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155 terms

ap gov 1rst semester exam

alley used ch 6 and 10 prequizes so far 1-26 of civil rights prequiz
STUDY
PLAY
supreme court justices and federal judges serve for
life with good behavior
in ___ the supreme court held that it had the power to review the constitutionality of acts of congress
marbury vs madison
state courts of original jurisdiction where cases begin are called
trial courts
major role of jury is to
be ultimate finder of fact
there are __ federal district courts
94
# of judges of various U.S.. court of appeals
varies from circuit to circuit
since 1869 supreme court has consisted of _ associate justices
8
justices of supreme court are
nominated by the president and confirmed by the senate
greatest number of interest groups submitting formal testimony to the senate judiciary committee occurred when ______ was nominated to supreme court
sonia sotomayor
senate judiciary committee held first public hearings regarding a potential Supreme Court justice while considering nomination of
louis brandeis
proceedings of the supreme court are
not televised because the justices refuse to allow cameras in the court
the supreme court will hear a case if ___ justices vote to do so
4
strategic model of judicial behavior
accounts for range of factors that affect judicial behavior
among the _____ examined by political scientists trying to explain supreme court decision making are childhood experiences, religious values, and political party
behavioral characteristics
when Andrew Jackson said "John Marshall has made his decision; now let him enforce it" he was referring to
the inability of the Supreme Court to enforce or implement its decisions
as of 2010 the supreme court has had this many african american members
2
missouri compromise of 1820
kept slavery legal south of 36 degrees latitude
among most prominent people in the abolition movement was
william lloyd garrison
the little woman who started the big war
refers to abe lincoln's description of harriet beecher stowe (wrote uncle tom's cabin)
13th 14th and 15th amendments are known as the
civil war amendments
laws that denied most legal rights to newly freed slaves and prohibited blacks from voting sitting on juries or appearing in public places after the civil war in the south were knwn as
black codes
former slaves were granted citizenship as well as the privileges and immunities thereof and states were barred from depriving anyone of life, liberty, or propety without due process of law thru the ___ amendment
14th
women finally received the right to vote in 1920 thru the __ amendment
19th
supreme court decision that overturned Plessy v ferguson
brown vs board of education
hallmark of martin luther king jr.'s strategy to achieve equality was
nonviolence
ravial discrimination that results from practice rather than law is call
de facto
equal rights amendment provided
that no state or Congress could deny or abridge equal rights on account of sex
this is the largest hispanic group in the U.S.
the league of united latin American citizens
american indians
were not made citizens until 1924
supreme court has consistently found that
the disabled can sue local governments that do not make public buildings accessible to the disabled
first major affirmitive action heard and decided on its merits by the supreme court was
regents of the university of california vs bakke
the civil rights act of 1964 prohibits employment discriminating based on
race sex religion and wealth
this was the first major national crisis over slavery
the missouri compromise
a well known abolitionist who edited the north star
william lloyd garrison
abolitionists worked towards
ending slavery
the world anti-slavery society refused to
accept womens demands for equality
why did the world ant slavery society most likely refuse to accept womens demands for equality
members of the organization feared that fighting for both a.a.'s and women's rights would be too ambitious of a goal to attain
the seneca falls convention was
held to discuss the civil and political rights of women
in dred scott v sandford the us supreme court ruled that slaves were
not U.S. citizens
slavery was banned by this amendment
thirteenth
abolitionists support of the 15th amendment led
susan b anthony and elizabeth cady stanton to form a women's right group
the existence of 2 schools on opposite sides of town, one for caucasian students and the other for AA's, would have been deemed constitutional after the supreme court decision in
plessy vs ferguson
in this case the supreme court found that segregation of rail transportation was constitutional because separate but equal accomodations did not violate the equal protection clause of the fourteenth amendment
plessy vs ferguson
in 1905 WEB DuBois met with other AA's in Niagra falls, ontario canada to
found the NAACP
the suffrage movement
had racist overtones
the NAACP began its litigation strategy to end segregation by challenging segregation in
law and graduate schools
why did the the NAACP most likely begin its test case litigation strategy in law schools
the lawyers felt that targeting law schools would make the cases easier for judges to understand and thus easier to win
as president______ had his administration file an amicus curiae brief in Brown vs Board of Education and issue an executive order desegregating the military
Harry S Truman
the US supreme court was influenced by _____ in Brown Vs Board of Education
amicus curiae briefs from several southern states
President Dwight D Eisenhower was forced to _____ to protect AA's students seeking entry into Central High School in little rock, Arkansas
send federal troops to Little Rock
in 1955, the montgomery bus boycott began after ____ refused to give up her seat on a public bus
Rosa Parks
Emmitt Till was
a 14 year old boy victim of lynching
