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-woman pharaoh
-took over after husband/half-brother died
-dressed like a man and led troops into battle

Ramses II

-pharaoh during Hebrew Exodus
-Egyptians call him the "Great Ancestor"


-first recorded civilization
-developed the city-state
-cuneiform (wedge-shaped) writing on clay tablets
-invented the wheel
-used the arch
-made temple towers called ziggurats
-developed some algebra and the base 60 number system
-first to use the plow
-created bronze (copper and tin)
-believed in polytheism
-gods were more like "super heroes" but were hard to please and not very loving


-cruel and very warlike
-hated throughout the Middle East
-used heavily armored infantry to counter enemy chariots
-invented the battering ram
-enslaved conquered peoples
-conquered Babylon and Northern Kingdom of Israel
-capital city: Nineveh


-invented alphabet
-outstanding traders & sailors
-traded lumber & purple dye
-established colonies throughout the Mediterranean
-practiced child sacrifice


-builders of the pyramids
-learned to build a more modern chariot based army to drive out the Hyksos
-traded all over the Mediterranean World
-big difference in social classes (women were treated better than in some other areas)
-built the Great Sphinx (part pharaoh, part lion), the Great Pyramid of Giza, and King Tut's tomb, which is practically untouched since his death
-created a lunar calendar with 12 months, base 10 number system, used geometry to create pyramids, and learned about the human body and medicine
-3 main deities (Osiris- god of the lower world, judge of the dead, Ra/Re- sun god, Isis- wife of Osiris, fertility goddess)
-Strong belief in the afterlife
-Book of the Dead: a collection of hymns, prayers, and chants

King Tut

-tomb founded by Howard Carter
-tomb found in Valley of Kings
-built an extravagant tomb
-tomb was untouched until its discovery


-Egyptian pharaoh who built the Great Pyramid of Giza (aka Khufu's Pyramid)


-modern day Iran
-King Cyrus conquered Chaldeans (Babylonians)
-Darius the Great & Xerxes fought the ancient Greeks
-great army & ruled tolerantly
-main religion: Zoroastrianism
-conquered by Alexander the Great


-Greatest ruler of the Mauryan Dynasty in India
-great warrior
-killing sickened him, so he became a devout Buddhist
-Tried to imitate Alexander the Great
-hospitals and a capital city were constructed during his reign

Qin Shi Huang-di

-first Qin emperor
-greatest ruler of ancient China
-unified all of China after the chaos of the Warring States Period
-hated Confucianism
-powerful & ruthless
-died of accidental poisoning


-Buddha's birth name
-founder of Buddhism
-Buddha: The Enlightened One
-Born a prince but rejects luxury to search for why people suffer
-The Great Renunciation: left all to search; Lived alone like a hermit; Practiced yoga for 6 years and then became the Buddha

Philip of Macedon

-Alexander the Great's father
-Raised a strong army of 10,000 regularly paid men with cavalry and infantry
-Unified his people then conquered all the Greek city states


-most important contribution: Hinduism
-Fair skinned Indo-Europeans
-Invaded the Khyber Pass
-Conquered Indus River Valley
-Principal contribution: Vedas (religion)
-Personified natural objects and forces
-Language was Sanskrit
-Believed in immortality
-Brahman: priest in charge of ceremonies
-City-states were ruled by rajahs (prince)
-Law prohibited marriage between Aryans and Indus valley peoples
-Priest and warriors were considered important
-Marriage by kidnapping, purchase, or mutual consent
-Polygamy was allowed


-greatest ruler of Athens
-ruled Athens during its "Golden Age"


-Father of Greek philosophy
-Didn't call himself a philosopher because he thought them to be deceitful and "users of words"
-Believed in the importance of reason and absolute truth
-The Socratic Method: taught using questions
-Criticized democracy because the untrained were elected
-Made enemies who accused him of atheism and corrupting the youth
-Tried and found guilty
-Chose to drink poison from a hemlock instead of being exiled

Alexander the Great

-Tutored by Aristotle
-Became king of Macedon at 20 after his father's death
-Conquered the world by age 32
-Richest man in all of history
-Untied the Gordium Knot by cutting it with his sword
-Died of cholera or malaria at age 32

