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Chapter 3 in People, Places, and Change (by Holt Publications)


a learned system of shared beliefs and ways of doing things that guide a person's daily behavior

culture region

area of the world in which people share certain culture traits

culture traits

elements of culture such as dress, food, or religious beliefs

ethnic groups

cultural groups of people who share learned beliefs and practices


a mixture of different cultures within the same country or community


a group of people who share inherited physical or biological traits


the process of cultural changes that result from long-term contact with another society


a word, shape, color, flag, or other sign that stands for something else


seeing differences in another culture as inferior


the growing of a plant or taming of an animal by a people for their own use

subsistence agriculture

a type of farming in which farmers grow just enough food to provide for themselves and their own families

commercial agriculture

a type of farming in which farmers produce food for sale


a highly complex culture with growing cities and economic activity

GNP - gross national product

vaule of all goods and services that a country produces in one year within or outside the country

GDP - gross domestic product

value of all goods and services produced within a country

industrialized countries

countries that rely more on industry than agriculture

literacy rate

percent of people who can read and write

developing countries

countries in different stages of moving toward development

third-world countries

developing countries that lack economic opportunities

market economy

an economy in which business owners and consumers make decisions about what to make, sell, and buy (CAPITALISM - USA)

command economy

an economy in which the government owns most of the industries and makes most of the economic decisions (USSR)

tradition-based economy

exchange of goods or services based on custom and tradition

mixed economy

an exchange of goods and services based on at least two other types of economic systems

one-crop economy

economy based on a single crop, such as bananas, sugarcane, or cacao


products a country sells to other countries


products a country buys from other countries


depending on another country for resources or goods and services


number of births per 1,000 people in a year

death rate

number of deaths per 1,000 people in a year

population density

the average number of people living within a set area


more people than a region or country can self-support


movement of people


person who leaves one place for another


person who arrives from another country


process in which connections around the world increase and cultures around the world share similar practices

popular culture

widely shared beliefs, tastes, goals, and practices


people who flee to another country, usually for economic or political reasons


a great shortage of food

humanitarian aid

medicine, food, and shelter that international relief agencies give to people in need


period when little rain falls and crops are damaged


This city is considered the gateway to Latin America


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