan
founded US Steel Corporation
philanthropy
using riches to help others
mergers
combining of companies
Sherman Antitrust Act
got rid of monopoly
sweatshops
crowded urban factories
Trade Unions
groups with certain skills of trades
Knights of Labor
national labor orginization formed in Philadelphia by garment cutters
American Federation of Labor
group of national trade unions-led by Samuel Gompers
collective bargaining
union workers bargain with management
ILGWU
group of women who pushed for safer working enviroments
strikebreakers
people who replaced workers on strike
Haymarket Riot
led people to associate labor movement twith terrorism and disorder
Homestead Strike
strike with 10 people killed in Homestesad,Pennsylvania
Pullman Strike
union railroad people destroyed train tracks on strike but were ordered to stop by law
injunction
court order
clipper ship
sailing vessel built to sail as fast as steamships
telegraph
a machine that sends electric signals over wires
Morse code
A series of dots and dashes representing the letters of the alphabet
trade union
Organization of workers with the same trade or skill
prejudice
an opinion or strong feeling formed without careful thought or regard to the facts
discrimination
unfair treatment of a person or group on the basis of prejudice
famine
severe food shortage
nativist
people who opposed immigration
cotton gin
a machine that separates the seeds from raw cotton fibers
fixed cost
a regular expense involved in doing business
capital
money available to invest in business
credit
a form of a loan extended in business transactions
strike
a group's refusal to work in protest against low pay or bad work conditions
yeoman
An owner and cultivator of a small farm.
tenant farmer
a farmer who works land owned by someone else
overseer
Person in charge of slaves in the field
spiritual
an african American religious folk song
Slave Code
laws that controlled the lives of enslaved African Americans and denied them basic rights
Who developed the refrigerated train car, used to transport meats and produce?
Gustavus Swift
Who devised Janney car couplers, used to link train cars?
Eli H. Janney
rebates
secret discounts offered by large railroad companies to their biggest customers
pools
secret agreements made among the railroad barons to divide the industry into regions
Who developed the Pullman sleeping car, allowing passengers to make overnight trips, and the dining car, making railroad travel more enjoyable?
George M. Pullman
consolidation
the practice of combining separate companies
What was the standard gauge for railroad track width adopted by almost all companies?
4' 8.5"
What was the name of the railroad baron whose "empire" stretched from New York City to the Great Lakes?
Cornelius Vanderbilt
How many miles of railroad track were there in the United States in 1860? In 1900?
1860- 30,000 mi.
1900- 250,000 mi.
The railroad network allowed the flour milling industry to move farther west, settling in ________.
Kansas City
Which railroad barons founded the Central Pacific with two other partners?
Leland Stanford
Collis P. Huntington
When was the first transcontinental railroad completed?
1869
Who developed the air brakes that improved the system for stopping trains?
George Westinghouse
What is the name of the railroad baron who built the Great Northern line between Minnesota and Washington?
James J. Hill
Who invented the typewriter, and in what year?
Christopher Sholes
1868
Who developed the telephone, and in what year?
Alexander Graham Bell
1876
Who invented the Kodak camera, and in what year?
George Eastman
1888
How many patents for new inventions did the United States government grant between 1860 and 1890?
more than 400,000
Who invented the telegraph, and in what year?
Samuel Morse
1844
Who created the first workable lightbulb, and in what year?
Thomas Edison
1879
Who invented the vacuum cleaner, and in what year?
John Thurman
1899
The first telegraph cable across the Atlantic Ocean was laid by who, in what year?
Cyrus Field
1866
trust
a group of companies managed by the same board of directors
What was the name of Carnegie's first steel plant?
J. Edgar Thompson Steel Works
What were the three main techniques Rockefeller used to drive his competition out of business?
1- Lowered prices

2- Pressured customers to not use competition

3- Persuaded railroads to give rebates
horizontal integration
combining competing firms into one corporation
Before oil was drilled for all over the world, it was found seeping out of the ground in _____.
western Pennsylvania
What city became the "steel capital" of the United States?
Pittsburg, Pennsylvania
monopoly
almost total control by a single producer of an industry
After combining all of his companies into the Carnegie Steel Company, Carnegie produced _______ of the nation's steel.
one-third
A leading figure in America's early steel industry was ________.
Andrew Carnegie
philanthropy
the use of money to benefit the community
vertical integration
acquiring companies that provide services and equipment
Who did Carnegie sell his company to?
J. Pierpont Morgan
What was the goal of the Sherman Antitrust Act?
to prevent trusts and monopolies from controlling the market
mergers
the combining of companies
What were the three resources referred to by economists as the "factors of production", which allowed the United States to become an economic power?
land, labor, and capital
In what year, city, and state was John D. Rockefeller born?
1839, Richmond, Virginia
Who was the former railroad conductor who was the first person to drill for oil?

Where did he drill?
Edwin L. Drake

Titusville, Pennsylvania
Child-labor law in the 1800's stated that children had to be __ years old to work, and could not work for more than __ hours a day.
12 years old
10 hours/day
sweatshop
crowded urban factories filled with flammable materials where garment workers labored
What was the name of the labor union formed by garment cutters in Philadelphia? Who led them?
Knights of Labor
Terrence V. Powderly
In 1881 a group of national trade unions formed a group that became known as what in 1886?
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
Who led the AFL?
Samuel Gompers
collective bargaining
a system in which unions represent workers in bargaining with management
By 1904, the AFL had approximately how many members?
1.6 million
Which leader in the fight for workers' rights was commonly called Mother Jones?
Mary Harris Jones
Nearly 150 workers died in 1911 after a famous fire broke out in what sweatshop?
Triangle Shirtwaist Companyq
ILGWU stands for _____.
International Ladies' Garment Workers Union
strikebreaker
person hired to replace a striking worker in order to break up a strike
Antilabor feelings increased after a bloody clash between strikers and police where in May 1886?
Chicago
Haymarket Square
In what city and state did the militia have to be used to break up riot's at a Carnegie plant?
Homestead, Pennsylvania
The steelworkers' union dwindled after the failure of what strike?
the Homestead Strike
injunction
a court order to stop an action, i.e. strike
What were the average hours for an industrial laborer in the late 1800's?
10 to 12 hours/day
6 days/week
Who developed the refrigerated train car, used to transport meats and produce?
Gustavus Swift
Who devised Janney car couplers, used to link train cars?
Eli H. Janney
rebates
secret discounts offered by large railroad companies to their biggest customers
pools
secret agreements made among the railroad barons to divide the industry into regions
Who developed the Pullman sleeping car, allowing passengers to make overnight trips, and the dining car, making railroad travel more enjoyable?
George M. Pullman
consolidation
the practice of combining separate companies
What was the standard gauge for railroad track width adopted by almost all companies?
4' 8.5"
What was the name of the railroad baron whose "empire" stretched from New York City to the Great Lakes?
Cornelius Vanderbilt
How many miles of railroad track were there in the United States in 1860? In 1900?
1860- 30,000 mi.
1900- 250,000 mi.
The railroad network allowed the flour milling industry to move farther west, settling in ________.
Kansas City
Which railroad barons founded the Central Pacific with two other partners?
Leland Stanford
Collis P. Huntington
When was the first transcontinental railroad completed?
1869
Who developed the air brakes that improved the system for stopping trains?
George Westinghouse
What is the name of the railroad baron who built the Great Northern line between Minnesota and Washington?
James J. Hill
Who invented the typewriter, and in what year?
Christopher Sholes
1868
Who developed the telephone, and in what year?
Alexander Graham Bell
1876
Who invented the Kodak camera, and in what year?
George Eastman
1888
How many patents for new inventions did the United States government grant between 1860 and 1890?
more than 400,000
Who invented the telegraph, and in what year?
Samuel Morse
1844
Who created the first workable lightbulb, and in what year?
Thomas Edison
1879
Who invented the vacuum cleaner, and in what year?
John Thurman
1899
The first telegraph cable across the Atlantic Ocean was laid by who, in what year?
Cyrus Field
1866
trust
a group of companies managed by the same board of directors
What was the name of Carnegie's first steel plant?
J. Edgar Thompson Steel Works
What were the three main techniques Rockefeller used to drive his competition out of business?
1- Lowered prices

2- Pressured customers to not use competition

3- Persuaded railroads to give rebates
horizontal integration
combining competing firms into one corporation
Before oil was drilled for all over the world, it was found seeping out of the ground in _____.
western Pennsylvania
What city became the "steel capital" of the United States?
Pittsburg, Pennsylvania
monopoly
almost total control by a single producer of an industry
After combining all of his companies into the Carnegie Steel Company, Carnegie produced _______ of the nation's steel.
one-third
A leading figure in America's early steel industry was ________.
Andrew Carnegie
philanthropy
the use of money to benefit the community
vertical integration
acquiring companies that provide services and equipment
Who did Carnegie sell his company to?
J. Pierpont Morgan
What was the goal of the Sherman Antitrust Act?
to prevent trusts and monopolies from controlling the market
mergers
the combining of companies
What were the three resources referred to by economists as the "factors of production", which allowed the United States to become an economic power?
land, labor, and capital
In what year, city, and state was John D. Rockefeller born?
1839, Richmond, Virginia
Who was the former railroad conductor who was the first person to drill for oil?

