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alley used ch 6 and 10 prequizes so far 1-26 of civil rights prequiz

supreme court justices and federal judges serve for

life with good behavior

in ___ the supreme court held that it had the power to review the constitutionality of acts of congress

marbury vs madison

state courts of original jurisdiction where cases begin are called

trial courts

major role of jury is to

be ultimate finder of fact

there are __ federal district courts


# of judges of various U.S.. court of appeals

varies from circuit to circuit

since 1869 supreme court has consisted of _ associate justices


justices of supreme court are

nominated by the president and confirmed by the senate

greatest number of interest groups submitting formal testimony to the senate judiciary committee occurred when ______ was nominated to supreme court

sonia sotomayor

senate judiciary committee held first public hearings regarding a potential Supreme Court justice while considering nomination of

louis brandeis

proceedings of the supreme court are

not televised because the justices refuse to allow cameras in the court

the supreme court will hear a case if ___ justices vote to do so


strategic model of judicial behavior

accounts for range of factors that affect judicial behavior

among the _____ examined by political scientists trying to explain supreme court decision making are childhood experiences, religious values, and political party

behavioral characteristics

when Andrew Jackson said "John Marshall has made his decision; now let him enforce it" he was referring to

the inability of the Supreme Court to enforce or implement its decisions

as of 2010 the supreme court has had this many african american members


missouri compromise of 1820

kept slavery legal south of 36 degrees latitude

among most prominent people in the abolition movement was

william lloyd garrison

the little woman who started the big war

refers to abe lincoln's description of harriet beecher stowe (wrote uncle tom's cabin)

13th 14th and 15th amendments are known as the

civil war amendments

laws that denied most legal rights to newly freed slaves and prohibited blacks from voting sitting on juries or appearing in public places after the civil war in the south were knwn as

black codes

former slaves were granted citizenship as well as the privileges and immunities thereof and states were barred from depriving anyone of life, liberty, or propety without due process of law thru the ___ amendment


women finally received the right to vote in 1920 thru the __ amendment


supreme court decision that overturned Plessy v ferguson

brown vs board of education

hallmark of martin luther king jr.'s strategy to achieve equality was


ravial discrimination that results from practice rather than law is call

de facto

equal rights amendment provided

that no state or Congress could deny or abridge equal rights on account of sex

this is the largest hispanic group in the U.S.

the league of united latin American citizens

american indians

were not made citizens until 1924

supreme court has consistently found that

the disabled can sue local governments that do not make public buildings accessible to the disabled

first major affirmitive action heard and decided on its merits by the supreme court was

regents of the university of california vs bakke

the civil rights act of 1964 prohibits employment discriminating based on

race sex religion and wealth

this was the first major national crisis over slavery

the missouri compromise

a well known abolitionist who edited the north star

william lloyd garrison

abolitionists worked towards

ending slavery

the world anti-slavery society refused to

accept womens demands for equality

why did the world ant slavery society most likely refuse to accept womens demands for equality

members of the organization feared that fighting for both a.a.'s and women's rights would be too ambitious of a goal to attain

the seneca falls convention was

held to discuss the civil and political rights of women

in dred scott v sandford the us supreme court ruled that slaves were

not U.S. citizens

slavery was banned by this amendment


abolitionists support of the 15th amendment led

susan b anthony and elizabeth cady stanton to form a women's right group

the existence of 2 schools on opposite sides of town, one for caucasian students and the other for AA's, would have been deemed constitutional after the supreme court decision in

plessy vs ferguson

in this case the supreme court found that segregation of rail transportation was constitutional because separate but equal accomodations did not violate the equal protection clause of the fourteenth amendment

plessy vs ferguson

in 1905 WEB DuBois met with other AA's in Niagra falls, ontario canada to

found the NAACP

the suffrage movement

had racist overtones

the NAACP began its litigation strategy to end segregation by challenging segregation in

law and graduate schools

why did the the NAACP most likely begin its test case litigation strategy in law schools

the lawyers felt that targeting law schools would make the cases easier for judges to understand and thus easier to win

as president______ had his administration file an amicus curiae brief in Brown vs Board of Education and issue an executive order desegregating the military

Harry S Truman

the US supreme court was influenced by _____ in Brown Vs Board of Education

amicus curiae briefs from several southern states

President Dwight D Eisenhower was forced to _____ to protect AA's students seeking entry into Central High School in little rock, Arkansas

send federal troops to Little Rock

in 1955, the montgomery bus boycott began after ____ refused to give up her seat on a public bus