Germanic tribes

-Lived beyond the Rhine and Danube Rivers
-Goths: Visi (West) and Ostro (East)
-Vandal: where we get the word vandalism
-Franks: invaded Gaul (later became France)
-Angles/Saxons: invaded Britain
-a combined German and Roman army defeated Atilla and the Huns, no longer threatened the empire
-Caused the end of the Roman Empire when the Goths invaded
-Western half was chaos with the complete loss of civilization which began the Dark Ages


-First emperor of Rome
-Means sacred or majestic
-Octavius took the name Augustus after his uncle Caesar's death


-Carthaginian military commander and tactician
-Invaded Rome but ultimately defeated
-One of the greatest generals in history
-Conquered Spain
-Crossed the Alps with elephants
-Rome laid siege on Carthage and captured it


-Led masses of slaves in revolt against Rome
-Julius Caesar defeated him and he was crucified


-First Christian emperor
-Passed the Edict of Milan which allowed religious toleration for Christians

Mansa Musa

-Great Mali ruler (Timbuktu) of 8 million people
-Made a famous hajj to Mecca where he passed out gold


-Greatest king of Axum
-Meaning of the name has to do with bees
-Made the churches out of solid rock

Genghis Khan

-Great Mongol conqueror of the ancient world
-Grandson was Kublai Khan


-Spanish conquistador
-conquered the Incas (modern day Peru)

Marcus Aurelius

-one of the good emperors during the Pax Romana
-"stoic emperor"
-spent time with troops on the frontier
-allowed barbarians to settle in the Empire
-opposed Christianity
-wrote book on stoic beliefs called "Meditations"
-last emperor of the Pax Romana


-most powerful ruler of the Franks
-crowned "Holy Roman Emperor" by the Franks
-after his death, his grandsons divided his kingdom in the Treaty of Verdun
-it established the future outlines of Western Europe


-female pharaoh of Egypt
-seduced multiple Roman officials
-defeated at the Battle of Actium
-married Marc Antony


-founder of Islam
-born in Mecca
-believed in one god and was in touch with Christian and Jewish traders
-when he was 40, he claimed a religious experience where Gabriel told him to preach
-this experience was recorded by followers in the Muslim holy book called the Qur'an


-foundation of all tribes in Africa
-no written language
-largest group in Africa
-"stateless society"


-lived from Mexico to Costa Rica
-earliest known civilization in the Americas
-foundation for all cultures in Central America
-some art shows possible African connections
-built pyramids
-had writing number systems

Ibn Battuta

-traveled throughout Africa and recorded all of his travels
-came to Mali and described it in his book
-Muslim "Marco Polo"

Lady Murasaki

-wrote world's first novel

Trung Sisters

-disliked Chinese Confucianism
-Revolted against China
-they failed and committed suicide by drowning
-considered heroes
-national holiday for them

4 River Valleys

-Tigris/Euphrates: Iraq
-Nile: Egypt
-Indus: Pakistan
-Yellow: China

Gobi Desert

-large desert region located in North China (Asia)
-isolates China
-covers parts of northern and northwestern China and southern Mongolia


-a great Indian city
-Very technologically advanced
-Cities had sewer systems, public baths, wealthy homes, pipe water
-Had a written language
-Religion: Animism: belief the spirits inhabit everything
-Unknown cause of destruction
-oldest Indian cities


-300 Spartans and 6000 allies met 200,000 Persians
-held the Khyber Pass for 3 days
-all the Spartans died defending the pass
-so did 20,000 Persians
-gave Athens time to prepare
-Xerxes continued south to Athens
-Athenians won (Battle of Marathon


-Athenian army defeated the Persian army
-An Athenian runner ran 26 miles back to Athens with the news but died when he got there


-a city founded by Alexander the Great
-famous for great library


-City in Africa that fought Rome in the Punic Wars
-destroyed by Rome

The Colosseum

-Built by the ancient Romans
-used for gladiator fighting

Wailing Wall

-the remains of the Temple in Jerusalem
-People go to weep and pray
-Both Muslims and Jews