Where did he drill?
Edwin L. Drake

Titusville, Pennsylvania
Child-labor law in the 1800's stated that children had to be __ years old to work, and could not work for more than __ hours a day.
12 years old
10 hours/day
sweatshop
crowded urban factories filled with flammable materials where garment workers labored
What was the name of the labor union formed by garment cutters in Philadelphia? Who led them?
Knights of Labor
Terrence V. Powderly
In 1881 a group of national trade unions formed a group that became known as what in 1886?
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
Who led the AFL?
Samuel Gompers
collective bargaining
a system in which unions represent workers in bargaining with management
By 1904, the AFL had approximately how many members?
1.6 million
Which leader in the fight for workers' rights was commonly called Mother Jones?
Mary Harris Jones
Nearly 150 workers died in 1911 after a famous fire broke out in what sweatshop?
Triangle Shirtwaist Companyq
ILGWU stands for _____.
International Ladies' Garment Workers Union
strikebreaker
person hired to replace a striking worker in order to break up a strike
Antilabor feelings increased after a bloody clash between strikers and police where in May 1886?
Chicago
Haymarket Square
In what city and state did the militia have to be used to break up riot's at a Carnegie plant?
Homestead, Pennsylvania
The steelworkers' union dwindled after the failure of what strike?
the Homestead Strike
injunction
a court order to stop an action, i.e. strike
What were the average hours for an industrial laborer in the late 1800's?
10 to 12 hours/day
6 days/week
sharecropping
system in which landowners leased a few acres of land to farmworkers in return for a portion of their crops
10 percent plan
It was a reconstruction plan that decreed that a state could be reintegrated into the union when 10 percent of voters in the presidential election of 1860 had taken an oath of allegiance to the United States and pledged to abide by emancipation. The next step would be erection of a state gov. and then purified regime. (Lincoln)
segregation
a social system that provides separate facilities for minority groups
black codes
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves
ku klux klan
a secret society of white Southerners in the United States
cash crops
crops, such as tobacco, sugar, and cotton, raised in large quantities in order to be sold for profit
wade-davis plan
rival plan for reconstruction: required majority of white men to swear loyalty to the union. *lincoln thought it was too harsh
restoration
making the south as it was before
andrew johnson
A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
abraham lincoln
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
integration
the action of incorporating a racial or religious group into a community
freedmens bureau
Organization run by the army to care for and protect southern Blacks after the Civil War
reedemers
because they redeemed the south from Federal intervention, wanted to increase economic opportunities for Southern Businessmen, lowered taxes, cut expenses
reconstruction
the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
booth
United States actor and assassin of President Lincoln (1838-1865)
poll tax
a tax of a fixed amount per person and payable as a requirement for the right to vote
literacy test
A test administered as a precondition for voting, often used to prevent African Americans from exercising their right to vote.
grandfather clauses
exempted citizens from restrictions on voting they, or their ancestors, had voted in previous elections or served in the conf. military
lynching
putting a person to death by mob action without due process of law
15 amendment
All US born citizen has voting rights. Banned racial restrictions on voting. United States may not prevent a citizen from voting based on that citizen's race, color.
14 amendment
all people are citizens and no state has the right to deprive any citizen of life, liberty, or property
13 amendment
the constitutional amend. ratified after the civil war that forbade slavery and involuntary servitude.
corruption
convincment (as of a public official) by improper means (as bribery) to violate duty (as by commiting a felony)
Hiram Revels
African American minister who was elected to serve in the Senate; one of the first blacks to serve in the Senate
Blanche K. Bruce
An American politician. Bruce represented Mississippi as a U.S. Senator from 1875 to 1881 and was the first black to serve a full term in the Senate.
scalawags
southern whites who supported republican policy throught reconstruction
carpetbaggers
northerners who moved to the south after the war;they got their name because often their bags were made of old carpet
impeach
to formally accuse someone
first reconstruction act
(1867) divided the South into 5 military districts, granted local voting rights to African Americans, and barred former Confederate leaders from holding office.
second reconstruction act
This act covered the ambiguity about elections under the Military Reconstruction Act of 1867 and stated that all men would be registered to vote via the efforts of the military commanders in the 5 southern districts. This produced the most blacks by percentage to vote ever
tenure of office act
1866 - enacted by radical congress - forbade president from removing civil officers without senatorial consent - was to prevent Johnson from removing a radical republican from his cabinet
reconciliation
agreement after a fight
amnesty act
Passed in 1872, law which granted civil rights to ex-confederates and so set the stage for them to regain control of the south
Bessemer process
an industrial process for making steel using a Bessemer converter to blast air through through molten iron and thus burning the excess carbon and impurities
freedmen
African Americans who had been set free from slavery
override
rule against
integrate
make into a whole or make part of a whole
thaddeus stevens
Man behind the 14th Amendment, which ends slavery. Stevens and President Johnson were absolutely opposed to each other. Known as a Radical Republican
edwin stanton
served as the secretary of war under Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War. He refused to leave after Johnson fired him, thus starting the impeachment process.
ulysses grant
an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
border states
in the civil war the states between the north and the south: delaware, mayland, kentucky, and missouri
blockade
close
offensive
the action of attacking an enemy
Rebel
used by northerners of Confederate soldiers
yankee
an American who lives in the North (especially during the American Civil War)
blockade runner
ship that sails into and out of a blockaded area
ironclad
warship covered with protective iron plates
casuality
someone injured or killed in an accident
emancipate
free from slavery or servitude
ratify
approve and express assent, responsibility, or obligation
habeas corpus
the civil right to obtain a writ of habeas corpus as protection against illegal imprisonment
draft
order somebody to enter the army
bounty
payment or reward (especially from a government) for enlisting in the military
greenback
a piece of U.S. paper money first issued by the North during the Civil War
inflation
a general and progressive increase in prices
entrenched
established firmly and securely
total war
an army marches, destroying anything and everthing in its path
Union
being of or having to do with the northern United States and those loyal to the Union during the Civil War
Confederacy
the southern states that seceded from the United States in 1861
Abraham Lincoln
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
a book
Uncle Tom's Cabin Book written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, published in 1852
Susan B. Anthony
social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation
John C. Calhoun
(1830s-40s) Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law, which forced the cooperation of Northern states in returning escaped slaves to the south. He also argued on the floor of the senate that slavery was needed in the south. He argued on the grounds that society is supposed to have an upper ruling class that enjoys the profit of a working lower class.
Lincoln-Douglas debates
1858 Senate Debate, Lincoln forced Douglas to debate issue of slavery, Douglas supported pop-sovereignty, Lincoln asserted that slavery should not spread to territories, Lincoln emerged as strong Republican candidate
Dred Scott Case
Supreme Court case which ruled that slaves are not citizens but are property, affirmed that property cannot be interfered with by Congress, slaves do not become free if they travel to free territories or states, fueled abolitionist movement, hailed as victory for the south
Compromise of 1850
Forestalled the Civil War by instating the Fugitive Slave Act , banning slave trade in DC, admitting California as a free state, splitting up the Texas territory, and instating popular sovereignty in the Mexican Cession
Harper's Ferry, VA Oct 16, 1859
John Brown's scheme to invade the South with armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, northern abolitionists; seized the federal arsenal; Brown and remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hanged
Missouri Compromise
The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery.
Henry Clay
Senator who persuaded Congress to accept the Missouri Compromise, which admitted Maine into the Union as a free state, and Missouri as a slave state
Fredrick Douglass
American abolitionist and writer, he escaped slavery and became a leading African American spokesman and writer. He published the autobiography, The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, and founded the abolitionist newspaper, the North Star.
Abolitionists
People who wanted to end slavery, people who believed that slavery should be against the law
William Lloyd Garrison
1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Seneca Falls Convention
Took place in upperstate New York in 1848. Women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women. There, they wrote the Declaration of Sentiments, which among other things, tried to get women the right to vote.
Underground Railroad
a system that helped enslaved African Americans follow a network of escape routes out of the South to freedom in the North
Harriet Tubman
American abolitionist. Born a slave on a Maryland plantation, she escaped to the North in 1849 and became the most renowned conductor on the Underground Railroad, leading more than 300 slaves to freedom.
roger taney
United States jurist who served as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court.
missouri compromise
an agreement in 1820 between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States concerning the extension of slavery into new territories
election of 1860
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.
compromise of 1850
Forestalled the Civil War by instating the Fugitive Slave Act , banning slave trade in DC, admitting California as a free state, splitting up the Texas territory, and instating popular sovereignty in the Mexican Cession
Dred Scott
United States slave who sued for liberty after living in a non-slave state
Henry clay
...
John C. Calhoun
(1830s-40s) Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law, which forced the cooperation of Northern states in returning escaped slaves to the south. He also argued on the floor of the senate that slavery was needed in the south. He argued on the grounds that society is supposed to have an upper ruling class that enjoys the profit of a working lower class.
harriet beecher stowe
Wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin, a book about a slave who is treated badly, in 1852. The book persuaded more people, particularly Northerners, to become anti-slavery.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1853 that highly influenced england's view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.
seneca falls convention
The site of the women's rights convention that met in July in 1848. They met in the Wesleyan Chapel, and 300 men and women attended. At the convention, they vote in the Seneca Falls Declaration, which was signed by 32 men.
susan B anthony
she was a leading proponent of womans suffrage. she established the national woman suffrage assosiation NWSA,and even though the group faced oppositions, woman later got a right to vote.
republican party
One of the two major American political parties. It emerged in the 1850s as an antislavery party and consisted of former northern Whigs and antislavery Democrats.
free port doctrine
The claim by Stephen Dougles that argued that people could still keep slavery out by refusing to pass the laws needed to regulate and inforce it
harpers ferry
John Brown's scheme to invade the South with armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, northern abolitionists; seized the federal arsenal; Brown and remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hanged
confederate states of america
the southern states that seceded from the United States in 1861
jefferson davis
an American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865
first battle of bull run
First major battle of the Civil War, in which untrained Northern troops and civilian picnickers fled back to Washington. This battle helped boost Southern morale and made the North realize that this would be a long war.
clara barton
Launched the American Red Cross in 1881. An "angel" in the Civil War, she treated the wounded in the field.
