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process by which we learn the ways of society; the process by which people learn the characteristics of their social group
Skeels & Dye
selected 13 children (19 mos) from an orphanage and placed them in a MR institution; compared group to 13 other children 2.5 years later: institutional group's IQ increased, orphanage decreased
Skeels & Dye
found support for the idea that intellectual level closely related to early close relationships to others
(0-3 mos) indiscriminate attachment; prefers beings held or with someone than to be alone, but not real preference
(6-7 mos) attachment to mother (or primary fig) in 4th month which grows intense. Fear of strangers develops
internal working model
based on attachment theory; developed through interactions, informs child on what to expect and how to be have
psychological component that perceives, thinks, decides and acts; emerges during 2nd year of life
social component; internal representation of values + ideals of society, moral arm of personality
emphasized social aspect of personality: person is social being with need for social involvement
Object Relations Theory
draws on attachment theory: individual sense of self does not emerge until 2nd year of life
looking glass self
self develops from social interaciton with others: imagine how we appear, interpret reactions, develop self-concept
the norms, attitudes, values, and expectations of people "in general"; the ability to take on this role is necessary in the development of self
perception of being male or female; person's personal, internal sense of masculinity or femininity
occurs against our wishes; takes place in total institutions; places where we are isolated and forced to adopt new behaviors (prison, mental hospitals, orphanage, boot camp)
peson who influences other; represents group values, tends to be talkative, evidence determination and self-confidence
growth, undefined status, increased decision-making, pressure, search for self
5 characteristics of adolescence
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