Hagia Sophia

-Central church of Constantinople Church of Holy Wisdom
-Built by Justinian

Dome of the Rock

-a large mosque built over the Temple


-aka Hispania
Conquered by the Muslims


-Capital city of the Aztecs
-modern day Mexico City
-Built on a lake in the valley of Mexico


-Capital city of the Inca empire
-Empire had a population of about 10 million
-modern day Peru

Machu Picchu

-an Incan city that was built of stone
-nearly undiscoverable
-7 Wonders of the World


-Capital city of the Byzantine Empire
-founded by Constantine


-Center of the Muslim world
-Birthplace of Muhammad
-Every Muslim had to make a hajj, or holy journey, to Mecca at least one time in their life


-Originally a Muslim city in Spain
-One of the 3 great capitals of the Abbasid Dynasty


-Kingdom in Africa
-conquered Kush
-Converted to Christianity by Byzantine missionaries
-modern day Ethiopia
-Ethiopian churches were carved out of rock
-Greatest king: Lalibela

Great Zimbabwe

-Great walled city in southern Africa


-Native religion: Shintoism
-Used Samurai's to protect their land


-located in Mali, Africa
-Built by Mansa Musa
-the richest city in the world at one time
-said to be made of all gold


-Nation in Southeast Asia
-was controlled by the Han and Tang dynasties
-Considered barbarians by Chinese


-Chinese capital city during the Tang dynasty
-was the largest city on the planet at the time
-grew to approx. 2 million people


-City in Italy buried by volcano

Gregorian Calendar

-calendar we use today
-was written by a monk

Rosetta Stone

-Key to Egyptian hieroglyphics
-a stone with many ancient languages written on it

Code of Hammurabi

-oldest law code we have ever found


-The practice of having more the one wife


-Law based on the Qur'an


-Main religion of the Persians


-belief in many gods


-before common era
-common era

Epic of Gilgamesh

-a great flood story
-similar to Noah's Ark in the Bible


-The practice of wives throwing themselves in a fire when her husband dies

Shang Dynasty

-first historic Chinese dynasty
-1500 BC along the Yellow River
-greatest achievement was bronze work
-raised silkworms and spun thread
-made accurate lunar calendar and could predict lunar eclipse
-developed complex system of writing which gave a picture for every word

Han Dynasty

-Chinese Dynasty 202BC-220 AD
-enlarged China
-interested in record keeping and history
-invented the sternpost rudder, compass, and paper

Tang Dynasty

-Chinese Dynasty when China was the greatest civilized place on earth
-Buddhism became the major religion


-the great epic poem
-Tells of 2 royal heroic figures

Peloponnesian War

-war between Sparta & Athens
-Lasted 27 years
-Sparta won


-philosophy focused on pleasure
-Motto: eat, drink, and be merry
-was originally a challenge to Platonism, though later it became the main opponent of Stoicism


-a belief in ignoring pleasure and pain
-believed "reason" ruled the world
-founded by Zeno

"The Republic"

-Work of Plato about an ideal government run by a trained class of philosophers


-means "city-state"


-Characteristic of ancient Greek dramas
-word was also used to describe actions of those who challenged the gods or their laws, especially in Greek tragedy, resulting in the protagonist's downfall


-native religion of Japan
-belief that all natural objects have a spirit


-to be influenced by China


-The practice of ritual suicide for Samurai

Doric columns

-columns used in Greek construction
-most simple version

Edict of Milan

-law created by Constantine
-gave religious tolerance to Christians

Byzantine Empire

-The old Eastern Empire
-Capital: Constantinople
-Handed all their culture to Russia

Twelve Tablets

-Rome's first code of laws

Nicene Creed

-Established the divinity of Jesus and the Trinity


-Mainly wives and children guarded by the Enoch
-Harmed the running of the government


-holy month of Islam
-fast for whole month


-"people of the book"
-Jews, Christians, Catholics


-sect of Islam
-90% of Muslims are part of this sect


-only 10% of Muslims are this sect


-Incan strategy of knotting ropes to keep data


-The practice of binding women's feet to keep them to a size 3-4
-Made women inferior to men

Tale of Genji

-World's first novel
-Written by Lady Murasaki


What years are included in a century?

well protected from invasion by:
Sahara Desert
(North:) Mediterranean Sea
(South:) Nile River rapids

What are the advantages of ancient Egyptian geography?