copperheads
Most extreme portion of the Peace Democrats. They openly obstructed the war through attacks against the draft, against Lincoln, and the emancipation. Based in Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. There was really no victory for this group.
george meade
This man was the leader of the Union forces when they met with Lee's army in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, where the most famous Civil War battle took place.
gettysburg address
a 3-minute address by Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War (November 19, 1963) at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg
sherman
United States general who was commander of all Union troops in the West. He captured Atlanta and led a destructive march to the sea that cut the Confederacy in two (1820-1891)
election of 1876
Rutherford B. Hayes - liberal Republican, Civil War general, he received only 165 electoral votes. Samuel J. Tilden - Democrat, received 264,000 more popular votes that Hayes, and 184 of the 185 electoral votes needed to win. 20 electoral votes were disputed, and an electoral commission decided that Hayes was the winner - fraud was suspected.
redeemers
Largely former slave owners who were the bitterest opponents of the Republican program in the South. Staged a major counterrevolution to "redeem" the south by taking back southern state governments. Their foundation rested on the idea of racism and white supremacy. Redeemer governments waged and agressive assault on African Americans.
jim crow laws
The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965
subsidies
a grant paid by a government to an enterprise that benefits the public
long drives
A cattle drive in which Texas ranchers drove herds of cattle north to be sold in northern markets
fort larimie treaty
...
custers last stand
when there was a gold rush in the reservations and the sioux tribe lead by chief crazy horse and cheif sitting bull tried to hold back the rush and georage a custer and his troops got trapped with his 264 troops all were killed
Lincoln -Douglas Debate
...
Fort Laramie Treaty
1851 treaty with indian nations located near fort Laramie in Wyoming, even though many of the Indian nations who attended were at war with each other. The treaty asked each indian nation to keep to a limited area in return for money, domestic animals, agricultural tools, and other goods. This treaty introduced ideals that our current reservation system mimic
Cornelius Vanderbilt
a railroad owner who built a railway connecting Chicago and New York. He popularized the use of steel rails in his railroad, which made railroads safer and more economical., made millions from steamboat business, and used the money to merge local railroads to the New York Central Railroad.
consolidation
the practice of combining separate companies to make a bigger one
Samuel Morse
He developed an electric telegraph which allowed information to be transferred from one place to another by means of a strung wire using a dot-slash code. This was an early form of quick communication that helped tie people together regardless of distance.
Alex Graham Bell
An American inventor and teacher of the deaf, he was most famous for his invention of the telephone. Since the age of 18, he had been working on the idea of transmitting speech. He was one of the co founders of the National Geographic Society, and he served as its president from 1896 to 1904. He also founded the journal Science in 1883. His other inventions includes the induction balance, audiometer, and the first was recording cylinder introduced in 1885.
Thomas Edison
American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures
trust
...
monopoly
Domination of an industry by a single company that fixes prices and discourages competition; also, the company that dominates the industry by these means.
philanthropy
The attempt to improve the well-being of those in need by donating money or aid. Normally at old age.
Chinese Exclusion Act
Passed in 1882; banned Chinese immigration in US for a total of 40 years (in 10 yr increments as the decree was renewed) because the United States thought of them as a threat. Caused chinese population in America to decrease., 1882 - Chinese immigrants had to be examined, and all convicts, polygamists, prostitutes, anarchists, persons suffering from loathsome or contagious diseases, and persons liable to become public disturbances and problems were all excluded form the U.S
Gilded Age
A name for the late 1800s, coined by Mark Twain to describe the tremendous increase in wealth caused by the industrial age and the ostentatious lifestyles it allowed the very rich. The great industrial success of the U.S. and the fabulous lifestyles of the wealthy hid the many social problems of the time, including a high poverty rate, a high crime rate, and corruption in the government.
Salvation Army
welfare organization that came to the US from England in 1880 to provide food, shelter, and employment to the urban poor while preaching temperance and morality
John Dewey
He was a philosopher who believed in "learning by doing" which formed the foundation of progressive education. He believed that the teachers' goal should be "education for life and that the workbench is just as important as the blackboard."
Morrill Act
gave states land that could sell to establish colleges, land grant colleges, of 1862, in this act, the federal government had donated public land to the states for the establishment of college; as a result 69 land- grant institutions were established.
Joseph Pulitzer
Creator of the Pulitzer Prize, this man was the head of the New York Word newspaper, which during the Spanish-American War caused journalism to peek with what came to be called "yellow journalism" as he competed mainly against the New York Journal
Wm. Randolph Herst
...
Booker T. Washington
Prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was head of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. His book "Up from Slavery."
Yellow Journalism
One of the causes of the Spanish-American War (1898) - this was when newspaper publishers like Hearst and Pulitzer sensationalized news events (like the sinking of the Maine) to anger American public towards Spain.
Horatio Alger
...
Battle of Antietam
the single, bloodiest day of the entire Civil War in which nearly 6,000 Union and confederate soldiers were killed and another 17,000 seriously injured
Richmond, Virginia
city in Virginia that became the capital of the Confederacy
Jefferson Davis
president of the Confederacy
West Virginia
state that was created in 1863 when 48 western Virginia counties seceded from the state of Virginia and rejoined the Union
Army of the Potomac
the name given to the union army in the East
General George McClellan
appointed by Lincoln to head the Union army of the East; Lincoln was frustrated when he failed to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond
Battle of Shiloh
Grant narrowly defeats the Confederates during this battle and forces them to retreat to Corinth; together both Union and Confederates have 20,000 casualties during this battle
David Farragut
leader of the Union naval forces who captured the city of New Orleans, which was the largest city of the South; The Union's victory under him gave the North control of almost all the Mississippi River
boomtowns
grew almost overnight near big mining areas
ore
mineral inside of a lode
lode
rictockh streak of ore
comstock lode
rich lode named after Henry Comstock-worth 100s of millions of dollars
subsidies
financial aid and land grants given to railroad companies to benefit globally
National Grange
1st farmers organization-local self help organizations
cooperatives
stores where farmers bought products from each other
populists party
goal was populism
free silver
unlimited production of silver
reservations
land set aside for Native Americans
Sand Creek Massacre
attack on chief Black Kettle and Cheyenne by Chivington and Colorado volunteers 1864
George Custer
leader of 7ty cavalry ordered to scout Native American encampment at Little Big Horn
dawes act
law that eliminated nomadic traditions and lack of private property
wounded knee
creek in South Dakota where Lakota Sioux gathered after Sitting Bull died
consolidation
practice of combining companies
Cornelius Vanderbilt
one of the first railroad barons-formed NY Central line
standard gauge
4 ft 8.5 inches as width of the track
George Pullman
developed pullman sleeping car
rebates
secret discounts
pools
secret agreements among railroad barons
Menlo Park
city in NJ where Edison developed his inventions
George Westinghouse
developed tranformers
assembly line
each person performed a specific task-less expensive way to manufacture goods
mass production
produce in large numbers more quickly
corporation
company that sells shares
stocks
shares
shareholders
partial owners of stocks
dividends
cash payments from the corporarions profits
Rockerfeller
made Standard Oil Company in Ohio 1870
horizontal intergration
combining competing firms into one corporation
trust
group of companies managed by the same board of directors
monopoly
almost totally controlled by 1 producer
vertical intergration
buying companies that have supplies needed to make your product
J.P.Morgan
founded US Steel Corporation
philanthropy
using riches to help others
mergers
combining of companies
Sherman Antitrust Act
got rid of monopoly
sweatshops
crowded urban factories
Trade Unions
groups with certain skills of trades
Knights of Labor
national labor orginization formed in Philadelphia by garment cutters
American Federation of Labor
group of national trade unions-led by Samuel Gompers
collective bargaining
union workers bargain with management
ILGWU
group of women who pushed for safer working enviroments
strikebreakers
people who replaced workers on strike
Haymarket Riot
led people to associate labor movement twith terrorism and disorder
Homestead Strike
strike with 10 people killed in Homestesad,Pennsylvania
Pullman Strike
union railroad people destroyed train tracks on strike but were ordered to stop by law
injunction
court order
clipper ship
sailing vessel built to sail as fast as steamships
telegraph
a machine that sends electric signals over wires
Morse code
A series of dots and dashes representing the letters of the alphabet
trade union
Organization of workers with the same trade or skill
prejudice
an opinion or strong feeling formed without careful thought or regard to the facts
discrimination
unfair treatment of a person or group on the basis of prejudice
famine
severe food shortage
nativist
people who opposed immigration
cotton gin
a machine that separates the seeds from raw cotton fibers
fixed cost
a regular expense involved in doing business
capital
money available to invest in business
credit
a form of a loan extended in business transactions
strike
a group's refusal to work in protest against low pay or bad work conditions
yeoman
An owner and cultivator of a small farm.
tenant farmer
a farmer who works land owned by someone else
overseer
Person in charge of slaves in the field
spiritual
an african American religious folk song
Slave Code
laws that controlled the lives of enslaved African Americans and denied them basic rights
Who developed the refrigerated train car, used to transport meats and produce?
Gustavus Swift
Who devised Janney car couplers, used to link train cars?
Eli H. Janney
rebates
secret discounts offered by large railroad companies to their biggest customers
pools
secret agreements made among the railroad barons to divide the industry into regions
Who developed the Pullman sleeping car, allowing passengers to make overnight trips, and the dining car, making railroad travel more enjoyable?
George M. Pullman
consolidation
the practice of combining separate companies
What was the standard gauge for railroad track width adopted by almost all companies?
4' 8.5"
What was the name of the railroad baron whose "empire" stretched from New York City to the Great Lakes?
Cornelius Vanderbilt
How many miles of railroad track were there in the United States in 1860? In 1900?
1860- 30,000 mi.
1900- 250,000 mi.
The railroad network allowed the flour milling industry to move farther west, settling in ________.
Kansas City
Which railroad barons founded the Central Pacific with two other partners?
Leland Stanford
Collis P. Huntington
When was the first transcontinental railroad completed?
1869
Who developed the air brakes that improved the system for stopping trains?
George Westinghouse
What is the name of the railroad baron who built the Great Northern line between Minnesota and Washington?
James J. Hill
Who invented the typewriter, and in what year?
Christopher Sholes
1868
Who developed the telephone, and in what year?
Alexander Graham Bell
1876
Who invented the Kodak camera, and in what year?
George Eastman
1888
How many patents for new inventions did the United States government grant between 1860 and 1890?
more than 400,000
Who invented the telegraph, and in what year?
Samuel Morse
1844
Who created the first workable lightbulb, and in what year?
Thomas Edison
1879
Who invented the vacuum cleaner, and in what year?
John Thurman
1899
The first telegraph cable across the Atlantic Ocean was laid by who, in what year?
Cyrus Field
1866
trust
a group of companies managed by the same board of directors
What was the name of Carnegie's first steel plant?
J. Edgar Thompson Steel Works
What were the three main techniques Rockefeller used to drive his competition out of business?
1- Lowered prices

