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18 terms

Judaism vocab

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anti-semitisim
hostility towards jews and judaism; ranges from attitudes of disfavor to persecution
bar/bat mitzvah
the ritual celebration marking the coming of age of a jewish child, at which time the person takes on the religious responsibilities of an adult
covenant
the agreement established between god and the ancient israelites, first through abraham and later through moses, that designates the jews as god's chosen people, with special rights and responsibilities
diaspora
the situation of jews living away from their ancestral homeland, a circumstance that has been true for most jews since the classical period
hasidism
a form of judaism that arose in eastern europe in the eighteenth century and that emphasizes mysticism, a personal relationship with god, a close-knit community, and the leadership of the zaddik, a charismatic holy man
holocaust
the persecution of jews by german nazis from 1933 to 1945, resulting in the murder of some six million; commonly referred to by jews as shoah
kabbalah
jewish mysticism, which teaches that god can best be known through the heart; developed mainly in the medieval period with such texts as the zohar
mishnah
written down in about ad 200; contains collected teachings of the rabbis of the preceding four centuries; along with the talmud, is the most important text of the oral torah
passover
the eight-day festival celebrated in early spring that commemorates the exodus of the jews from egypt
rabbi
a teacher of torah and leader of jewish worship
rosh hashanah
the festival occurring in early fall in commemoration of the new year
sabbath
the day from sunset on friday until sunset on saturday that is set aside for rest and religious celebration, as decreed by one of the 10 commandments
shema
from deuteronomy 6:4; judaisms basic statement of monotheism
talmud
the vast depository of the oral torah, based on the mishnah with extensive rabbinic commentary on each chapter; there are 2 versions, palestinian and the babylonian
tanakh
a common way of referring to the hebrew bible, derived from the first letters of the hebrew names of its 3 sections: torah (T), prophets (N), and writings (K)
torah
generally, the revelation of gods will to the people; more specifically the divine law, especially as contained in the first five books of the bible, which together are often called the torah
yom kippur
judaisms most important holy day, occurring in the fall on the tenth day of the new year; spent primarily at synagogue services in prayer for forgiveness of sins and marked by abstention from food and drink
zionism
originally, the movement arising in the late nineteenth century that sought to re-establish a jewish homeland; since 1948, the general support of the state of israel