-written language
-complex government
-complex religion

characteristics of a "civilization"

-Unaffiliated and Secular

main branches of Judaism


-all delusions and negative mental states could be overcome through the practice of meditation
-believe in reincarnation and the cycles of birth, life, death and rebirth
-doctrine stresses on these cycles
-Nirvana is achieved when one sheds his desires and ego


-practiced primarily in India
-no founder
-Brahma: the Creator
-Vishnu: the Preserver; takes human form to rescue humanity from crisis, takes the name Krishna
-Siva: the Destroyer
-Cow: symbol for mother earth
-most don't eat meat
-Goal of life is to join with Brahma
-One must live a series of lives before reaching salvation
-The body is seen as evil, and they try to escape it.
-The journey to reunite the soul with Brahma.
-Because any living thing can be reincarnated, one might come back as an pig, bug, or fish.


-a highly efficient and powerful government was the key to order
-believe that government should use the law to end civil disorder and restore harmony
-believe in controlling ideas as well as actions


-greatest interest in an orderly society
-very strict and harsh
-women had the lowest status
-honesty and respect are emphasized
-correct behavior was important


-only one God
-Muhammad is revered as the last and greatest of the messengers of God
-Humans are the greatest of all creatures, created with free will for the purpose of obeying and serving God
-the object of life is to live in a way that is pleasing to Allah so that one may gain Paradise
-teaches the continued existence of the soul and a transformed physical existence after death

India inventions

-concept of zero & decimal system
-doctors practice plastic surgery & pharmacy
-Arabic numeral system
-identified 7 of 8 planets
-knew moon reflected suns light
-understood that the Earth was spinning
-theory of gravity
-vaccine against smallpox

China inventions

-block printing
-wooden type
-sternpost rudder
-water clock

Muslim inventions

-very advanced medicine
-decimal system
-copied down all Greek & Roman writings
-LOVED Aristotle

Spartan military

-The army stood at the centre
-citizens' primary obligation was to be good soldiers
-Subject to military drill from infancy
-boys taken from home at 7 for military training

ancient Olympics

-a series of athletic competitions held for representatives of various city-states of Ancient Greece
-held in honor of Zeus
-a political tool used by city-states to assert dominance over their rivals
-Politicians would announce political alliances in times of war
-priests would offer sacrifices to the gods for victory
-also used to help spread Hellenistic culture throughout the Mediterranean
-featured religious celebrations and artistic competitions

Socrates' beliefs

-first philosopher to focus on ethical and epistemological (truth-establishing) questions
-concentrated on humans rather than physical nature
-practiced systematic questioning
-Socratic Method^^

Plato's beliefs

-pupil of Socrates
-tried to solve problems of how the mind can experience and recognize the truth
-did analysis of government

(Plato's) The Cave

-Plato thought that most people were like prisoners condemned to existence in a dark cave
-they peer constantly through the dim light trying to make out what has happened around them

Greek drama

-Greeks were first to write drama
-performed in open-air theater
-wore elaborate costume and mask
-chorus narrated or sang story
-excelled in writing tragedies
-main character struggles against fate

-written language
-cultural things

How is Russia connected to the Byzantine Empire?

Fall of Rome

-Marcus Aurelius' reign ends
-barbarians invaded
-population declined due to great plagues
-taxes rose & inflation occurred

maize, potatoes, beans, squash

new "American" food crops

hatred for Persians, similar culture & language

What characteristics united the ancient Greeks?

gold, salt, slaves

What items did the African kingdom of Mali trade?

-practiced human sacrifice
-similar religions
-conquered by Spanish conquistadors
-lived in the Americas
-no horses
-no metals (plow)

In what ways were the Incas and Aztecs alike?

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