Terms in this set (58)
What does détente mean?
The easing of tension
When was the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty signed?
What did the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty do?
The US, USSR, UK (and other nuclear countries) agreed not to sell nuclear weapons to other nations.
Causes of Detente (7 points)
1. Cuban Missile crisis had drawn attention to the threat of nuclear conflict
2. More sophisticated weapons & delivery systems adding to tensions
3. By 1969 USSR and US had nuclear parity - each could destroy the other country using nuclear weapons
4. Increasing public intolerance -> protests
6. China-US relations
7. Jupiter missiles in Turkey
Needs of USSR (8 points)
-Brezhnev continued with policy of P.C started by K, compromising ideological beliefs for sake of national security
-USA perceived to be weaker during Vietnam War
-USSR was reaching parity with the US in terms of numbers of weapons and could negotiate from a position of strength
-USSR fearful of USA starting a new tech. race
-Need to stabilise the situation in E. bloc & gain acceptance it was part of Soviet sphere of influence
-Improve domestic economy & standards of living
-Access to new tech. e.g micro computers
Needs of USA (6 points)
-Failures in Vietnam led to evaluation of foreign policy
-Domestic costs - high inflation & budget deficit
-Western criticism of US foreign policy, e.g 1966 DeGaulle withdrew France from NATO
-Right-wing Republican politics on the decline, dented by failures in Vietnam allowing Detente to prevail
-Growing social unrest, e.g 1968 riots, drew attention to need to divert funds from military to social reforms
-European powers catching up on US in commerce & financial services
When was the Outer Space Treaty signed?
What did the Outer Space Treaty do?
Banned the placement of nuclear weapons in orbit, in space or on the Moon by either superpower.
What does SALT I stand for?
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
When was SALT I signed?
Who signed SALT 1?
Nixon and Brezhnev
One of the aspects of the SALT I agreement related to nuclear weapons production.
Attempted to control the production of nuclear weapons by imposing quotas on number of nuclear weapons bases and the number of missiles they could store.
How many missiles could each ABM site contain?
One of the aspects of the SALT I agreement related to production of ICBMs.
A freeze on production of ICBMs and SLBMs.
How long was the freeze on ICBM/SLBM production?
One of the aspects of the SALT I agreement related to ballistic missiles.
Agreed not to produce short range, strategic ballistic missiles.
What does ABM mean?
One of the ways that the SALT I agreement was not effective related to nuclear weapons production.
Both sides still produced nuclear weapons in secret.
Ways that the SALT I agreement was not effective (3 points)
-Talks were delayed by Soviet intervention in Czechoslovakia
-Difficulty in agreeing over which weapons systems should be included as both sides had diff. types of weapons -> focused on limits for existing systems & ignored possibility of newer tech. e.g no restriction on MIRVs. Old obsolete missiles could be replaced with new ones
-Code of conduct was very open-ended and little more than a statement of intent
What helped accelerate the SALT 1 talks?
Nixon's visit to China in 1971
How was the SALT I agreement significant related to nuclear weapons limitations?
It was the first time that the superpowers had agreed to nuclear weapons limitations.
When was the Apollo-Soyuz mission?
What was the Apollo-Soyuz mission?
A US Apollo spacecraft and a USSR Soyuz spacecraft docked above Earth and a symbolic handshake took place between the two sides.
Why was the Apollo-Soyuz mission significant?
The 60s had been dominated by the space race, but the mission showed new co-operation.
When were the Helsinki Accords signed?
How many countries were present for the Helsinki Accords?
One of the aspects of security in the Helsinki Accords related to borders.
Every country's current borders were recognised by all other members (including E. Germany) (Basket 1)
What was the significance of the recognition of European borders in the Helsinki Accords?
Both East and West Germany accepted each other's existence -> lead to increased co-operation -> Ostpolitik
One of the aspects of security in the Helsinki Accords related to the UN.
Disputes should be settled peacefully or through the UN.
One of the aspects of security in the Helsinki Accords related to countries' affairs.
Countries would not interfere with other countries' internal affairs.
One of the aspects of security in the Helsinki Accords related to military planning.
Countries would inform other members of military manoeuvres.
One of the aspects of cooperation in the Helsinki Accords related to the economy.
Economic cooperation between East and West: for example, the US would buy oil from the USSR and the USSR would buy wheat from the US.
One of the aspects of cooperation in the Helsinki Accords related to technology.
Trade & technology exchanges (similar to Geneva 1955) (Basket 2)
One of the aspects of cooperation in the Helsinki Accords related to human rights.
All countries agreed to grant freedom of expression, information and movement.; organisations set up to monitor governments & actions (Basket 3)
What was the significance of cooperation for Europe?
More European cooperation stabilised the political situation in Europe.
What was the significance of cooperation for the superpowers?
Joint interests further limited the possibility of a conflict.
Was the human rights aspect of the Helsinki Accords effective?
Only the communist nations continued to deny basic freedoms.
Failure of Helsinki
Little substantial detail: no reference to arms reductions
When was the SALT II treaty signed?
What did SALT 2 achieve?
