Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Ch 13 Avoiding Drug Misuse and Abuse
Terms in this set (462)
high functioning executive can have addiction to what drugs?
-who gets hooked on prescription drugs such as OxyContin or Vicodin to ease excruciating back pain
_% of Americans report using illicit drugs at some point in their lifetime
the overall rate of drug use in the US _in almost a decade, mostly drive by an increase in the use of _
-rose to its highest level
-the use of marijuana
Drug abuse costs taxpayers more than _annually in _. however, it is impossible to put a dollar amount on the _
-preventable health care costs, extra law enforcement, vehicle crashes, crime, and lost of productivity
-pain, suffering, and dysfunction that drugs cause in our everyday lives
why do people use drugs?
-human beings appear to have a need to alter their consciousness or mental state
-we like to feel good, escape and feel different
-sometimes we like to reduce pain or dull our senses
what are examples of ways that consciousness can be altered?
-children spinning until they become dizzy
-adults enjoying the thrill of extreme sports
why drugs work in our bodies?
drugs work because they physically resemble the chemicals produced naturally within the body
how body processes result and how drugs fit to do the same effects?
-most bodily processes result form chemical reactions or from changes in electrical charge
-because drugs possess an electrical charge and chemical structure similar to those of chemicals that occur naturally in body, they can affect physical functions in many different ways
_is a powerful biological force for survival. explain how
-pleasure, which scientists call reward
-If you do something that you experience as pleasurable, the brain is wired in such a way that you tend to do it again
-life-sustaining activities, such as eating, activate a circuit of specialized nerve cells devoted to producing and regulating pleasure
one important set of these nerve cells, which uses a chemical _called_, sits at the very top of the brainstem in the _
-ventral tegmental area (VTA)
-one of the many chemical substances, such as acetylcholine or dopamine, that transmits nerve impulses between nerve fibers
-biochemical messengers that bind to specific receptor sites on nerve cells
these dopamine-containing neurons relay messages about _through their nerve fibers to nerve cells in the _system, structures in the brain regulating_.Still other fibers connect to a related part of the _(part of brain), the area of the brain that play a key role in _. this "pleasure circuit" is know as _
-limbic system, structures in the brain regulating emotions
-frontal region of the cerebral cortex, the area of the brain that plays a key role in memory, perception, thought, and consciousness
-mesolimbic, dopamine system
mesolimbic, dopamine system, includes what parts of brain? (include role of each) (3)
-spans the survival-oriented brainstem, the emotional limbic sysetm, and the thinking frontal cerebral cortex
All drugs that are addicting can activate_
the brain's pleasure circuit
what is drug addiction in terms of the brain?
-drug addiction is a biological, pathological process that alters the way in which the pleasure center, as well as other parts of the brain, functions
-drugs that have the potential to alter mood or behavior
-drugs that change the way the brain works
almost all psychoactive drugs change the way the brain works by _
affecting chemical neurotransmission, either enhancing, suppressing, or interfering with it
what are possible ways in which a psychoactive drug can act? (4)
-mimic the effect of a natural neurotransmitter
-block receptors and thereby prevent neuronal messages from getting through
-block the reuptake of neurotransmitters by neurons, thus increasing the concentration of the neurotransmitters in the synaptic gap, the space between individual neurons
-cause neurotransmitters to be released in greater amounts than is normal
2 drugs that mimic the effect of a natural neurotransmitter
-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)
drug that blocks receptors and thereby prevent neuronal messages from getting through
drug that blocks the reuptake of neurotransmitters by neurons, increasing concentration of the neurotransmitters
drug that cause neurotransmitters to be released in greater amounts than is normal
cocaine prevents reuptake of _by_.
