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process by which we learn the ways of society; the process by which people learn the characteristics of their social group


Attachement Theory: monkeys & surrogate mothers

Skeels & Dye

selected 13 children (19 mos) from an orphanage and placed them in a MR institution; compared group to 13 other children 2.5 years later: institutional group's IQ increased, orphanage decreased

Skeels & Dye

found support for the idea that intellectual level closely related to early close relationships to others


stages of attachment

pre-attachment phase

(0-3 mos) indiscriminate attachment; prefers beings held or with someone than to be alone, but not real preference


(3-4 mos) preference for familiar figures

clear-cut attachment

(6-7 mos) attachment to mother (or primary fig) in 4th month which grows intense. Fear of strangers develops

internal working model

based on attachment theory; developed through interactions, informs child on what to expect and how to be have


role of social processes: 3 parts to personality

id, Ego, Superego

3 parts to personality


biological component, present at birth


psychological component that perceives, thinks, decides and acts; emerges during 2nd year of life


social component; internal representation of values + ideals of society, moral arm of personality


emphasized social aspect of personality: person is social being with need for social involvement


saw the self emerging out of social interaction and attachment to others

Object Relations Theory

draws on attachment theory: individual sense of self does not emerge until 2nd year of life


theory addressed the interaction between environment and cognitive development


viewed development as social process rather than individual process


"looking glass self" developer

looking glass self

self develops from social interaciton with others: imagine how we appear, interpret reactions, develop self-concept


Role-Taking theory: the internalization of the expectations of others

generalized other

the norms, attitudes, values, and expectations of people "in general"; the ability to take on this role is necessary in the development of self


biological identity

gender identity

perception of being male or female; person's personal, internal sense of masculinity or femininity

gender role

the outward manifestation and expression of maleness/femaleness in a social setting


primary agent of socialization; attachments formed, foundation of beliefs and the like


increasing importance, less family time, teaches "hidden curriculum"


wide variety; help contribute to sense of belonging and self-worth


difficult to get away from, spending more time with technology


the process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors

voluntary resocialization

adopt from our own free will (religion, medical treatment, etc.)

involuntary resocialization

occurs against our wishes; takes place in total institutions; places where we are isolated and forced to adopt new behaviors (prison, mental hospitals, orphanage, boot camp)

family, media, school, peers, religion

agents of socialization


people who share a culture and a territory; largest and most complex group

hunter gatherer society

egalitarian, nomadic, sharing, 25-40 people

animal domestication

first social rev; pastoral/horticultural societies, social inequality


second social rev; est. art, cities, etc. inequality, forerunner to est. of "state"

steam engine

third social rev; industrialization, broke feudal system


fourth social rev; post-industrialization: globalization too!

primary group

intimate, long-term, face-to-face group: sense of belonging, identity


sense of not belonging

secondary group

relatively temporary, formal, impersonal, roles, contrived

reference group

group that has standards by which we evaluate ourselves


most intense and most unstable group


interaction less intense and more stable, but vulnerable to coalitions


peson who influences other; represents group values, tends to be talkative, evidence determination and self-confidence






boss man



laissez faire

hands off

Asch Studies

conformity study; "perception study


obedience study; how punishment affects memory


tendency for group to start thinking alike

growth, undefined status, increased decision-making, pressure, search for self

5 characteristics of adolescence


means of socialization; entertaiment, helps teach role behaviors, aids in spouse selection

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