_______led one of the longest filibusters in US history in an effort to block passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Strom Thurmond
Among the tactics used by the civil rights movement were
sit ins and boycots, lawsuits, freedom rides, protests and marches
in august 1963, MLK jr led a huge march in ______ that culminated in his "I have a Dream" speech
washinton dc
the supreme court upheld the constitutionality of the civil rights act of 1964 by referring to
article 1 of the constitution
distinctions based on this classifications are most likely to receive strict scrutiny
race
a boy attending a boys only public school seeks to enroll in a home economics course that is only offered at the girls only school. his family sues the school system so he can attend the girl's school. if the case goes before the supreme court, what standard of review would the Court most likely use to examine this discrimination
intermediate standard
_____ was the driving force behind the Supreme Court's holding that gender based discrimination violated the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment
NOW (some organization for the women folk)
civil liberties act of 1988
gave Japanese Americans reparation for their treatment during WW2
the debate over civil rights often centers on
the question of equality of opportunity vesus equality of results
reasons why some americans oppose affirmative action
it is wrong to use labels to help particular groups and laws should be neutral or colorblind
in Dc vs Heller the supreme court
struck down a law prohibiting the sale of handguns
the personal guarantees and freedoms that the federal govt cannot abridge by law constitution or judicial interpretation are called
civil liberties
these amendments were added to appease the Federalists' concerns regarding enumerated rights
9 and 10
why was the bill of rights a politically necessary addition to the Constitution
it was a compromise to appease Anti-federalists
before the 14th amendment was added to the Constitution, the civil liberties protections contained in the Bill of rights were
limited by Barron v Baltimore
Supreme court ruled that states were not completely free to limit forms of political expression in
Gitlow vs New York
the process by which the Supreme court has chosen to apply the specific guarantees in the bill of rights to the states is called
selective incorporation
in some govts, politicians may be required to prove their religious knowledge to be considered suitable for office. in the US this is expressly prohibited by
article 6 of the constitution
religious rights including the right to free exercise and the protection against establishment of an official religion are protected by the
1rst amendment
the supreme court uses the ___ test in dealing with religious establishment cases
lemon
in a 2006 religious freedom restoration act case the court ruled that
religious use of a tea containing an illegal hallucinogenic drug was protected by the 1rst amendment
the court formulated the clear and present danger test in
schenk vs US
if a person yells that there is a bomb on a bus when he knows there isn't his exclamation is not considered protected speech under
schenk vs US
supreme court first ruled that the 1rst amendment protected symbolic speech in
stromberg vs california
the difference between libel and slander is that
libel is written and slander is spoken
public officials cannot sue for libel unless
they can prove that actual malice was involved
the Chaplinsky vs New Hampshire, the supreme court ruled that _____ were not protected by the 1rst amendment
fighting words
in __ the supreme court ruled that material can only be considered obscene if it is utterly without redeeming social importance
Roth vs US
the supreme court has defined obscenity
differently in different periods of time
a woman sells scarves to passerby on a bust city street during the week of independence Day. three months later the city council passes a law making street vending illegal. could she be found guilty of violating the new law
no it is considered an ex post facto law
warrantless searches are
constitutional only under certain circumstances
warrantless search is permissible if
consent is given
the standard that illegally seized evidence cannot be used at trial is known as the
exclusionary rule
supreme court ruled that lawyers in criminal cases are necessities not luxuries in
gideon vs wainwright
the interest group that organized and sponsored Fuyrman vs Georgia was the
NAACP legal defense fund (LDF)
8th amendment prohibits
cruel and unusual punishment
in 1976 the supreme court ruled that a death penalty statute was constitutional because new laws had been passed to ensure that sentencing was not arbitrary. this was the case of
gregg vs georgia
griswold vs connecticut involved the issue of
access to birth control
in griswold vs connecticut the supreme court ruled that the 1, 3, 4, 5, and 14 amendments cast penumbras thereby creating
zones of privacy
during the 1970s the supreme court found that __ was protected by the right to privacy implied from guarantees in the Bill of Rights and the Fourteenth Amendment
a woman's right to terminate a pregnancy under certain conditions
9th amendment has been used as the basis for
the right to an abortion when coupled with other guarantees
Gideon vs wainwright (first trial)
held that the right to counsel was not fundamental
in gideon vs wainwright the plaintiff, gideon
conducted his own defense on a criminal charge before a Florida jury
in Abrams vs US justice holmes
modified his original clear and present danger standard in schenck vs US
the court held school prayer to be unconstitutional in the case of Engel vs Vitale on the grounds that it violated
1rst amendments establishment clause
justice Douglas in Griswold vs Connecticut
found a right to privacy in the penumbras of provisions of the bill of rights