-dopamine by blocking the dopamine reuptake transporter in the brain
In normal neural communcation, how dopamine works? explain what happens when cocaine enters into action
-dopamine is released into the synapse between the neurons. It binds temporarily to dopamine receptors on the receiving neuron and then is recycled back into the transmitting neuron by a transporter
-when cocaine molecules are present, they attack to the dopamine transporter and block the recycling process, Excess dopamine remains active in the synaptic gaps between the neurons, creating feelings of excitement and euphoria
what are the 6 categories of drugs? (types)
each category of drugs include some drugs that have what effects in our bodies? (3) each category also includes _drugs
-drugs that simulate the body, some that depress body functions, and others that produce hallucinations (images, auditory or visual, that are perceived but are not real)
-each category also includes psychoactive drugs
-drugs that can be obtained only with a prescription form a licensed health practitioner
-more than 10,000 types of prescription drugs are sold in the US
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs
-these drugs can be purchased without prescription
-more than 100,000 OTC products are available
-3 out of 4 people routinely self-medicate with them and more Americans are making more use of them
recreational drugs (describe what they are, how help people, how government consider them, 3 drugs within this category)
-these belong to a somewhat vague category whose boundaries depend on how the term recreation is defined
-generally, recreational drugs contain chemicals used to help people relax or socialize. Most of them are legal even though they are psychoactive
ex: alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine, tea, and chocolate
Herbal preparations (how many substances, including what?, they are believed to do what)
-these encompass approximately 750 substances, including herbal teas and other products of botanical (plant) origin that are believed to have medical properties
illicit (illegal) drugs (these are the most_, how laws are regarding them, how affect people, all of them are_)
-these are the most notorious type of drug
-Although laws governing their use, possession, cultivation, manufacture, and sale differ from state to state, illicit drugs are generally recognized as harmful
-all of them are psychoactive
Commercial preparations (these are_, how many, examples)
-these are the most universally used yet least commonly recognized chemical substances
-More than 1,000 of them exist, including seemingly benign items such as perfumes, cosmetics, household cleansers, paints, glues, inks, dyes, and pesticides
routes of administration
refers to the way in which a drug is taken into the body
the route of administration largely determines_
the rapidity of the drug's effect on the body
List the routes of administration (6)
2. oral ingestion
snorting (how absorbed)
-drug is absorbed through mucous membranes into the bloodstream
-throug teh mucous membranes, such as those in the nose
oral ingestion (definition, examples of states of drugs taken, how quickly it is to take effect, pathway that must take to reach bloodstream)
-intake of drugs through the mouth
-swallowing a tablet, capsule, or liquid
-drugs taken by mouth do not reach the bloodstream as quickly as drugs introduced to the body by other means. A drug taken orally may not reach the bloodstream for 30 minutes
-drug is absorbed into bloodstream in the stomach and small intestine, then passes through the liver before being circulated throughout the body
inhalation (definition, how enter body, how quickly, pathway to enter the bloodstream)
-the introduction of drugs through breathing into the lungs
-enter body through respiratory tract via sniffing, smoking, or inhaling
-drugs that are inhaled and absorbed by the lungs travel the most rapidly of all routes of drug administration (fast administration route)
-drug enters the bloodstream through capillaries in the lungs
transdermal (definition, through what method, how reach bloodstream, example)
-the introduction of drugs through the skin
-through skin or tissue lining
-drug is absorbed into bloodstream through the skin
ex: nicotine patch
injection (definition, how quickly, 3 pathways to enter bloodstream)
-the introduction of drugs into the body via a hypodermic needle
-intravenously injected drug enters bloodstream directly at veins; intramuscularly and subcutaneously injected drugs enter the bloodstream through capillaries in the muscles and skin
what is the most common route of administration?
what is the route of administration that is the quickest or most rapid? fast
what are the types of injection? (by part)
-intravenously: directly into the bloodstream
-subcutaneously: just under the skin
what route of administration is the most common method for drug users? why?
-intravenous injection, which involves inserting a hypodermic needle directly into a vein, is the most common method of injection for drug users due to the rapid speed (within seconds in some cases) in which a drug's effect is felt
why intravenous injection is the most dangerous method route of administration? (3)
-intravenous injection is the most dangerous method of administration due to the risk of damaging blood vessels and contracting HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and hepatitis (a severe liver disease)
suppositories (what are them, and how absorbed)
-route of administration
-mixtures of drugs and a waxy medium (designed to melt at body temperature) that are inserted into the anus or vagina to release the drug into the bloodstream
-pass through mucous membrane of vagina and anus
what happens when drug finally arrives to the bloodstream?
-drug eventually finds its way to the bloodstream and circulates throughout the body to various receptor sites
-specialized areas of cells and organs where chemicals, enzymes, and other substances interact
what psychoactive drugs are able to do to be able to affect our mood? what specifically affect in our brain?
-psychoactive drugs are able to cross the blood-brain barrier to reach receptor sites in the brain, where they can affect cognition, emotions, and physiological functioning
once a drug reaches receptor sites in the brain and other body organs, what it may do? how is released from the body to outside?
-it may remain active for several hours before it dissipates and is carried by the blood to the liver where it is metabolized (broken down by enzymes)
-the products of enzymatic breakdown, called metabolites, are then excreted, primarily through the kidneys (in urine) or the bowels (in the feces), but also through the skin (in sweat) or through the lungs (in expired air)
-taking several medications, vitamins, recreational drugs, or illegal drugs simultaneously
polydrug use can lead to _
dangerous health problems
what drug in particular has dangerous interactions with other drugs?