2- Pressured customers to not use competition

3- Persuaded railroads to give rebates
horizontal integration
combining competing firms into one corporation
Before oil was drilled for all over the world, it was found seeping out of the ground in _____.
western Pennsylvania
What city became the "steel capital" of the United States?
Pittsburg, Pennsylvania
monopoly
almost total control by a single producer of an industry
After combining all of his companies into the Carnegie Steel Company, Carnegie produced _______ of the nation's steel.
one-third
A leading figure in America's early steel industry was ________.
Andrew Carnegie
philanthropy
the use of money to benefit the community
vertical integration
acquiring companies that provide services and equipment
Who did Carnegie sell his company to?
J. Pierpont Morgan
What was the goal of the Sherman Antitrust Act?
to prevent trusts and monopolies from controlling the market
mergers
the combining of companies
What were the three resources referred to by economists as the "factors of production", which allowed the United States to become an economic power?
land, labor, and capital
In what year, city, and state was John D. Rockefeller born?
1839, Richmond, Virginia
Who was the former railroad conductor who was the first person to drill for oil?

Where did he drill?
Edwin L. Drake

Titusville, Pennsylvania
Child-labor law in the 1800's stated that children had to be __ years old to work, and could not work for more than __ hours a day.
12 years old
10 hours/day
sweatshop
crowded urban factories filled with flammable materials where garment workers labored
What was the name of the labor union formed by garment cutters in Philadelphia? Who led them?
Knights of Labor
Terrence V. Powderly
In 1881 a group of national trade unions formed a group that became known as what in 1886?
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
Who led the AFL?
Samuel Gompers
collective bargaining
a system in which unions represent workers in bargaining with management
By 1904, the AFL had approximately how many members?
1.6 million
Which leader in the fight for workers' rights was commonly called Mother Jones?
Mary Harris Jones
Nearly 150 workers died in 1911 after a famous fire broke out in what sweatshop?
Triangle Shirtwaist Companyq
ILGWU stands for _____.
International Ladies' Garment Workers Union
strikebreaker
person hired to replace a striking worker in order to break up a strike
Antilabor feelings increased after a bloody clash between strikers and police where in May 1886?
Chicago
Haymarket Square
In what city and state did the militia have to be used to break up riot's at a Carnegie plant?
Homestead, Pennsylvania
The steelworkers' union dwindled after the failure of what strike?
the Homestead Strike
injunction
a court order to stop an action, i.e. strike
What were the average hours for an industrial laborer in the late 1800's?
10 to 12 hours/day
6 days/week
Who developed the refrigerated train car, used to transport meats and produce?
Gustavus Swift
Who devised Janney car couplers, used to link train cars?
Eli H. Janney
rebates
secret discounts offered by large railroad companies to their biggest customers
pools
secret agreements made among the railroad barons to divide the industry into regions
Who developed the Pullman sleeping car, allowing passengers to make overnight trips, and the dining car, making railroad travel more enjoyable?
George M. Pullman
consolidation
the practice of combining separate companies
What was the standard gauge for railroad track width adopted by almost all companies?
4' 8.5"
What was the name of the railroad baron whose "empire" stretched from New York City to the Great Lakes?
Cornelius Vanderbilt
How many miles of railroad track were there in the United States in 1860? In 1900?
1860- 30,000 mi.
1900- 250,000 mi.
The railroad network allowed the flour milling industry to move farther west, settling in ________.
Kansas City
Which railroad barons founded the Central Pacific with two other partners?
Leland Stanford
Collis P. Huntington
When was the first transcontinental railroad completed?
1869
Who developed the air brakes that improved the system for stopping trains?
George Westinghouse
What is the name of the railroad baron who built the Great Northern line between Minnesota and Washington?
James J. Hill
Who invented the typewriter, and in what year?
Christopher Sholes
1868
Who developed the telephone, and in what year?
Alexander Graham Bell
1876
Who invented the Kodak camera, and in what year?
George Eastman
1888
How many patents for new inventions did the United States government grant between 1860 and 1890?
more than 400,000
Who invented the telegraph, and in what year?
Samuel Morse
1844
Who created the first workable lightbulb, and in what year?
Thomas Edison
1879
Who invented the vacuum cleaner, and in what year?
John Thurman
1899
The first telegraph cable across the Atlantic Ocean was laid by who, in what year?
Cyrus Field
1866
trust
a group of companies managed by the same board of directors
What was the name of Carnegie's first steel plant?
J. Edgar Thompson Steel Works
What were the three main techniques Rockefeller used to drive his competition out of business?
1- Lowered prices

2- Pressured customers to not use competition

3- Persuaded railroads to give rebates
horizontal integration
combining competing firms into one corporation
Before oil was drilled for all over the world, it was found seeping out of the ground in _____.
western Pennsylvania
What city became the "steel capital" of the United States?
Pittsburg, Pennsylvania
monopoly
almost total control by a single producer of an industry
After combining all of his companies into the Carnegie Steel Company, Carnegie produced _______ of the nation's steel.
one-third
A leading figure in America's early steel industry was ________.
Andrew Carnegie
philanthropy
the use of money to benefit the community
vertical integration
acquiring companies that provide services and equipment
Who did Carnegie sell his company to?
J. Pierpont Morgan
What was the goal of the Sherman Antitrust Act?
to prevent trusts and monopolies from controlling the market
mergers
the combining of companies
What were the three resources referred to by economists as the "factors of production", which allowed the United States to become an economic power?
land, labor, and capital
In what year, city, and state was John D. Rockefeller born?
1839, Richmond, Virginia
Who was the former railroad conductor who was the first person to drill for oil?

