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the ritual celebration marking the coming of age of a jewish child, at which time the person takes on the religious responsibilities of an adult
the agreement established between god and the ancient israelites, first through abraham and later through moses, that designates the jews as god's chosen people, with special rights and responsibilities
the situation of jews living away from their ancestral homeland, a circumstance that has been true for most jews since the classical period
a form of judaism that arose in eastern europe in the eighteenth century and that emphasizes mysticism, a personal relationship with god, a close-knit community, and the leadership of the zaddik, a charismatic holy man
the persecution of jews by german nazis from 1933 to 1945, resulting in the murder of some six million; commonly referred to by jews as shoah
jewish mysticism, which teaches that god can best be known through the heart; developed mainly in the medieval period with such texts as the zohar
written down in about ad 200; contains collected teachings of the rabbis of the preceding four centuries; along with the talmud, is the most important text of the oral torah
the eight-day festival celebrated in early spring that commemorates the exodus of the jews from egypt
the day from sunset on friday until sunset on saturday that is set aside for rest and religious celebration, as decreed by one of the 10 commandments
the vast depository of the oral torah, based on the mishnah with extensive rabbinic commentary on each chapter; there are 2 versions, palestinian and the babylonian
a common way of referring to the hebrew bible, derived from the first letters of the hebrew names of its 3 sections: torah (T), prophets (N), and writings (K)
generally, the revelation of gods will to the people; more specifically the divine law, especially as contained in the first five books of the bible, which together are often called the torah
judaisms most important holy day, occurring in the fall on the tenth day of the new year; spent primarily at synagogue services in prayer for forgiveness of sins and marked by abstention from food and drink
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