-alcohol in particular frequently has dangerous interactions with other drugs
the most hazardous interactions are:
Some drug interactions occur as a result of _
-the foods we eat or drink or other environmental exposures that might seem harmless
consuming _(foods) while taking statin, which is a medication used for_, allows too much of the drug to _and can cause _
-grapefruit or grapefruit juice
-a medication that is used for lowering blood pressure
-allows too much of the drug to enter the bloodstream and can cause liver damage
taking sulfa-based antibiotic when _can cause_
-exposed to the sun
-skin rash or a severe sunburn
synergism (other name, 1 definitions, how serious)
-also called potentiation
-the interaction of two or more drugs that produces more profound effects than would be expected if the drug were taken separately
-interaction of two or more drugs in which the effects of the individual drugs are multiplied beyond what would normally be expected if they were taken alone
-synergistic reaction can be very dangerous and deadly
-drug interaction in which one drug blocks the action of another
-a drug interaction in which two drugs compete for the same available receptors, potentially blocking each other's actions
-both drugs work on the same receptor site so that one drug blocks the action of the other. The blocking drug occupies the receptor site and prevents the other drug from attaching, thus altering its absorption and action
in level of seriousness, how antagonism compares to synergism?
antagonism usually is less serious than synergism, but can also produce unwanted and unpleasant effects
-a drug interaction in which the effects of one drug are eliminated or reduced by the presence of another drug at the same receptor site
-A drug interaction in which the combination of two or more drugs in the body produces extremely uncomfortable symptoms
example of intolerance
-the drug Antabuse (disulfiram), used to help alcoholics give up alcohol, works by producing this type of interaction
-development of a physiological tolerance to one drug that reduces the effects of another, similar drug
Although drug abuse is usually referred to in connection with _, many people misuse or abuse (2)
-prescription and OTC medication
-use of a drug for a purpose for which it was not intended
example of drug misuse
-taking a friend's high-powered prescription painkiller for your headache is a misuse of that drug
excessive use of a drug
the misuse or abuse of a drug may lead to _
addiction, the habitual reliance on a substance or a behavior to produce a desired mood
although many people assume that no harm can come from legal nonprescription drugs, OTC medications can be_, with resultant _
-health complications and potential addiction
what are the people that appear most vulnerable to abusing OTC drugs?
-people over age 65
OTC drug abuse can involve_(3)
-taking more than the recommended dosage
-combining it with other drugs
-taking it over a longer period of time than recommended
how addiction to OTC drugs can result?
-abuse of and addiction to OTC drugs can be accidental
-a person may develop tolerance from continued use, creating an unintended dependence
how teenagers or young adults may abuse OTC medications? why use this particular medicine?
-teenagers and young adults sometimes intentionally abuse OTC medications in search of a cheap high
ex: drinking large amounts of cough medicine because it contains dextromethorphan (DXM) to get high
List types of OTC drugs that are subject to misuse and abuse
-cold medicines (cough syrups and tablets)
how sleep aids can affect your health if abused? (OTC medication abuse)
-these drugs may be harmful in excess as they can cause problems with sleep cycle, weaken areas of the body, or induce narcolepsy (a condition of excessive, intrusive sleepiness)
-continued use can lead to tolerance and dependence
There are many different ingredient in cough and cold medicines, but one of particular concern is _. _is another cold and allergy medication ingredient that is frequently abused, most commonly in the illegal manufacture of _
large doses of products containing DXM can cause what?
-can cause hallucinations, loss of motor control, and "out-of-body" (disassociative) sensations
-other possible side effects of DXM abuse include confusion, impaired judgment, blurred vision, dizziness, paranoia, excessive sweating, slurred speech, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, irregular heartbeat, high blood pressure, headache, lethargy, numb fingers and toes, facial redness, and dry and itchy skin
-In extreme cases, DXM abuse can lead to loss of consciousness, seizures, brain damage, and even death
How DXM medications containing it must be purchased?
-some states have passed laws limiting the amount pf products containing DXM a person can purchase or prohibiting sale to individuals under age 18
how medications containing Pseudoephedrine must be purchased?
-US law limits the number of products containing this drug that an individual may purchase in a month and requires that it be sold "behind the counter" (without prescription, but only through a pharmacists) and that photo identification be presented and recorded
How are diet pills abused or misused? (OTC drugs)
-some teens use diet pills as a way of getting high, whereas other people use these drugs in an attempt to lose weight
what diet pills contain?