Where did he drill?
Edwin L. Drake

Titusville, Pennsylvania
Child-labor law in the 1800's stated that children had to be __ years old to work, and could not work for more than __ hours a day.
12 years old
10 hours/day
sweatshop
crowded urban factories filled with flammable materials where garment workers labored
What was the name of the labor union formed by garment cutters in Philadelphia? Who led them?
Knights of Labor
Terrence V. Powderly
In 1881 a group of national trade unions formed a group that became known as what in 1886?
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
Who led the AFL?
Samuel Gompers
collective bargaining
a system in which unions represent workers in bargaining with management
By 1904, the AFL had approximately how many members?
1.6 million
Which leader in the fight for workers' rights was commonly called Mother Jones?
Mary Harris Jones
Nearly 150 workers died in 1911 after a famous fire broke out in what sweatshop?
Triangle Shirtwaist Companyq
ILGWU stands for _____.
International Ladies' Garment Workers Union
strikebreaker
person hired to replace a striking worker in order to break up a strike
Antilabor feelings increased after a bloody clash between strikers and police where in May 1886?
Chicago
Haymarket Square
In what city and state did the militia have to be used to break up riot's at a Carnegie plant?
Homestead, Pennsylvania
The steelworkers' union dwindled after the failure of what strike?
the Homestead Strike
injunction
a court order to stop an action, i.e. strike
What were the average hours for an industrial laborer in the late 1800's?
10 to 12 hours/day
6 days/week
chapter 19
hggggggg
ghdfg
dhfhfhfg
ocean currents
the steady flow of ocean water in a prevailing direction
surface current
a continuous horizontal flow of water in the upper 1000 m driven by prevailing winds
cold-core ring
ring with cold in middle
warm-core ring
An offshoot stream from an ocean current that forms a ring with a core of warm water
counter-current
slow horizontal ocean currents that flow in a direction generally opposite to the wind driven currents at the surface
chapter 24.2
none
density current
a current that is heavier and denser than surrounding water. they sink to the bottom of the ocean and circulate in the deep ocean for 500 to 2000 before resurfacing
up-welling
occurs on eastern margin of ocean basins, trade winds push water away from coastline so colder lower waters rise at the coast bringing nutrients
acostarse
to go to bed
estirarse
to stretch
vestirse
to get dressed
1
1
2
2
radiation
the act of spreading outward from a central source
convection
the transfer of heat through a fluid (liquid or gas) caused by molecular motion
conduction
the direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance that it is touching
troposphere
the lowest atmospheric layer
stratosphere
the atmospheric layer between the troposphere and the mesosphere
ozone
a form of oxygen that has three oxygen atoms in each molecule instead of two. protects us from dangerous ultraviolet radiation from the sun
mesosphere
the atmospheric layer between the stratosphere and the thermosphere
thermosphere
the atmospheric layer between the mesosphere and the exosphere
ionosphere
the outer region of the Earth's atmosphere
temperature inversion
atmospheric condition in which warm air traps cooler air near the earth's surface
sharecropping
system in which landowners leased a few acres of land to farmworkers in return for a portion of their crops
10 percent plan
It was a reconstruction plan that decreed that a state could be reintegrated into the union when 10 percent of voters in the presidential election of 1860 had taken an oath of allegiance to the United States and pledged to abide by emancipation. The next step would be erection of a state gov. and then purified regime. (Lincoln)
segregation
a social system that provides separate facilities for minority groups
black codes
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves
ku klux klan
a secret society of white Southerners in the United States
cash crops
crops, such as tobacco, sugar, and cotton, raised in large quantities in order to be sold for profit
wade-davis plan
rival plan for reconstruction: required majority of white men to swear loyalty to the union. *lincoln thought it was too harsh
restoration
making the south as it was before
andrew johnson
A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
abraham lincoln
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
integration
the action of incorporating a racial or religious group into a community
freedmens bureau
Organization run by the army to care for and protect southern Blacks after the Civil War
reedemers
because they redeemed the south from Federal intervention, wanted to increase economic opportunities for Southern Businessmen, lowered taxes, cut expenses
reconstruction
the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
booth
United States actor and assassin of President Lincoln (1838-1865)
poll tax
a tax of a fixed amount per person and payable as a requirement for the right to vote
literacy test
A test administered as a precondition for voting, often used to prevent African Americans from exercising their right to vote.
grandfather clauses
exempted citizens from restrictions on voting they, or their ancestors, had voted in previous elections or served in the conf. military
lynching
putting a person to death by mob action without due process of law
15 amendment
All US born citizen has voting rights. Banned racial restrictions on voting. United States may not prevent a citizen from voting based on that citizen's race, color.
14 amendment
all people are citizens and no state has the right to deprive any citizen of life, liberty, or property
13 amendment
the constitutional amend. ratified after the civil war that forbade slavery and involuntary servitude.
corruption
convincment (as of a public official) by improper means (as bribery) to violate duty (as by commiting a felony)
Hiram Revels
African American minister who was elected to serve in the Senate; one of the first blacks to serve in the Senate
Blanche K. Bruce
An American politician. Bruce represented Mississippi as a U.S. Senator from 1875 to 1881 and was the first black to serve a full term in the Senate.
scalawags
southern whites who supported republican policy throught reconstruction
carpetbaggers
northerners who moved to the south after the war;they got their name because often their bags were made of old carpet
impeach
to formally accuse someone
first reconstruction act
(1867) divided the South into 5 military districts, granted local voting rights to African Americans, and barred former Confederate leaders from holding office.
second reconstruction act
This act covered the ambiguity about elections under the Military Reconstruction Act of 1867 and stated that all men would be registered to vote via the efforts of the military commanders in the 5 southern districts. This produced the most blacks by percentage to vote ever
tenure of office act
1866 - enacted by radical congress - forbade president from removing civil officers without senatorial consent - was to prevent Johnson from removing a radical republican from his cabinet
reconciliation
agreement after a fight
amnesty act
Passed in 1872, law which granted civil rights to ex-confederates and so set the stage for them to regain control of the south
Bessemer process
an industrial process for making steel using a Bessemer converter to blast air through through molten iron and thus burning the excess carbon and impurities
freedmen
African Americans who had been set free from slavery
override
rule against
integrate
make into a whole or make part of a whole
thaddeus stevens
Man behind the 14th Amendment, which ends slavery. Stevens and President Johnson were absolutely opposed to each other. Known as a Radical Republican
edwin stanton
served as the secretary of war under Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War. He refused to leave after Johnson fired him, thus starting the impeachment process.
ulysses grant
an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
border states
in the civil war the states between the north and the south: delaware, mayland, kentucky, and missouri
blockade
close
offensive
the action of attacking an enemy
Rebel
used by northerners of Confederate soldiers
yankee
an American who lives in the North (especially during the American Civil War)
blockade runner
ship that sails into and out of a blockaded area
ironclad
warship covered with protective iron plates
casuality
someone injured or killed in an accident
emancipate
free from slavery or servitude
ratify
approve and express assent, responsibility, or obligation
habeas corpus
the civil right to obtain a writ of habeas corpus as protection against illegal imprisonment
draft
order somebody to enter the army
bounty
payment or reward (especially from a government) for enlisting in the military
greenback
a piece of U.S. paper money first issued by the North during the Civil War
inflation
a general and progressive increase in prices
entrenched
established firmly and securely
total war
an army marches, destroying anything and everthing in its path
Union
being of or having to do with the northern United States and those loyal to the Union during the Civil War
Confederacy
the southern states that seceded from the United States in 1861
Abraham Lincoln
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
a book
Uncle Tom's Cabin Book written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, published in 1852
Susan B. Anthony
social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation
John C. Calhoun
(1830s-40s) Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law, which forced the cooperation of Northern states in returning escaped slaves to the south. He also argued on the floor of the senate that slavery was needed in the south. He argued on the grounds that society is supposed to have an upper ruling class that enjoys the profit of a working lower class.