Rosa Parks

Emmitt Till was

a 14 year old boy victim of lynching

_______led one of the longest filibusters in US history in an effort to block passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

Strom Thurmond

Among the tactics used by the civil rights movement were

sit ins and boycots, lawsuits, freedom rides, protests and marches

in august 1963, MLK jr led a huge march in ______ that culminated in his "I have a Dream" speech

washinton dc

the supreme court upheld the constitutionality of the civil rights act of 1964 by referring to

article 1 of the constitution

distinctions based on this classifications are most likely to receive strict scrutiny


a boy attending a boys only public school seeks to enroll in a home economics course that is only offered at the girls only school. his family sues the school system so he can attend the girl's school. if the case goes before the supreme court, what standard of review would the Court most likely use to examine this discrimination

intermediate standard

_____ was the driving force behind the Supreme Court's holding that gender based discrimination violated the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment

NOW (some organization for the women folk)

civil liberties act of 1988

gave Japanese Americans reparation for their treatment during WW2

the debate over civil rights often centers on

the question of equality of opportunity vesus equality of results

reasons why some americans oppose affirmative action

it is wrong to use labels to help particular groups and laws should be neutral or colorblind

in Dc vs Heller the supreme court

struck down a law prohibiting the sale of handguns

the personal guarantees and freedoms that the federal govt cannot abridge by law constitution or judicial interpretation are called

civil liberties

these amendments were added to appease the Federalists' concerns regarding enumerated rights

9 and 10

why was the bill of rights a politically necessary addition to the Constitution

it was a compromise to appease Anti-federalists

before the 14th amendment was added to the Constitution, the civil liberties protections contained in the Bill of rights were

limited by Barron v Baltimore

Supreme court ruled that states were not completely free to limit forms of political expression in

Gitlow vs New York

the process by which the Supreme court has chosen to apply the specific guarantees in the bill of rights to the states is called

selective incorporation

in some govts, politicians may be required to prove their religious knowledge to be considered suitable for office. in the US this is expressly prohibited by

article 6 of the constitution

religious rights including the right to free exercise and the protection against establishment of an official religion are protected by the

1rst amendment

the supreme court uses the ___ test in dealing with religious establishment cases


in a 2006 religious freedom restoration act case the court ruled that

religious use of a tea containing an illegal hallucinogenic drug was protected by the 1rst amendment

the court formulated the clear and present danger test in

schenk vs US

if a person yells that there is a bomb on a bus when he knows there isn't his exclamation is not considered protected speech under

schenk vs US

supreme court first ruled that the 1rst amendment protected symbolic speech in

stromberg vs california

the difference between libel and slander is that

libel is written and slander is spoken

public officials cannot sue for libel unless

they can prove that actual malice was involved

the Chaplinsky vs New Hampshire, the supreme court ruled that _____ were not protected by the 1rst amendment

fighting words

in __ the supreme court ruled that material can only be considered obscene if it is utterly without redeeming social importance

Roth vs US

the supreme court has defined obscenity

differently in different periods of time

a woman sells scarves to passerby on a bust city street during the week of independence Day. three months later the city council passes a law making street vending illegal. could she be found guilty of violating the new law

no it is considered an ex post facto law

warrantless searches are

constitutional only under certain circumstances

warrantless search is permissible if

consent is given

the standard that illegally seized evidence cannot be used at trial is known as the

exclusionary rule

supreme court ruled that lawyers in criminal cases are necessities not luxuries in

gideon vs wainwright

the interest group that organized and sponsored Fuyrman vs Georgia was the

NAACP legal defense fund (LDF)

8th amendment prohibits

cruel and unusual punishment

in 1976 the supreme court ruled that a death penalty statute was constitutional because new laws had been passed to ensure that sentencing was not arbitrary. this was the case of

gregg vs georgia

griswold vs connecticut involved the issue of

access to birth control

in griswold vs connecticut the supreme court ruled that the 1, 3, 4, 5, and 14 amendments cast penumbras thereby creating

zones of privacy

during the 1970s the supreme court found that __ was protected by the right to privacy implied from guarantees in the Bill of Rights and the Fourteenth Amendment

a woman's right to terminate a pregnancy under certain conditions

9th amendment has been used as the basis for

the right to an abortion when coupled with other guarantees

Gideon vs wainwright (first trial)

held that the right to counsel was not fundamental

in gideon vs wainwright the plaintiff, gideon

conducted his own defense on a criminal charge before a Florida jury

in Abrams vs US justice holmes

modified his original clear and present danger standard in schenck vs US

the court held school prayer to be unconstitutional in the case of Engel vs Vitale on the grounds that it violated

