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The system made up of all the matter and energy there is, including the galaxies, and their stars, planets, and moons. First there was a ball of matter/gravity and everything else. Then gravity fell off and that was thus the big bang


A huge group of single stars, star systems, star clusters, dust, and gas bound together by gravity. Galaxies are like dust bunnies, every spec of dust is a star.

types of galaxies

spiral- shaped as a pin-wheel
elliptical- shaped as a flat ball
irregularly- strangely irregularly shaped

milky way

The name of our galaxy, a spiral galaxy that contains about 400 billion stars


of or relating to or characteristic of the planet Earth or one like it









electromagnetic spectrum


doppler effect

change in the apparent frequency of a wave as observer and source move toward or away from each other, apparent change in the wavelength of light that occurs when an object is moving toward or away from the earth



measure distance to stars

LY, astronomical unit, parsec, parallax

astronimical unit






star composition


star mass


star size


star luminosity


star temperature


star hertzpsprung-russell diagrams


life cycle of stars


astronomers - main facts, time alive, major contributions, where lived, where studied



• Born about 570 B.C. in what is now Greece
• Made his discoveries while in Greece
• He recognized that the earth was a sphere and that the sun, moon, and planets had one of their own
• His astronomical concepts were acknowledged by Copernicus as a forerunner to his theory that the earth and other planets rotate in orbit around the sun
• Famous for formulating the Pythagorean theorem


• Born 180 B.C. Turkey
• Credited with discovering the procession of the equinoxes, calculated size of earth, distance to sun and moon, many other observations
• Compiled first catalog of stars (brightness/position)
• His discoveries formed the basis of Ptolemy's system of astronomy.
• He was born near what is now Istanbul


• Born 100 A.D. in Egypt
• Made discoveries in Alexandria, Egypt in about 150 A.D.
• Pointed out that the earth is spherical and rejected the idea that the earth moved, claimed that everything in the universe moved around or toward the earth's center, had small epicycles to make retrograde motion work.
• His system of astronomy was accepted throughout Europe until 1543, when Copernicus came up with the theory that the earth is a moving planet
• Ptolemy's map of the world encouraged Columbus to make his famous voyage across the ocean

Nicholas Copernicus

• Born in 1473 Poland
• Studied law and medicine in Italy but returned to Poland in 1606
• He proposed that the earth is a moving planet and that the sun is the center of the solar system
• He was the first astronomer to correctly describe the solar system and paved the way for Galileo and Kepler
• The Catholic Church refused to accept the heliocentric theory

Tycho Brahe

• Born in1546 Denmark
• He build an elaborate observatory on the island of Hven
• Developed a systematic approach for observing the planets and stars
• His observation were far more precise than previous astronomers and resulted in a much more accurate understanding of planetary positions, all done without a telescope
• He sighted a supernova in 1572 which helped disproved the ancient idea that no change could occur past the orbit of the moon

Galileo Galilei

• Born in Italy on February 15, 1564
• Called the founder of modern experimental science
• He made most of his key discoveries while in Pisa
• While teaching astronomy at the University of Padua he built his first telescope, in 1609, saw sun spots and suns rotation, moon craters, defended Copernicus
• His first astronomy related discovery was that the moon was not smooth but it was mountainous and pitted, also he discovered the four moons circling Jupiter in 1610, which he named Medicean Planets in hope of winning the Medicis the ruling family of Florence's favor

Johannes Kepler

• Born in 1571 Germany
• He worked in Prague
• Discovered three major laws of planetary motion
• Isaac Newton later used Kepler's three laws to arrive at the principle of universal gravitation
• Kepler was Brahe's assistant and when Brahe died the Holy Roman emperor appointed Kepler to be Brahe's successor

Isaac Newton

• Born in 1642 England
• He worked in England around Cambridge University
• He discovered the composition of white light; discovered how the universe is held together by laws of gravitation
• His theories on Gravity explained why the sun keeps the planets in their orbits and formed the basis for many discoveries and has helped expand our knowledge of the universe
• Three laws of Motion
• While in the countryside to avoid the plague, the concept of a universal force came to him when he was stuck in the head by a falling apple is not proven

William Herschel

• Born in 1738 Germany
• Settled in England 1757
• Discovered Uranus and its two brightest moons; discovered Saturn's moons; discovered the icecaps of Mars, several asteroids and binary stars; cataloged 2,500 deep sky objects; founded stellar astronomy, discovered nebulae, discussed stellar evolution
• He increase the size and understanding of our solar system
• He built a 4ft diameter mirror lens telescope which was the worlds largest until 1845

the sun's layers

Core - where fusion takes place
Radiation zone
Convection zone
Photosphere - the surface of the sun
Chromosphere - the red color layer
Corona - the sun's hottest and outer layer

how does the sun create heat


solar wind


sun spots


magnetic storms


origin of moon


origin of earth


origin of earth


origin of sun


layers of the moon


features of the moon


phycial characteristics of the moon

maria, rills, highlands, soil, rays

moon's orbit






phases of the moon


rotation vs. revolution

evidence for each and effects of each


Microscopic, free-floating, autotrophic organisms that function as producers in aquatic ecosystems.


microscopic unicellular marine or freshwater colonial alga having cell walls impregnated with silica


microscopic animals that swim or drift near the surface of aquatic environments


marine colonial polyp characterized by a calcareous skeleton


free-swimming organisms whose movements are independent of the tides, currents, and waves.