Lincoln-Douglas debates
1858 Senate Debate, Lincoln forced Douglas to debate issue of slavery, Douglas supported pop-sovereignty, Lincoln asserted that slavery should not spread to territories, Lincoln emerged as strong Republican candidate
Dred Scott Case
Supreme Court case which ruled that slaves are not citizens but are property, affirmed that property cannot be interfered with by Congress, slaves do not become free if they travel to free territories or states, fueled abolitionist movement, hailed as victory for the south
Compromise of 1850
Forestalled the Civil War by instating the Fugitive Slave Act , banning slave trade in DC, admitting California as a free state, splitting up the Texas territory, and instating popular sovereignty in the Mexican Cession
Harper's Ferry, VA Oct 16, 1859
John Brown's scheme to invade the South with armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, northern abolitionists; seized the federal arsenal; Brown and remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hanged
Missouri Compromise
The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery.
Henry Clay
Senator who persuaded Congress to accept the Missouri Compromise, which admitted Maine into the Union as a free state, and Missouri as a slave state
Fredrick Douglass
American abolitionist and writer, he escaped slavery and became a leading African American spokesman and writer. He published the autobiography, The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, and founded the abolitionist newspaper, the North Star.
Abolitionists
People who wanted to end slavery, people who believed that slavery should be against the law
William Lloyd Garrison
1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Seneca Falls Convention
Took place in upperstate New York in 1848. Women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women. There, they wrote the Declaration of Sentiments, which among other things, tried to get women the right to vote.
Underground Railroad
a system that helped enslaved African Americans follow a network of escape routes out of the South to freedom in the North
Harriet Tubman
American abolitionist. Born a slave on a Maryland plantation, she escaped to the North in 1849 and became the most renowned conductor on the Underground Railroad, leading more than 300 slaves to freedom.
roger taney
United States jurist who served as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court.
missouri compromise
an agreement in 1820 between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States concerning the extension of slavery into new territories
election of 1860
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.
compromise of 1850
Forestalled the Civil War by instating the Fugitive Slave Act , banning slave trade in DC, admitting California as a free state, splitting up the Texas territory, and instating popular sovereignty in the Mexican Cession
Dred Scott
United States slave who sued for liberty after living in a non-slave state
Henry clay
...
John C. Calhoun
(1830s-40s) Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law, which forced the cooperation of Northern states in returning escaped slaves to the south. He also argued on the floor of the senate that slavery was needed in the south. He argued on the grounds that society is supposed to have an upper ruling class that enjoys the profit of a working lower class.
list 6 characteristics of living things
have cells
list 6 characteristics of living things
use energy
list 6 characteristics of living things
have chemicals
list 6 characteristics of living things (i.e. bird flying away)
respond to surroundings
list 6 characteristics of living things (i.e. tree)
grow and develop
list 6 characteristics of living things
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
how does a barnacle display "homeostasis"
a barnacle needs h2o, the barnacles closes to trap moisture
what is prokaryote?
a cell without a nucleus
Examples of protists
slime mold, amoeba, paramecium, seaweed
where do you find protists?
in water or moist surroundings
where do you find fungis?
forest floors, bathroom floors, moist, dark places
What is meant by Structure?
what a cell is made of and how its parts are put together
What is meant by Function?
what the cell does to survive
First to observe cells and when/where?
Robert Hooke in 1663; in britain; found 1.2billion cells
define resolution
ability to clearly distinguish the individual parts of an object
define cytoplasm
the area between the nucleus and the cell membrane, like jello
define golgi body
cell's post office
6 elements of organisms
carbon hydrogen nitrogen oxygen phosphorus sulfur
define element
any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
define atom
smallest "unit" of an element
define molecule
smallest "unit" of a compound
define respiration
cells break down simple sugars (glucose) and release energy that the cell can use for growth and mitosis
how is energy stored in cells like money in a bank account?
when cell has enough energy it can deposit them (glucose) in the vauoles and when it doesn't have enough it can take it(glucose) out of the vacuole
3 stages if a cell cycle
Interphase, Mitosis, Cytokinesis
define heredity
passing of physical characteristics from parent to offspring
define trait
form of characteristic
define gene
factors that control a trait
define allele
different forms of a trait
define Gregor Mendel (when, where, what)
1865, Austria, pea;
define karyotype
a picture of all of a person's chromosomes, shown in pairs.
define cystic fibrosis
It is a lung disease that causes a buildup of thick mucous on the lungs and digestive tract
define hemophilia
can't make protein for blood to clot
list 3 factors that affect Natural Selection and define
1) overproduction: too many born; 2) competition: who is best; 3) variation: helpful characteristics
what makes protists animal-like?
they look like snails /snail shells
animal like protists are called...
protozoans (unicellular, heterotrophs, move)
plant-like protists are often called
algae
name a type of algae found in fresh water
euglenoids
what is an euglenoids(algae) animal-like characteristic
they can be heterotrophs if sunlight is not available
name the 3 main parts of a seed
1)seed coat, 2) stored food; 3) embroyo
define germination
series of events that results in the growth of a plant from a seed
define fertilization
The fusion of sperm and egg (gametes)
difference between xylem and phloem
xylem carries h2o and minerals, phloem carries glucose
define endocrine system
system in the human body that produces chemicals that control many of the body's daily activities and controls growth and development
define pituitary gland
controls growth and development and is responsible for regulating growth, blood pressure, amount of water in your blood near heart.
define thymus gland
helps the immune system
what is the pancreas and adrenal's job?
controls the level of glucose in the blood
what is the pancreas' job?
controls level of glucose in blood by releasing insulin
where is the pancrease?
near stomach
where is the adrenal gland?
above kidney
where is the parathyroid and thyroid?
in neck - front
what is negative feedback?
when the body detects that the level of a certain hormone is enough, sends a signal to the gland to stop producing the hormone
when was the earth formed
4.6 bya
when did bacteria appear in seas
3.5 bya
when did algae and fungus appear
1 bya
when did the first animals appear
0.6 bya
Friday
viernes
January
enero
February
febrero
March
marzo
April
abril
May
mayo
June
junio
July
julio
August
agosto
September
septiembre
October
octubre
November
noviembre
December
deciembre
Who is he?
Quien es el muchacho?
This is Fred
Este es Fred
classmate
compañero de clase
nice to meet you
Mucho gusto
how are you?
¿Cómo estás?
what time is it
¿Qué hora es?
See You Later
hasta luego
nos vemos
See you later
form of ser: Alberto __ de Madrid
es
ADIOS (SPELLING/ACCENT)
Adiós
EL
él
UNTIL TOMORROW (SPELLING/ACCENT)
Hasta mañana
COMO SE LLAMA EL (SPELLING/ACCENT)
¿Cómo se llama él?
Today is May 23rd
Hoy es el veintitrés de mayo.
I am Matthew
Soy Mateo
I am from Houston
Soy de Houston
My email address is
Mi correo electrónico es
My telephone number is
Mi teléfono es
CUAL (SPELLING/ACCENT)
cuál
What is your telephone number
Cuál es tu teléfono
enchanted / nice to meet you
encantada
nice to meet you
Mucho gusto
translate: I needs to go
Tengo que irme.
until I see you / appropriate goodbye
Hasta pronto
author of Don Quijote
Miguel de Cervantes
exports olive oil from Spain
Andalucia (accent on last i)
natural border between spain and france
los pirineos
well know dish for Spain
paella
what is La Mezquita and why important
mosque that reflects the Arab culture of Spain
Why is the city of Avila famous
medieval walls
baile popular in Espana
flamenco
artista popular de Espana - moderno y abstracto
Joan Miro
clown / buffoon
gracioso
pretty
bonita
translate how old are you
¿Cuántos años tienes?
translate when is your birthday
¿Cuándo es tu cumpleaños?
translate when is Ana's birthday
¿ Cuándo es el cumpleaños de ana
60
sesenta
describe an angry face using ser (unfriendly)
Rodrigo es antipatico y moreno (accent on 2nd a of antipatico)
clown (Juana)
Juana es graciosa y pelirroja
translate "what are you like?"
cómo eres
Te gusta mas la comida americana o thai
me gusta más la comida americana
plural vs. non plural of gustar
gusta (singular) vs. gustan (plural
Cual es un deporte muy popular en Puerto Rico
Un deporte muy popular es el béisbol
Cual es un plato tipico de Puerto Rico
Un plato típico es habichuelas
cuales son los dos cuerpos de agua que limitan (border) Puerto Rico
El mar Caribe y el oceano Atlantico limitan al país
currency Puerto Rico
dollar
Cuando leggo Cristobal Colon a Puerto Rico
Colon llego a Puerto Rico en 1493
run
correr
to walk
pasear
to download files
bajar archivos
to sing
cantar
to surf the internet
navegar por internet
chat online
platicar en línea
translate: with whom
con quien
translate: what do you like to do?
