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Theology Final Review
Terms in this set (54)
Who are the Church Fathers?
Holy leaders that led the church, explain faith, and meet the unique challenged posed by the different heresies
Who succeeded Bishop Valerius to become Bishop of Hippo in 395 AD?
What are the Dark Ages?
When the Roman Empire falls in Western Europe, there is a period where their were no centralized governments.
Who is Pepin the Short?
French king that became the defender of the pope, granted that the pope governs the Papal States
Who were united into an empire under the leadership of Attila?
What is Ex opere operato (what they mean in English AND who holds those positions AND why that is important)?
"from the work having been worked" (Catholic position)
What is Ex opere operantis (what they mean in English AND who holds those positions AND why that is important)?
"from the work of the one doing the working" (Donatist position)
What is Feudalism?
System of government by which peasants leased land from a lord in exchange for protection
Which great Father of the Church was a penitent, pastor, monk, preacher, bishop, teacher and theologian who lived a very "loose" life as a young man and received a good classical education?
What is Vulgate?
Translation of the Bible, very ancient languages into Latin
The shift of the capital from Rome to this Eastern City started a process by which the Western part of the Empire was weakened politically and militarily.
During the Early Middle Ages who preserved Western Civilization after the Roman Empire fell?
What are St. Augustine's two famous sayings?
"Our hearts are restless until they rest in Thee, O. Lord." "Lord, give me chastity, but not yet."
Why did the Romans refer to the Barbarians as "Barbarians"?
they were those people who lived outside of the borders of the Roman Empire in Europe. By Roman standards they were uncivilized, uneducated, and violent by nature.
What does Monasticism mean?
Greek word ("monos") that means "alone" or "single."
Who is St. Benedict?
founded the most influential form of monasticism.
Who was the influential governor of Milan who in the 4th century succeeded the Arian Bishop of Milan and eventually became on the most influential saints in Church history?
Who was St. Jerome?
Ignorance of Scripture is Ignorance of Christ
His contribution to Christendom
five years in the Syrianm desert learning Hebrew
Who was Charlemagne and when was he crowned as the first Holy Roman Emperor?
Charles the great.. Pepin the shorts son. He was crowned the first holy Roman Emperor on Christmas day in the year 800
Who was the outstanding preacher and commentator on the Bible who became Patriarch of Constantinople in 398 AD? His excellent preaching earned him the name "golden-mouthed."
St John Chrysostom
What is the mission of Islam?
bring all people into the belief and proper worship of the one true God.
What is the difference between Donatism?
Rejected the validity of the Sacraments celebrated by priests and bishops who had formerly betrayed their faith
What is the difference between Pelagianism?
It denied the existence of original sin as well as its transmission into the human family.
sacraments were unnecessary since salvation and holiness could be solely achieved through human work.
Who were the Albigensians
Heretical group of men in Poverty(considered material possession evil)
Be sure to know the biographical notes on PPT Slide 4 for St. Francis.
St. Francis of Assisi was a patron saint of animals, ecology, zoos, and merchants. He had a vision while he was praying in the church, at San Damiano, where he heard Christ on a crucifix speak to him and said "Francis, repair my Church".
How did the reform movement of the monastery of Cluny lay the ground work for the Church's emergence from the Dark Ages? (3 things)
was free from the influence and control by corrupt clergy and nobility
was able to operate strictly according to the Benedictine rule
stress a Christian lifestyle of discipleship, sacrifice, and generosity
Because of lay investiture, many unqualified people became bishops and priests. How did some less than qualified people become a bishop or priest at this time?
Either chosen by king or noble land owner because of loyalty or money
Which Pope excommunicates Photius, who the Emperor had replaced as the Patriarch of Constantinople over Ignatius?
Pope Nicholas I
What did William of Aquitaine do?
Donate land in 910 for a Benedictine monastery Cluny in France
Who is Hildebrand?
Future Pope that led cluny
What was The Children's Crusades?
army of children who set out in 1212
Before even reaching the Holy Land, most died of starvation, disease, or exposure
Those who survived were sold into slavery to the Turks.
What is the "Investiture Controversy"?
was the most significant conflict between Church and state in medieval Europe
What was (were) the positive effects of the Crusades?
Weakened the feudal system Growth of cities -Establishment of the merchant class
Aspects of eastern civilization were really introduced to Europe
muslims advances in science, astronomy, math, and agriculture were brought to Europe -Holy land reopened to pilgrims
What was (were) the negative effects of the Crusades?
thousands died in a military and religious failure -misdirected violence -takeover of Constantinople -greatly weekend Muslim Christian and Jewish Christian relation
What is Gothic Cathedrals?
stained glass windows, high the=in walk, ribbed vaulting
What is Romanesque Cathedrals?
thick wallsand small openings for light, stood for the strength of the church against darkness
Who was the Patriarch of Constantinople who closed Latin-speaking churches in the East and condemned the practice of clerical celibacy?
What sorts of attempts at healing the East-West (Eastern) Schism of 1054 have taken place?
In 1965 pope paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras I met and lifted the mutual excommunication of 1054
What were the important things that came out of The Fourth Lateran Council?
reforming education -reform of the clergy -condense heresy and non-Christians -secrecy of the confessional -confession once a year -Eucharist during Easter season -seven sacraments defined -transubstantiation
What was the classroom experience of the typical University in the Middle Ages?
listening to lectures in Latin. Books, which were had transcribed, were expensive and limited. Notes were rarely taken. Exams or oral. Student rely on their memories to learn.
What are the reforms associated with the Gregorian Reform?
Clerical celibacy, dictates of the pope(only the pope can..), make new laws of governing the church, depose rulers, call councils, appoint bishops, excommunication
Who had Thomas Becket killed?
King Henry II
Who is St. Catherine of Siena?
Went to Avignon in 1376 & pleaded for Gregory to return to Rome/argued that he could help Christians in the aftermath of the horrific Black Death & be an impartial broker for peace between the fighting of England & France
Who wrote The Divine Comedy?
Which council finally ends the Great Western Schism?
The Council of Constance in 1414
Which council's aim was to reunite the Eastern and Western churches?
Council of Ferrara-Florence
In what year does Constantinple fall?
What is John Calvin's notion of predestination?
God does have knowledge of who will be saved and who will be lost, yet it is God's desire that all will be saved. To this end, he provides graces and helps which we are free to accept or reject
What is the Catholic Church's position on predestination?
God does have knowledge of who will be saved and who will be lost, yet it is God's desire that all will be saved.
Which popes does the Church acknowledge as legitimate during the Great Western Schism?
Urban VI, Boniface IX, Innocent VII, Gregory XII, & Martin V
What is the Act of Supremacy?
When the people denied Henry an annulment from Catherine of Aragon, since he declared himself the sole head of the Church of England, Henry made all gov. officials & clergy sign this Act
What is The Renaissance?
Rebirth in the Middle Ages/rediscovered ancient civilizations of Rome, Greece, & Egypt/stressed the natural and human/emphasizes pleasures of life, glorified human body/celebrated education
What is The Avignon Papacy?
7 successive Popes resided in Avignon, France rather than in Rome/The popes lived an opulent life-style & centralized Church Government
Who is St. Joan of Arc?
Led a force that defeated the English in the Battle of Orleans (1428-1429) turning the tide of the war in France's favor and resulting in England withdrawing from most French territory
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