spew water of about 380 degrees C from underwater volcano chimneys.

phytoplankton affect marine animal lives

food energy source

zooplankton helps recycle recourses

moderate salinity mantain balance and are food

deep water creatures affect life higher up

using chemosynthesis bacteria make harmful gasses useful and prevent other things from dieing

people can protect sea life

no pollution no " bombing or poisoning" fish


uneven distributation of charge

hydrogen bonding

the intermolecular force in which a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom is attracted to an unshared pair of electrons of an electronegative atom in a nearby molecule

aqueous solution

salt dissolved in water

boiling point

the temperature at which a liquid boils at sea level

freezing point

the temperature below which a liquid turns into a solid


a measure of the amount of dissolved salts and other solids in a given amount of liquid

water mass

a body of water with distinct properties based on where it originates

mixed layer

The upper layer of ocean in which temperature and salinity are relatively constant with depth. Depending on local conditions, the surface zone may reach to 1,000 meters (3,300 feet) or be absent entirely. Also called the surface zone.


in water, a distinctive temperature transition zone that separates and upper layer that is mixed by the wind and colder, deep layer that is not mixed.

Battle of Antietam

the single, bloodiest day of the entire Civil War in which nearly 6,000 Union and confederate soldiers were killed and another 17,000 seriously injured

Richmond, Virginia

city in Virginia that became the capital of the Confederacy

Jefferson Davis

president of the Confederacy

West Virginia

state that was created in 1863 when 48 western Virginia counties seceded from the state of Virginia and rejoined the Union

Army of the Potomac

the name given to the union army in the East

General George McClellan

appointed by Lincoln to head the Union army of the East; Lincoln was frustrated when he failed to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond

Battle of Shiloh

Grant narrowly defeats the Confederates during this battle and forces them to retreat to Corinth; together both Union and Confederates have 20,000 casualties during this battle

David Farragut

leader of the Union naval forces who captured the city of New Orleans, which was the largest city of the South; The Union's victory under him gave the North control of almost all the Mississippi River


grew almost overnight near big mining areas


mineral inside of a lode


rictockh streak of ore

comstock lode

rich lode named after Henry Comstock-worth 100s of millions of dollars


financial aid and land grants given to railroad companies to benefit globally

National Grange

1st farmers organization-local self help organizations


stores where farmers bought products from each other

populists party

goal was populism

free silver

unlimited production of silver


land set aside for Native Americans

Sand Creek Massacre

attack on chief Black Kettle and Cheyenne by Chivington and Colorado volunteers 1864

George Custer

leader of 7ty cavalry ordered to scout Native American encampment at Little Big Horn

dawes act

law that eliminated nomadic traditions and lack of private property

wounded knee

creek in South Dakota where Lakota Sioux gathered after Sitting Bull died


practice of combining companies

Cornelius Vanderbilt

one of the first railroad barons-formed NY Central line

standard gauge

4 ft 8.5 inches as width of the track

George Pullman

developed pullman sleeping car


secret discounts


secret agreements among railroad barons

Menlo Park

city in NJ where Edison developed his inventions

George Westinghouse

developed tranformers

assembly line

each person performed a specific task-less expensive way to manufacture goods

mass production

produce in large numbers more quickly


company that sells shares




partial owners of stocks


cash payments from the corporarions profits


made Standard Oil Company in Ohio 1870

horizontal intergration

combining competing firms into one corporation


group of companies managed by the same board of directors


almost totally controlled by 1 producer

vertical intergration

buying companies that have supplies needed to make your product


founded US Steel Corporation


using riches to help others


combining of companies

Sherman Antitrust Act

got rid of monopoly


crowded urban factories

Trade Unions

groups with certain skills of trades

Knights of Labor

national labor orginization formed in Philadelphia by garment cutters

American Federation of Labor

group of national trade unions-led by Samuel Gompers

collective bargaining

union workers bargain with management


group of women who pushed for safer working enviroments


people who replaced workers on strike

Haymarket Riot

led people to associate labor movement twith terrorism and disorder

Homestead Strike

strike with 10 people killed in Homestesad,Pennsylvania

Pullman Strike

union railroad people destroyed train tracks on strike but were ordered to stop by law


court order

clipper ship

sailing vessel built to sail as fast as steamships


a machine that sends electric signals over wires

Morse code

A series of dots and dashes representing the letters of the alphabet

trade union

Organization of workers with the same trade or skill


an opinion or strong feeling formed without careful thought or regard to the facts


unfair treatment of a person or group on the basis of prejudice


severe food shortage


people who opposed immigration

cotton gin

a machine that separates the seeds from raw cotton fibers

fixed cost

a regular expense involved in doing business


money available to invest in business


a form of a loan extended in business transactions


a group's refusal to work in protest against low pay or bad work conditions


An owner and cultivator of a small farm.

tenant farmer

a farmer who works land owned by someone else


Person in charge of slaves in the field


an african American religious folk song

Slave Code

laws that controlled the lives of enslaved African Americans and denied them basic rights

Who developed the refrigerated train car, used to transport meats and produce?

Gustavus Swift

Who devised Janney car couplers, used to link train cars?

Eli H. Janney


secret discounts offered by large railroad companies to their biggest customers


secret agreements made among the railroad barons to divide the industry into regions

Who developed the Pullman sleeping car, allowing passengers to make overnight trips, and the dining car, making railroad travel more enjoyable?

George M. Pullman