Que te gusta hacer?
translate: do juan and pble like to go to the mall?
a juan y a pablo les gusta ir al centro commercial?
the gym
la gimnasio
to rehearsal
ensayo
job for mom
...
it is good weather
Hace buen tiempo
there is rain
hace lluve
famous artist in Texas picture Tamalada y Una tarde
Carmen lomas Gomez
folder
la carpeta
translate: do you need anything for art clss?
necistas algo para el colegio/la clase de arte?
school supplies
los utiles escolres
this week
esta semana
this weekend
este fin de semana
language
idioma
cual es la moneda de costa rica
la moneda es el colon
2 animals in costa rica
mono congo and quetzal
translate: in front of
delante de
translate: far from
lejos de
cual es el baile nacional de Chile? rooster dance
el baile es la cueca
Poet from Chile
Pablo Neruda
natives in Chile
los mapuches
chile plate of food
pastel de chocio (meat pie), or mariscos (seafood)
que ciudad es famosa por su arquitectura mudejar?
iquique
to understand
entender
6 facts about mexico
1) capital: Mexico; 2) government: federal republic; 3) agriculture; 4) gold; 5) petrolium;6) currency: Peso
funny
graciosa
TOWNSHEND ACTS
A tax that the British Parliament placed on leads, glass, paint and tea
INTOLERABLE ACTS
in response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses
committees of correspondence
Organization founded by Samuel Adams consisting of a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies
Patrick Henry
Outspoken member of House of Burgesses; inspired colonial patriotism with "Give me liberty or give me death" speech
Thomas Jefferson
Virginian, architect, author, governor, and president. Lived at Monticello. Wrote the Declaration of Independence. Second governor of Virgina. Third president of the United States.
john Hancock
Patriot leader and president of the Second Continental Congress; first person to sign the Declaration of Independence.
enumerated powers
Powers specifically given to Congress in the Constitution; including the power to collect taxes, coin money, regulate foreign and interstate commerce, and declare war.
federalism
a system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
great compromise
the agreement by which Congress would have two houses, the Senate (where each state gets equal representation-two senators) and the House of Representatives (where representation is based on population).
new jersey plan
Opposite of the Virginia Plan, it proposed a single-chamber congress in which each state had one vote. This created a conflict with representation between bigger states, who wanted control befitting their population, and smaller states, who didn't want to be bullied by larger states.
popular sovereignty
The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government
republicanism
the belief that government should be based on the consent of the people; people exercise their power by voting for political representatives
Virginia plan
Virginia delegate James Madison's plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population
Conestoga wagons
Built by Germans to carry produce to town, used wide wheels, curved beds, canvas covers
Francis Cabot Lowell
opened a textile plant in Waltham, Massachusetts; his mill launched the factory system
john O'Sullivan
influential editor of the Democratic Review who coined the phrase "manifest destiny" in 1845.
Osceola
Seminole leader who was seized while under a flag of truce
centralist
a supporter of strong national government and weak state power
empresario
businessman
coahuila
Texas was once a part of the Mexican state of ___________.
terms of cos surrender
give back public property and supplies
leave Texas
no interference with revolution
absent, to be
غاب
able, to be
قدر
absorb
شرب
abort (a fetus)
سقّط
abound, to cause to
فيّض
accept
قبل
accomplish
حقّق
accuse
تَّهم
accustom
تعوّد / ولّف
ache
ضرّ / وجع
acknowledge
عتَرف ب
acquaint with (s/th or s/b)
تعرّف معَ / تعارف معَ
act
تصرف
act (play a role)
مَتّل
add
زاد
adopt (a child, an idea)
تبنّى
advance
تقدّم
advise
نصح
affect
أتّر على
afraid of, to be
خاف من
age (get old)
شرف
agree (be in agreement)
تَاحد
agree with
تّافق معَ
aim at
قصد
amuse
نشّط / ضحّك
analyze
حلّل
angry, to be
تقلّق
annoy
صدّع
answer
جاوب
appear
بان
applaud
صفّق
apply (a rule, an idea)
طبّق
apply for (a job)
قدّم طَلَب
appoint
عيّن
approach
قرّب من
argue with
تخاصم معَ
arrange
دبّر / رتّب
arrest (s/b)
شدّ / حبس/ قبط على
arrive
وصّل
ascend
طلع
ask
سوّل
ask (for s/th)
طلَب
ask (in marriage)
خطب
assemble (parts)
ركّب
assemble (with people)
جتَامَع
assure
أكّد
attack
هجم على
attempt
حاول
attend
حضر ف
attention, pay
ردّ البال / حضى راسو
avoid
تجنّب
balance (with success)
وفق
banter
تفلّى
bargain
تشطّر
bark
نبح
bathe
غسل / تحمّم
be
كان
beat (drum)
طبّل
beat s/b (in a game)
غلب
become
ولّى
become accustomed
ولّف
befriend
تصاحب معَ
beg
رغب / طلب
begin
بدى
belch/burp
تگرّع
believe (s/b)
تيّق
believe in
أمن ب
benefit from
ستَفد من
betray
خان
bigger, to make
كبّر
bind
ربط
birth, to give
ولد
bite
عضّ
bless
بَارك
blind, to be
عمل
blow up (with air)
نفخ
blow up (explode)
فرگع
boil
غلّى
born, to be
تزاد
borrow
تسلّف
bow
حدر
bow down (prostrate)
سخد
break
هرّس
broken, to be
خسَر / تهرّس
break down (machine)
تخسّر
breathe
تنفّس
bring
جاب
bring in
دخّل
brush (hair)
مشط
build
بِنَى
burn
حرق
burnt, to be
تحرق
burst (pipe)
تفرگع
bury
دفن
buy
شرى
call
عيّط ل/على
call on the phone
ضرب التِليفون / عيّط ل
calm, to be
تهنّى
can
قدر
camp
خيّم
capture
قبط
care of, to take
تهلا ف
carry
هزّ
carve (wood)
نقش
cash
صرّف
catch
شدّ / قبط
catch up (with)
لحق على/ خلط على
cause
سبّب
cause, to be the
تسبّب ف
celebrate
حتافَل
censor (prices, film)
راقب
certain, to be
تأَكّد
certify
شهد ب
change
بدّل
changed, to be
تبدل
change (money)
صرّف
change (weather)
تبدّل
charge
شارجَى
charge of, to be in
تكلّف ب
chat
دّاگَر
cheat
غشّ
cheat (exam)
نقل
cheat out of
شمت
chew
مضغ
choose
ختار
churn
مخض
clap
صفّق
clarify
وضّح / شرح
clean
نقّى
clean (pipes)
سرّح
climb (to go up)
طلع
clog
خنق
close
شدّ
close eyes
غمّض
cold, to make
برّد
collapse
راب
collect (s/th)
جمع
come
جا
come by/near
قرّب
come together
تجْمَع
commend
وسى
comment
علّق
compare
قارن بين
complain about
تشكّى من
complain to
تشكّى على
complete
كمّل
concentrate
ركّز
concern
همّ
concerned with, to be
هتّم ب
confess
عتَرف
confirm
شهد ب
confuse (s/b)
حِيَّر
confused, to be
حار
congratulate
هنّى
conjugate
صرّف
connect
ربط
consideration, to take into
رَاعَى
consult (with)
تشاور معَ
contact
تَصل ب
content with, to be
رضى على
continue (in s/th)
ستَمر ف
continue studies
تابع
contribute
ساهم
control
تحكّم ف / راقب
converse
دّاگَر
cook
طيّب
cooperate (with)
تعاون معَ
cope
سلّك
copy (by hand)
نقل
copy (photocopy)
نسخ
correct
صحّح
cost
سوى
cough
كحّ / كحب
count
حسب
cover
حجب
cram into
خشى
crazy, to be
حمق
crazy, to make
حمّق
create
خلق
cross (road)
قطع
cross-breed
لقّم
crucify
صلّب
crucified, to be
تصلّب
cry
بكى
cry, to make
بكّى
cure
داوى
cured, to be
برى
curse
عاير
cut
قطع
cut (hair)
حسّن
cut/injure (skin)
جرح
cut/injured, to be
تجرح
cut (a pattern from cloth)
فصّل
damage
خسّر
dampen
فزّگ
damp, to get
فزگ
dance
شطح
deaf, to be
طرش
deafen
صمّك
deal with (s/b)
تعامل معَ
decide
قرّر
declare
علن
decrease
نقص
dedicate
هدى
defeat
تغلّب على
defend
دافع على
define
حدّد
defy
تحدّى
delay
عطّل
deliver
فرّق
deprive
حرم
descend
هبط / نزل
describe
وصف
deserve
ستَحق
design
خطّط
desire strongly
مات على
destroy
هدّم
develop
طوّر
develop (film)
خرّج
die
مات
differ (from)
ختَلف معَ
dig
حفر
digest
هضم
dinner, to have
تعشّى
direct
وجّه
direct (as an order)
أمر
dirty, to make
وسّخ
dirty, to get
توسّخ
disappear
غبر
discipline
أدّب / ربّى
discover
كتَشف
discuss (a topic)
ناقش
dislike
ما حملش / كره
dissolve (s/th)
دوّب
distribute
فرّق
distance oneself (from)
بعّد من
distinguish between
فرّق
divide
قسم
divorce
طلّق
dizzy, to get
داخ
dizzy, to make
دوّخ
do
دَار
drag
جرّ
draw
رسم
draw up (water from a well)
جبد
dream (about)
حلم ب
dress
لبس
dress up (slang)
تفركس
drink
شرب
drink coffee / go to a cafe
تقَهوا
drink, to make
شرّب
drip
قطر
drive
صاگ
drive crazy
حمّق
drop (s/th)
طيّح
drown
غرق
drunk, to get
سكر
dry, to get
نشف / يبس
dry (s/th)
نشّف / يبّس
dry (a wet floor)
جفّف
dye
صبغ
earn (money)
صوّر
easy, to make
سهّل
eat
كلى
eat breakfast
فطر
eat lunch
تغدّى
eat dinner
تعشّى
economize
قتَصد
elect
نتَخب
embarrass (s/b)
حشّم
embarrassed, to be
حشم
embrace
عانق
embrace Islam
سلم
emigrate
هاجر
empty
خوى
encourage
شجّع
enjoy (s/th)
تبرع / صطاب
enroll
تسجّل
enter
دخل
envy
حسد
erase
مسح / محى
escape
هرب
establish
بِنَى / أسّس
estimate
قدّر
evacuate (house/country)
خوى
evict
خرّج
evidence (give evidence of)
شهد علَى
evidence (give evidence in favor of)
شهد ل
evolve
تطوّر
exaggerate (slang)
بالغ
exchange
تبادل معَ
excuse
سمَح
exercise
مَارس
exhibit
عرض
exit
خرج
expensive, to get
غلى
experience
جرّب
expire
تقاضى
explain
شرح / فسّر
explode
تفرگع
exploit
ستَغل
export
صدّر
express
عبّر
exterminate
تخلّص من
fabricate
ضنَع
face
تقابل معَ
facilitate
سهّل
fail
سقط
faint
سخف
fall
طاح
fall, to make
طيّح
fake
زوّر
fart
حزق
falsify
زوّر
fast
صام
fear
خاف
feed
وكّل
feed fodder
علّف
feel
حسّ
ferment
خمر
fight (physically)
تدابز
fill (intransitive)
عمر
fill out
عمّر
fill up
عمّر
filter
صفّى
finance
موّل
find
لقى
finish
كمّل / سالى
finished, to be
تسالى
fish
صيّد
fix
صَاوب / صلح
flatten (bread)
گرّص
flatter (a female)
تغزّل ب
flee
هرب
flip
قلب
flood
فاض
flow (liquid)
سَال
fly
طار
fold
طوى
follow
تبع
forbid
حرّم
force open
فرع
forge (signature)
زوّر
forget
نسَا
forgive
غفر / سَامح / سمح ل
form
كوّن
found
أسّس
free
طلق / حرّر
freeze
جمد
freeze (s/th)
جمّد
fry
قلى
fulfill (s/th)
حقّق
full (of food), to be
شبع
fun, to make
نشط / ضحك
fun of, to make
تفلّى على / ضحّك على
gain
ربح / كسب
gamble
قمّر
gather (s/th)
جمع
gather (with people)
جتَامَع
gathered, to be
تجَمّع
gaze
حنزز
generalize
عمّم
generate
ولّد
get
شدّ / خدى
get better
تحسن
get down
هبط
get off
نزل
get on
طلع / ركب
get rid of
تخلّص من / تهنّى من
get through
داز من
get up
ناض
get used to
ولّف
give
عطى
give (bestow upon)
نعم
give change
صرف
give a ride
وصّل / دّى
give a speech
خطب
give back
ردّ / رجّع
give off
طلّق
give pain
ضرّ
glare at
خنزر ف
gleam
ضوى / لمع
glorify
مخّد
glue
لصّق