1rst amendments establishment clause

justice Douglas in Griswold vs Connecticut

found a right to privacy in the penumbras of provisions of the bill of rights

in roe vs wade the supreme court upheld abortion as a part of

the right to privacy

in roe vs wade the supreme court held that the right to abortion was

subject to governmental regulation after the first trimester of pregnancy

federalism refers to how power is distributed

between national and state govts

a unitary system of govt is found in

Great Britain

article 1 section 8 gives congress the power to pass all laws necessary and proper to carry out its powers. these powers are known as

implied powers

the right of a states reserved powers is guaranteed by the

10th amendment

in addition to granting certain powers to state and natl govts, article 1 of the constitution also denies some powers to those govts. which are denied

entering compacts with other states, passing ex post facto laws, laying duties on exports

the full faith and credit clause

has become a controversial issue in light of the recent legalization of gay marriage in some states

the clause that ensures that judicial decrees and contracts made in one state will be binding and enforceable in another is called the

full faith and credit clause

if a person accused of a crime in arizona leaves for missouri ware missouri authorities required to return the defendant to arizona to stand trial

yes bc it is required by the extradition clause of article 4

in McCulloch vs Maryland the supreme court ruled that

the necessary and proper clause gave congress the power to charter a bank

the supreme court held in barron v baltimore that

the bill of rights didnt apply to state govts

the supreme court ruled that slaves were not citizens but property in

Dred scott vs sandford

the nature of federalism was changed forever by

the civil war

the 16th amendment made the ___ possible

national income tax

the 17th amendment lessened state power by

instituting the direct election of senators

the era of dual federalism ended with the

great depression

during the early years of the new deal, the supreme court

ruled certain New Deal programs unconstitutional

cooperative federalism is characterized by

a stronger more influential natl govt

new federalism was the guiding doctrine of the

reagan administration

new federalism favors ____ over ______

block over categorical

National laws that direct state or local governemnts to comply with federal rules or regulations but do not include funds to help defray the costs are called

unfunded mandates

suppose the natl govt passes a series of aggressive anti-smoking laws that effectively invalidates state and local laws. this is an example of


the anti federalists worried that the new constitution would

undermine state sovereignty

the necessary and proper clause

expands congressional power

in federalist 39 james madison argues that the new constitution

is both national and federal

which of the following did James Madison not say in federalist 39

the amendment process is wholly national in character

18 to 21 year olds recieved the right to vote with ratification of the

26th amendment

great britain used the principle of mercantilism to justify

strict import/export controls on the colonies

in 1765 the american colonists initiated a major protest against the

stamp act

to facilitate communication and the flow of information among independence minded colonists, colonial leaders formed the

committees of correspondence

the shot heard round the world was fired at

concord massechusetts

what best describes the relationship among the states under that articles of confederation

a loose league of friendship

the 1786 rebellion in which an army of 1500 disgruntled farmers marched on springfield massachusetts to prevent foreclosure on the farms was called

shay's rebellion

the original purpose of the constitutional convention was to

revise the articles of confederation

a committee was appointed at the constitutional convention to work out the differences between the proposals of large and small states; the result was the

great compromise

the electoral college sstem created by the framers was designed to give

states a key role in choosing the president

the system of government in which power is divided between the state and national governments is called


the ___ is empowered by the Constitution to make all federal laws

legislative branch

without the supremacy clause

state laws could supersede national law

the series of 85 political apers written by john jay, alexander hamilton, and james madison in support of ratification of the new constitution are called the

federalist papers

the amendment process for the constitution is set out in article 5 and creates a

2 stage process of proposal and ratification

informal methods of amending the constitution include

judicial interpretation and cultural and social change

the first amendment of the constitution provides for

freedom of assembly

did not lead to american settlement in the 17th century

belief in intelligent design

a social contract theory of govt was proposed by

locke and hobbes

locke's second treatise on civil govt sets out a theory of

natural rights

indirect democracy is based on


republics are

representative democracies

in an oligarchy rule is by

the few

a doctrine that society should be governed by certain principles that are part of nature and can be understood by reason is called

natural law

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