1. Set equal limits for missile launchers & strategic bombers
2. Dialogue channels remained open between Pres. Carter and increasingly weak Brezhnev
What exact limit was placed on the number of ICBMs, SLBMs and heavy bombers each side could have?
Until when was SALT II supposed to stay in force?
Was SALT II ever ratified?
No because of :
-The USSR's invasion of Afghanistan in 1979.
-Right saw SALT 11 as too much of a concession for USSR and allowed them to catch up with the US -> Carter renegotiated the treaty when he took over in 1977 -> treaty rejected by Congress in 1980
Ping Pong Diplomacy
1970, China invited Nixon and the American table tennis team to visit.
Prague Spring 1968
Period of political liberalisation in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union. Moscow and 4 other Warsaw Pact nations invaded to "normalize" Czechoslovakia, tanks rolled into Prague. Contrast to Hungary 1956 as it was peaceful whilst USSR was very militant
What caused the end of détente? (9 points)
● The USSR's invasion of Afghanistan 1979 -> distrust of USSR: widespread condemnation by W - expansionism - ● Soviet influence in Third World
● US anti-communist support
● Soviet violations of human rights
● Failure to ratify SALTII
● Ill-health of Brezhnev
● US hostage crisis in Iran
● Growth of neo-conservatism in USA
● Strengthening of Soviet military influence over Politburo
Why did detente fail? (5 points)
-Carter's language much harsher
-Withdrew from SALT 2, cut off trade, boycotted Olympics in Moscow 1980
-Increased arms spending and nuclear weapons, limitation over
-Thatcher supported this more strident approach
-1980 Presidential Election centred on foreign policy - R. hostile to USSR election symbolised disillusionment with detente. Reagan increased defence spending by 13% in 1982 and by 8% in each of the next 2 years
Why did detente fail? 2 (5 points)
-Did not always achieve the reduction in tension desired & sometimes agreements ignored
-Impact on arms race minimal -> SALT 2 saw USSR become superior in ICBM'S
-Tension not reduced in some parts of the world -> actions in 3rd world seemed to indicate USSR expanding influence e.g Angola, Ethiopia
-US recovered from Vietnam humiliation, wanted to restore prestige -> Detente seen as weak therefore more demands from US right to act tough
-Iranian hostage, Iranian students stormed US embassy in Theran = humiliating for US -> Carter initially refused to negotiate to get 60 US American hostages, finally released in 1981 -> US seemed weak, more demands from US right to act tough
-Change in leadership - Reagan's 'determinist approach'
1985. Oppose the influence of the Soviet Union by backing anti-communist guerrillas against the communist governments of Soviet-backed client states. In Afghanistan, the US was already providing aid to anti-Soviet freedom fighters, ultimately, helping to force Soviet troops to withdraw.
Soviet foreign policy outlined in 1968 which called for the use of Warsaw Pact forces to intervene in any Eastern Bloc nation which was seen to compromise Soviet domination, either by trying to leave the Soviet sphere of influence or even moderate its policies. The Doctrine was seen clearly in the Soviet crushing of the Prague Spring movement in Czechoslovakia.
Which country was detente more successful for?
USSR - allowed them to make gains both territorially and strategically (arms) which harmed US security
Invasion of Afghanistan 1979
-Daoud -> left wing gov. influenced by USSR -Amin coup tried to overthrow 1978 -Civil war -USSR invaded in 1979 abided by the Brezhnev doctrine and to support Daoud -> SU killed Amin -> Misinterpreted by Carter criticized the USSR for breaking basket 3 in Helsinki -> US provided aid to anti-Soviet freedom fighters which eventually forced Soviet troops to withdraw. Sig -> in Iran the pro-American leadership was overthrown at the same time -> saw USSR invasion as attack on middle east and oil by communism
Detente failed because there was no 'paradigm' shift in the way the two sides viewed each other i.e ideologically and in terms of national security
Nixon presidency (6 points)
-Prevention of Nuclear war Treaty -> officials were one of the first to recognize dangers of nuclear terrorism
-Ratification of the Nuclear non-proliferation treaty and a transformation of U.S nuclear strategy
-Aimed to improved Sino-US relations
-Tolerant towards USSR -> basket 3 of Helsinki was taken lightly by Nixon
-Berlin agreement 1971 -> Unintentionally encouraged ostpolitik
-Out of Vietnam
Carter presidency (4 points)
-Ordered a massive five-year defence buildup that the Soviets found provocative
-Prioritised human rights
-In retaliation for the USSR invading Afghanistan, Carter cut off grain sales to the Soviet Union and ordered a boycott of the 1980 Moscow Summer Olympic Games by U.S. athletes. Public considered this to be more punitive towards American athletes than Soviet leaders, Carter's response only reinforced his weak image.
-Granted China formal recognition on January 1, 1979
Stated in 1980 that the United States would use military force if necessary to defend its national interests in the Persian Gulf.
Growth of neo-conservatism
● Naiveté of Carter - lacked foreign policy experience, over-emphasis on human rights
● Aftershock of Vietnam War
● Technological and economic superiority of USA
● Divisions within Carter administration