go
مشى
go ahead of/in front of
سبق
go by
داز على
go out
خرج
go through
داز من
go up
طلع
gossip about
هضر ف
govern
حكم على
grab
خطف
graze
رعى
greet
سلّم على
greet one another
تسالم
grill
شوى
grind
طحن
grow (get older/bigger)
كبر
guarantee
ضمن
guard
عسّ
guide
رشد
hand
مدّ
hang
علّگ
hang to dry
نشر
happen
طرى / جرى/ وقع
happy, to be
فرح
happy, to make
فرّح
harm
ضرّ
harvest
حصد
hatch
تفقّص
hate
كره
have
عند
heal (only of God)
شفى
hear
سمع
heat
سخّن
help
سَاعد / عاون
herd
سرح
hesitate
تردّد
hide
درّگ
hide (s/th)
خبّى
hide (oneself)
تخبّى
hinder
عتّر / عَرقَل
hire (a car)
كرى
hit
ضرب
hit, to be
تضرب
hold
شدّ
holy
قدس
honor
شرّف
hope
تمنّى
house
سكّن
hug
عنّق
hug one another
تعانق
hungry, to be
جاع
hunt
صيّد
hurry
زرب
hurt
ضرّ
ignore (slang)
ميّك على
ill, to be
مرض
ill, to make
مرّض
imagine
تخايل / تصوّر
imitate
قلّد
import
ستَورد
impose
فرض
imprison
سجن / شدّ ف الحبس
improve
تحسّن / حسّن
improvise
رتَجل
incapable, to be
عْجَز
increase
زاد
indicate
بيّن
infect
عادى
inform
خبر / علم
inherit
ورت
initiative, to take
بَادر
injure
جرح
inspect (education)
فتّش
install
ركّب / بلاصى
insult
سبّ / عاير
intend
قصد
integrate
دمج
interest
هتّم
interfere
تدخّل
interrupt
قاطع
intervene
تدخّل
introduce
قدّم
invent
ختَرع
invite
عرض على
iron
حدّد
irrigate
سقى / سگى
irritate
قلّق
irritated, to be
تقلّق
isolate
عزل / همّش
jealous, to be
غار على
join
ربط
joke
تفلّى / ضحك
judge
حاسب / حكم على
jump
نقّز
justify
برّر
keep
حتَفض ب / حافض على
keep house
گابل الدار / قابل الدار
kick (a ball)
قدف / شات
kidnap
خطف
kiss
باس
knead
عجن
knock
دَقّ
know
عرف
last (time)
دام / بقى
late, to be
تعطّل
late, to make
عطّل
laugh
ضحك
laugh, to make
ضحّك
lay down
حطّ
lay eggs
بيّض
lead
تزعّم
leak
قطر / سال
lean
تكّى
learn
تعلّم
leave
خرج
leave (a house/city for another)
رحل
leave alone
خلّى
leave behind
خلّى
lend
سلّف
lengthen
طوّل
lessen
قلّل
let
خلّى
let go of
طلق من
liberate
حرّر
lie
كدب
lift
هزّ
light
نَوّر / شعل
like
عجب / بغى
lighten (weight)
خفّف
listen to
تصَنَّت ل
limit
حبس / حدّد
limp
عرج
line, to draw a
سطّر
live
عَاش
live (reside)
سكن
loan
سلّف
lock
سورت / سدّ
look
شاف
look after
حضى / تهلاّ ف
look alike
تشابه
look behind
تلفّت
look down on (s/b)
حگر
look for
قلّب على
look like
بان بحال / شبه
look out (window)
طلّ
loosen
رخف / رخى / طلق
lose
تلّف / وضّر
lose (in a game)
خسَر
lost, to be
توضّر
love
مات على / بغى / حبّ
lower
نقص / هبّط / نزّل
magnify
عَضّم / كبّر
maintain
حافض على
make
صنع / صاوب
make difficult (for s/b)
تكرفس على
maltreat (destroy)
كرفس
manipulate
تحكّم
manufacture
صنع
mark
رشم / نقّط
marry (with)
تزوّج ب
marry off (daughter, etc.)
زوّج
manage
دبّر
massage (hammam)
كسّل
mean
عنى
measure
عبر
mediate
توسّط
meet
تلاقى
meet (with people)
جتَامَع
melt
داب
memorize
حفض
menace
هدّد
mercy (have or give)
رحم
merit
ستاحَق
ruin
كرفس
migrate
هجر
milk
حلب
mistake, to make a
غلط
miss
توَحَّش
miss a bus (3rd person)
مشى على
mix
خلّط
monitor (exam)
حرس / حضى
monopolize
حتَكر
motivate
حفّز
move (s/th)
كحّز / حرّك
moved, to be
تكحّز / تحرّك
move away from
بعد من
move residence
رحل / تحوّل
murder
قتل
mute, to be
تززن
name
سمّى
need
حتاج
neglect
فرّط / سمح ف
noise, to make
صدع
nominate
رشّح
notice
لاحض
obey
طاع
object
عارض
oblige
بزّز على / فرض على
observe
لاحض
occupy
حتلّ
occur
جرى / وقع
offer
هدى
oil
زيّت
old, to get
شرف
open
فتح / حلّ
operate (surgical)
فتح
oppose
قاوم
oppress
عدّب
order (s/th)
طلب
order (s/b)
أمر
organize
نضّم
overcome
تغلّب على
owe
تسال
owed, to be
سال
own
ملك
pacify
هدّن
pack
جمع
paint
صبغ
paralyze
شل
park (a car)
بلاصى
participate
شارك
party
حتَفل
pass
فات / داز
pass (exam)
نجح ف
pass by
داز على
paste
لصّق
patient, to be
صبر
pay
دفَع / خلّص
paid, to be
تخلّص
pay back
ردّ ل
peel
قشّر
peel (skin)
تقشّر
permit
سمح ل / خلّى
persuade
قنع
philosophize
تفَلسَف
photograph
صُوَّر
photographed, to be
تصوّر
pick up
رفَد
pick (light fruit)
جنى
pierce
تقب
pile up
عرّم
place
حطّ
plan
دبّر / خطّط
plant
زرع
play
لعب
please
عجب
plow
حرت
pluck
ريّش
poison
سمّم
poisoned, to be
تسمّم
pollute
لوّت
possess
ملك
postpone
أجّل
pour
خوى / كبّ
practice
نّدرب
praise
مدح
praise (only God)
حمَد
pray (only to God)
صلّى
pray (for s/b)
صلّى من جيتك
precede
سبق
prefer
فضّل
prepare
صاوب / وجّد
present
قَدّم
pressure
ضغط
pretend
بيّن بلّي / دار بحال
prevent
منع
print
طبع
produce
نتج
profit
ستَفد / ربح
progress
تقدّم
prohibit
منع
promise
واعد
pronounce
نطق
propose
قتَرح
proud, to be
فتَخر
prune
زبر
publish
نشر
pull
جبد / جارّ
punish
عاقب
purify
طَهّر
push
دفع
push (a button)
برك على / ورّك على
put
حطّ
put down
حطّ
put out (light)
طفى
put together (parts)
ركّب
quarrel
تخاصم
quiet, to be
سكت
quiet, to make
سكّت
quit
مشى بحالو
rain
طاح (الشتا)
raise
هزّ
raise (children)
ربّى
raised, to be
تربّى
rape
غتَصب
read
قرى
realize
حقق
recommend
شكَر
receive
توَصَّل
receive (a letter)
شدّ
recognize
تعرّف
record
سجّل
reduce
نقس
reform
صلح
refuse
رفض
refute
نفى
regret
ندم
reimburse
عوّض
reinforce
قوّى
rejoice
فرح
relax
رتاح
release
طلق
rely on
عوّل على
remain
بقى
remember
عقل عل / تفكّر
remind
فكّر
remove
زوّل / حيّد
renew
جدّد
rent
كرى
repair
ّصلّح
repeat
عاود
repent
تاب
reply
جاوب / ردّ
report
وَصّل
represent (a company)
مَتّل
request
طلب من
require
تطلب
rescue
نقذ
resemble
شبه
resign
ستَقل
resist
قاوم
respect
حتَرم
respond
جاوب
rest
رتاح
retire
تقاعد
return (to a place)
رجع
return (s/th)
رجّع / ردّ
review
راجع
revise
راجع
reward
جازى
ride
ركب
ride, to give a
وصّل / دّى / ركّب
ring
سَر سَر
rinse
شلّل
rise (like the sun)
طلع
rise (to wake up)
فاق
rot
فسد
round, to go
ضوّر
rub
حكّ
run
جرى
run away
هرب
run out of
تقاضى
rush
زرب
sacrifice
ضحّى
satisfy
قنع
save
خبّع / خزن / خبّى
save (money)
وفّر / جمع الفلوس
save (God saving)
خلّص
save (s/b in trouble)
نجى
say
گال
scratch
حكّ
scream
غوّت
screw
زيّر
see
شاف
see one another
تشاوف
sell
باع
send
صيفط
separate
فرّق
serve
سربى
set a bone
جبّر
set (the sun)
غرب
set up
ركّب
settle
ستَقر
sew
خيّط
shake (palsy)
رجف / ترعّد
shake hands with
سلّم على
shake out
حرّك
shame, to feel
حشم
share
قسم
sharpen
مضّى / نجر
shave
حسّن
shepherd
سرح
shine
نَوّر / لمع
shiver
رجف / ترعّد
shop (weekly market)
تسوّق
shop (food)
تقدّى
shorten
قصّر
shout
غوّت
shovel
هزّ ب البالة
show
ورّى
shower
دُوَّش
shut
سدّ
shut eyes
غمّض
shut up
سكت
sick (get sick or be sick)
مرض
sift
غربل
sightsee
تسارى
sign
وقّع / سنى
silence (s/b)
سكّت
silent, to be
سكت
simplify
سهّل
sin
دنب
sing
غنّى
sink
غرق / غطس
sit
گلس
skin
سلخ
skip
نقّز
slap (in the face)
طرّش / صرفق
slaughter
دبح
sleep
نعس
sleep, to make
نعّس
slide
زلگ
slip
زلق
smear
لطّخ
smell
شمّ
smile
بتَسم
smoke
كمى
smuggle
هرّب
sneeze
عطس
solder
لحّم
solve
حلّ
sorry, to be
سمح
speak
دوى / هضر / تكلّم
specialize
تخصّص
spend money
صرف
spend the night
بات
spend the evening (just sitting and chatting)
قَصَّر
spend time
دوّز
spin
غزل
spit
دفل
splash
رشّ
spoil (a child)
فشّش
sprain
دفع
spray
رشّ
squeeze
زيّر / عصر
stamp
طبع
stand
وقف
stare angrily
خنزر ف
start
بدى
startle
خلع
startled, to be
تخلع
stay
گلس / بقى
stay the day
قِيَّل
stay up late
سهر
steal
شفّر / سرق
step on
عفس / عفط
sting
قرص
stink
خنز
stir
حرّك
stop
حبس / وقف
stop speaking with
تخاصم معَ
store
خزن
strangle
خنق / قجّ
strengthen
قوّى
strike (from work)
دار الإضراب
stroll
تمشّى
stretch
كسّل / جبّد
study
درس / قرى
study thoroughly
تعَمّق
submit
ستَسلم
succeed at
نجح ف
suck
مصّ
sue
دعى
suffer
توَجّع
suggest
قتَرح
sunbathe
تشمّش
surprise
فاجأ
surrender
ستَسلم
survive
عاش / نجى
swallow
صرط
swarm (bees)
رتع
swear
عاهد / حلف بالله
swear (oath)
قسم
sweat
عرق / عرگ
sweep
شطّب
swell
تنفّخ
swim
عام
switch (off)
طفى
switch (on)
شعل
sympathize with
تعاطف معَ
take
خدى
take away/off
زوّل / حيّد
take care of
تهلاّ ف
take charge of
تكلّف ب
talk
هضر / تكلّم
talk nonsense
خربق
tame
روّض
tape (record)
سجّل
tape (scotch)
لصّق
taste
داق
teach
قرّى / علّم
tear (s/th)
قطّع
tear (to be torn)
تقطّع
tease
تفلّى / قشّب
telephone
ضرب التِليفون / عيّط ف
tell
عاود / گال
testimony (give testimony of)
شهد علَى
testify
شهد
thank
شكَر
thaw
داب
think
خمّم / فكّر
think that
ضنّ بلّي
threaten
هدّد
thresh
درس
throw
رمى / لاح
tickle
هرّ
tie
ربط
tie (belt or rope)
حزم
tighten
زيّر
tired, to be
عيى
tired, to make
عيّى
torture
عَدّب
tortured (to be)
تعدّب
touch
مسّ / قاس
trade
تاجر
train
درّب
transfer
وَصّل
translate
ترجم
travel
سافر
treat (medicinally)
داوى
treat (people)
تعامل معَ
trick
شمت
trip
عتر
trust
تاق ف
try (to attempt to do s/th)
حاول
try (to experience s/th)
جرّب
try on
قيّس
turn
ضار
turn around
ضوّر
turn down (volume)
نقص من
turn off
طفى
turn on
شعل
turn over (s/th)
گلب / قلب
twist
لوى
undecided, to be
حار
understand
فهم
understand, to make
فهّم
unify
وَحّد
unite
وَحّد
upset
قلّق
upset, to be
تقلّق
use
ستَعمَل
use (land)
ستَغل
use to, to be of
صلح ل
used to, to become
ولّف
useful, to be
نفع
vaccinate
لقّح
visit (only tombs or saints)
زار
vomit
ردّ / تقيّى
wait
عاين / تسنّى
wake (s/b)
فيّق
wake up
فاق
walk
تمشّى
walk around
تمشّى / تسارى
want
بغى
warm / heat
سخّن
warm, to be
سخن
warn
حدّر
water
سگى / سقى
wash
غسل
wash (clothes)
صَبَّن
wash (for prayer)
توَضّا
wash (floor)
سيّق
waste
ضيّع
watch (TV)
تفرّج
wave
شيّر
weak, to get
ضعف
wear
لبس
weave
نسج
weep
بكى
weigh
وزن / عبر
welcome
ستَقبل / رحّب
weld
سودى
well, to be
برى
wet, to make
فزّگ
wet, to be
فزگ
whisper evil
وسوس
whistle
صفّر
widen
وسّع
win
ربح
wipe dry (floor)
جفّف
wipe off
محى / مسح
wiped out, to be
سخف
wish
تمنّى
wither
لوى / يبس
witness
شهد
wonder at
خمّم ف / تعجّب
work
خدم
wormy, to get
دوّد
worry
خمّم ف / تشطن
worship
عبَد
worth, to be
سوى
wound
جرح
write
كتب
apologize
عْتَادْرْ
comb
مْشْطْ
dare
تْجْرّأ
deny
نْكْرْ
diversify
نْوّعْ
doubt
شْكّ
heal
بْرَا
lie down
تّكّا
suffocate
تّخْنْقْ
vanquish
غْلْبْ
vote
صْوّت
watch (movie)
قَابْلْ
comfortable, to be
مرِيّح
distract
برزط
unroll
سَّرَحْ
flatten
گادظ
kick legs in the air
ركل
roll around on the ground
دگلب
roll (s/th)
لوى
terrified, to be
خلع
watch
فرّج
amazed, to be
عجب
swing/rock
زعلل
chase
تبع
bump into
جيتفيك
yell
غوت
command
أمر
cover completely
غمى
covered completely, to be
تغمى
sprint
دَردَّگ
scatter
شتت
lifted, to be
تهز
tour
تسارى
use (take advantage of - bad)
ستغل
coach
درّب
toss
لاح
tossed, to be
تلاوح
ff
...
f
...
f
...
f
...
f
...
f
...
f
...
f
...
f
...
f
...
f
...
f
...
f
...
f
...
f
...
f
...
f
...
f
...
f
...
f
...
f
...
f
...
f
...
f
...