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57 terms

Leadership Test 12/9

STUDY
PLAY
socialization
process by which we learn the ways of society; the process by which people learn the characteristics of their social group
Harlow
Attachement Theory: monkeys & surrogate mothers
Skeels & Dye
selected 13 children (19 mos) from an orphanage and placed them in a MR institution; compared group to 13 other children 2.5 years later: institutional group's IQ increased, orphanage decreased
Skeels & Dye
found support for the idea that intellectual level closely related to early close relationships to others
Bowlby
stages of attachment
pre-attachment phase
(0-3 mos) indiscriminate attachment; prefers beings held or with someone than to be alone, but not real preference
attachment-in-making
(3-4 mos) preference for familiar figures
clear-cut attachment
(6-7 mos) attachment to mother (or primary fig) in 4th month which grows intense. Fear of strangers develops
internal working model
based on attachment theory; developed through interactions, informs child on what to expect and how to be have
Freud
role of social processes: 3 parts to personality
id, Ego, Superego
3 parts to personality
Id
biological component, present at birth
Ego
psychological component that perceives, thinks, decides and acts; emerges during 2nd year of life
Superego
social component; internal representation of values + ideals of society, moral arm of personality
Adler
emphasized social aspect of personality: person is social being with need for social involvement
Erikson
saw the self emerging out of social interaction and attachment to others
Object Relations Theory
draws on attachment theory: individual sense of self does not emerge until 2nd year of life
Piaget
theory addressed the interaction between environment and cognitive development
Vygotsky
viewed development as social process rather than individual process
Cooley
"looking glass self" developer
looking glass self
self develops from social interaciton with others: imagine how we appear, interpret reactions, develop self-concept
Mead
Role-Taking theory: the internalization of the expectations of others
generalized other
the norms, attitudes, values, and expectations of people "in general"; the ability to take on this role is necessary in the development of self
sex
biological identity
gender identity
perception of being male or female; person's personal, internal sense of masculinity or femininity
gender role
the outward manifestation and expression of maleness/femaleness in a social setting
family
primary agent of socialization; attachments formed, foundation of beliefs and the like
school
increasing importance, less family time, teaches "hidden curriculum"
peers
wide variety; help contribute to sense of belonging and self-worth
media
difficult to get away from, spending more time with technology
resocialization
the process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors
voluntary resocialization
adopt from our own free will (religion, medical treatment, etc.)
involuntary resocialization
occurs against our wishes; takes place in total institutions; places where we are isolated and forced to adopt new behaviors (prison, mental hospitals, orphanage, boot camp)
family, media, school, peers, religion
agents of socialization
society
people who share a culture and a territory; largest and most complex group
hunter gatherer society
egalitarian, nomadic, sharing, 25-40 people
animal domestication
first social rev; pastoral/horticultural societies, social inequality
plow
second social rev; est. art, cities, etc. inequality, forerunner to est. of "state"
steam engine
third social rev; industrialization, broke feudal system
microchip
fourth social rev; post-industrialization: globalization too!
primary group
intimate, long-term, face-to-face group: sense of belonging, identity
anomie
sense of not belonging
secondary group
relatively temporary, formal, impersonal, roles, contrived
reference group
group that has standards by which we evaluate ourselves
dyad
most intense and most unstable group
triad
interaction less intense and more stable, but vulnerable to coalitions
leader
peson who influences other; represents group values, tends to be talkative, evidence determination and self-confidence
instrumental
task-oriented
expressive
socioemotional
authoritarian
boss man
democratic
participation
laissez faire
hands off
Asch Studies
conformity study; "perception study
Milgram
obedience study; how punishment affects memory
groupthink
tendency for group to start thinking alike
growth, undefined status, increased decision-making, pressure, search for self
5 characteristics of adolescence
dating
means of socialization; entertaiment, helps teach role behaviors, aids in spouse selection