-diet pills contain a stimulant such as caffeine or an herbal ingredient claimed to promote weight loss, such as Hoodia gordonii
what diet pills are regulated by FDA?
-many diet pills are marketed as dietary supplements and so are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as "food" not as "drugs"
In the US today, abuse of prescription medications is at_
all-time high (increasing)
only _is more widely abused
why people abuse of prescription drugs?
-individuals abuse these drugs because they are an easily accessible and inexpensive means of altering a user's mental and physical state
-some people also have a mistaken idea that prescription drugs are a "safer high"
prescription drug abuse is particularly common among _
teenagers and young adults
every day, a significantly large number of people begin misusing prescription drugs; nearly 5,500 people start to misuse prescription_
the risk associated with prescription drug abuse vary depending on the drug. abuse of _(3) can result in _
-can result in life-threatening respiratory depression (reduced breathing)
_are at epidemic levels and now kill more Americans than heroine and cocaine combined
-overdose involving prescription painkillers
individuals who abuse depressants place themselves at risk of _
-seizures, respiratory depression, and decreased heart rate
stimulant abuse can cause_
-elevated body temperature
-irregular heart rate
-cardiovascular system failure
-hostility or feelings of paranoia
individuals who abuse prescription drugs by injecting them expose themselves to additional risks including_
-contracting HIV, hepatitis B and C, and other blood-borne viruses
why is prescription drugs abuse on the rise? (how readily available, how students use them, why they have the impression to be safer than illicit drugs, who died of abuse of prescription medication)
-because there are legitimate, legal uses for prescription drugs, they are more readily available and easier to obtain than illicit drugs
-as more people (especially students) turn to these medications to help them study or get high, the more socially acceptable their use becomes, and the rate of use continues to rise
-in addition, the fact that prescription drugs are regulated and approved by FDA leads to the impression that they are safer than illicit drugs. This is a fallacy, as tragically demonstrated by the 2010 death of singer Michael Jackson, whose death was ruled a homicide, but ultimately stemmed from his abuse of numerous prescription medications
prescription drugs are _than illegal ones
-easier to obtain
explain what doctor shopping is about
-unscrupulous pharmacists or other medical professionals either steal the drugs or sell fraudulent prescriptions
-in a process called doctor shopping, abusers visit several doctors to obtain multiple prescriptions.
-some may fake or exaggerate symptoms to persuade physicians to write prescriptions
-individuals may also call pharmacies with fraudulent prescriptions
how young people get prescription drugs?
-young people typically obtain prescription drugs from peers, friends, or family members
-some teenagers and college students who have legitimate prescriptions sell or give away their medications to other students or trade them for others
for oxycontin and vicodin abuse see page
-both prescriptions are painkillers
Prescription drug abuse among _has increased dramatically over the past decade
why college students perceive prescription drugs safer than illicit drugs?
-because they are prescribed by doctors and approved by FDA
many students also perceive the misuse of prescription drugs to be more _. Other students who abuse prescription drugs believe that such use will_(what do for them)
-more socially acceptable than other forms of drug use
-enhance their well-being or performance
students who illegally use prescription drugs are also more likely to _
-use other illegal drugs and binge drink
_(gender) are also more likely to use prescription drugs as a method of self-medication for_
while much attention has focused on the illicit use of stimulant drugs such as Adderall and Ritalin on college campuses, the more commonly abused prescription drugs are _
-painkillers (ex: OxyContin and Vicodin)
of particular concern on college campuses is the increased abuse of stimulant drugs such as _, which are intended to treat_
-Adderall and Ritalin
-attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
students primarily report using ADHD drugs (Adderall and Ritalin) for _. what are the most commonly adverse effects of them?
-adverse effects were sleeping difficulties, irritability, and reduced appetite
between 16%to 29% of students with prescribed stimulant medications for ADHD reported having _
-sold, traded, or been asked for their medications
what are the economic disadvantages of using illegal drugs?
-at the very least, we are forced to pay increasing taxes for law enforcement and drug rehabilitation
Illicit drug use has a devastating effect on_
-users and their families in the US and in many other countries
what are the good news regarding the use of illicit drugs in the US?
-The good news is that the use of illicit drugs in the US has leveled off and is not increasing for most groups of people
among youth illicit drug use, notably of _, has been _in recent years
illicit drug use has seen a resurgence on _(location)
what drugs college student use?