in roe vs wade the supreme court upheld abortion as a part of
the right to privacy
in roe vs wade the supreme court held that the right to abortion was
subject to governmental regulation after the first trimester of pregnancy
federalism refers to how power is distributed
between national and state govts
a unitary system of govt is found in
Great Britain
article 1 section 8 gives congress the power to pass all laws necessary and proper to carry out its powers. these powers are known as
implied powers
the right of a states reserved powers is guaranteed by the
10th amendment
in addition to granting certain powers to state and natl govts, article 1 of the constitution also denies some powers to those govts. which are denied
entering compacts with other states, passing ex post facto laws, laying duties on exports
the full faith and credit clause
has become a controversial issue in light of the recent legalization of gay marriage in some states
the clause that ensures that judicial decrees and contracts made in one state will be binding and enforceable in another is called the
full faith and credit clause
if a person accused of a crime in arizona leaves for missouri ware missouri authorities required to return the defendant to arizona to stand trial
yes bc it is required by the extradition clause of article 4
in McCulloch vs Maryland the supreme court ruled that
the necessary and proper clause gave congress the power to charter a bank
the supreme court held in barron v baltimore that
the bill of rights didnt apply to state govts
the supreme court ruled that slaves were not citizens but property in
Dred scott vs sandford
the nature of federalism was changed forever by
the civil war
the 16th amendment made the ___ possible
national income tax
the 17th amendment lessened state power by
instituting the direct election of senators
the era of dual federalism ended with the
great depression
during the early years of the new deal, the supreme court
ruled certain New Deal programs unconstitutional
cooperative federalism is characterized by
a stronger more influential natl govt
new federalism was the guiding doctrine of the
reagan administration
new federalism favors ____ over ______
block over categorical
National laws that direct state or local governemnts to comply with federal rules or regulations but do not include funds to help defray the costs are called
unfunded mandates
suppose the natl govt passes a series of aggressive anti-smoking laws that effectively invalidates state and local laws. this is an example of
preepmtion
the anti federalists worried that the new constitution would
undermine state sovereignty
the necessary and proper clause
expands congressional power
in federalist 39 james madison argues that the new constitution
is both national and federal
which of the following did James Madison not say in federalist 39
the amendment process is wholly national in character
18 to 21 year olds recieved the right to vote with ratification of the
26th amendment
great britain used the principle of mercantilism to justify
strict import/export controls on the colonies
in 1765 the american colonists initiated a major protest against the
stamp act
to facilitate communication and the flow of information among independence minded colonists, colonial leaders formed the
committees of correspondence
the shot heard round the world was fired at
concord massechusetts
what best describes the relationship among the states under that articles of confederation
a loose league of friendship
the 1786 rebellion in which an army of 1500 disgruntled farmers marched on springfield massachusetts to prevent foreclosure on the farms was called
shay's rebellion
the original purpose of the constitutional convention was to
revise the articles of confederation
a committee was appointed at the constitutional convention to work out the differences between the proposals of large and small states; the result was the
great compromise
the electoral college sstem created by the framers was designed to give
states a key role in choosing the president
the system of government in which power is divided between the state and national governments is called
federalism
the ___ is empowered by the Constitution to make all federal laws
legislative branch
without the supremacy clause
state laws could supersede national law
the series of 85 political apers written by john jay, alexander hamilton, and james madison in support of ratification of the new constitution are called the
federalist papers
the amendment process for the constitution is set out in article 5 and creates a
2 stage process of proposal and ratification
informal methods of amending the constitution include
judicial interpretation and cultural and social change
the first amendment of the constitution provides for
freedom of assembly
did not lead to american settlement in the 17th century
belief in intelligent design
a social contract theory of govt was proposed by
locke and hobbes
locke's second treatise on civil govt sets out a theory of
natural rights
indirect democracy is based on
representation
republics are
representative democracies
in an oligarchy rule is by
the few
a doctrine that society should be governed by certain principles that are part of nature and can be understood by reason is called
natural law
who was the major author of the declaration of independence
thomas jefferson
according to the preamble what is not an example of a function of american govt
ensuring the pursuit of happiness
the fastest growing segment of the US population is
hispanics
the coherent set of values and beliefs that shape the thinking of individuals and how the view the world as well as their beliefs about the purpose and scope of govt is known as
political ideology
conservatives generally believe that
there should be less government intervention in economic affairs
politics as defined in the text is
impossible without govt