10 terms

Chemical Bonding & Electron Energy Levels

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Electron Cloud
the region just outside the nucleus where electrons orbit; electrons have different amounts of energy. The electrons nearest the nucleus have less energy than electrons farther from the nucleus.
Ion
an atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons.
Reactivity
describes how likely an element is to form bonds with other elements.
Ionic Bond
chemical bonds that are formed by the transfer of electrons; the transfer of electrons of one element's outer energy level to another element's outer energy level. Ionic bonds seek to have a total of eight electrons in their outer energy levels.
Covalent Bond
a chemical bond that is formed when two atoms share electrons. Covalent bonds are most likely to form between elements whose atoms have four, five, six or seven valance electrons.
Inert
elements that are unable to react chemically.
Valance Electrons
electrons that are located in the outermost energy level or energy shell of an element.
Atomic Energy Levels or Atomic Energy Shell
Areas in the electron cloud where electrons are arranged by how much energy the electrons have. The closer the electron is to the nucleus, the more energy the electron has. When the electron is further away from the nucleus it has less energy. The valance electrons are furthest away which causes them to bond with other elements.
Bohr Model
A model of electrons introduced and named after scientist Niels Bohr in 1913. This model has an atom consisting of a small, positively-charged nucleus orbited by negatively-charged electrons.
Synthetic Elements
elements that are made by scientists in a laboratory and do not exist in nature. Usually elements with an atomic number of 92 or higher are considered synthetic.