-18% smoked marijuana, daily use of marijuana is at its highest point since 1989
-cocaine use is down sharply
-LSD use has more than doubled
it is important to note that illicit drug use among college students is not _; however, the percentage of those who use drugs has _
-increased dramatically the past decade
college administrators, staff, and faculty are concerned about the link between substance abuse and _
-poor academic performance, depression, anxiety, suicide, property damage, vandalism, fights, serious medical problems, and death
why do some college students use drugs? (list factors that increase risk of substance abuse) (6)
-genetics and family history
-substance use in high school
-mental health problems
-sorority and fraternity membership
explain the factor in college students that increase risk of substance (drugs): positive expectations
-the most common reasons students give to explain why they drink, smoke, or use drugs is to relax, reduce stress, or forget about problems.
-Some students take Adderall and Ritalin in the belief that drugs will help them study
list in order reasons college students use illicit drugs or controlled prescription drugs (figure 13.3) (8)
1. reduce stress
2. get high
3. social pressure
5. help study
6. lose inhibitions
8. cannot stop
explain the factor in college students that increase risk of substance (drugs): genetics and family history
-genetics and family history play a significant role in the risk for developing an addiction
explain the factor in college students that increase risk of substance (drugs): substance use in high school
2/3 of college students who use illicit drugs began doing so in high school
explain the factor in college students that increase risk of substance (drugs): mental health problems
-students who report being diagnosed with depression are more likely to have abused prescription drugs or to have used marijuana or other illicit drugs
explain the factor in college students that increase risk of substance (drugs): sorority and fraternity membership (what 3 drugs specifically)
-being a member of a sorority or fraternity increases the likelihood of using alcohol, marijuana, or cocaine and makes one twice as likely to abuse prescription drugs
explain the factor in college students that increase risk of substance (drugs): stress
-for some students under academic and social stress, seemingly easy relief comes in the form of drugs or alcohol
Why don't some college students use drugs? (factors influencing a students to avoid drugs)
-parental attitudes and behavior
-religion and spirituality
-healthy social network
explain the factor in college students that influences a student to avoid drugs: parental attitudes and behavior
-students who say they are more influenced by their parents' concerns or expectations drink, use marijuana, and smoke significantly less than students less influenced by parents
explain the factor in college students that increase risk of substance (drugs): religion and spirituality
-the greater the students' level of religiosity (hours in prayer, attendance at services), the less likely they are to drink, smoke, or use other drugs
explain the factor in college students that increase risk of substance (drugs): student engagement
-the more students are involved in learning and in extracurricular activities, the less likely they are to binge drink, use marijuana, or abuse prescription drugs
explain the factor in college students that increase risk of substance (drugs): college athletics
-college athletes drink at higher rates than nonathletes but are less likely to use illicit drugs
explain the factor in college students that increase risk of substance (drugs): healthy social network
-having a wide range of friends and supports to help cope with the challenges of life is a well-known protective factor for many negative behaviors, including drug use
what are some questions to ask yourself in a situation in which you have the opportunity or feel pressures to use illicit drugs?
-why am I considering trying drugs? Am I trying to fit in or impress my friends? What does this say about my friends if I need to take drugs to impress them? Are my friends really looking out for what is best for me?
-Am I using this drug to cope or feel different? Am I depressed?
-What could taking drugs cost me? will this cost me my career if I am caught using? Could using drugs prevent me from getting a job?
-what are the long-term consequences of using this drug?
-what will this cost me in terms of my friendships and family? how would my family and friends respond if they knew I was using drugs?
what are some good ways to turn down an offer? say no to drugs
-thanks, but I have got a big test (game, meeting) tomorrow morning
-I have already got a great buzz right now. I really do not need anything more
-I do not like how (insert drug name here) make me feel
-I am driving tonight. so I am not using
-I want to go for a run in the morning
illegal drugs are classified as _
drugs can be divided int following categories:
-cannabis products (cannabinoids)
for summary of categories, uses, and effects of various drugs of abuse, both legal and illicit see
see page 389 in
cannabis includes _
drug that increases activity of the central nervous system
stimulant effect involves_(include how users look)
-users often seem jittery or nervous while high
list commonly used stimulants
-nicotine in tobacco
cocaine (how looks, derived from what, street name, how powerful)
-a white crystalline powder derived from the leaves of the South American coca shrub, cocaine ("coke") has been described as one of the most powerful naturally occurring stimulants
methods of taking cocaine (3)
-snorting (powdered from through the nose)
the powdered form of cocaine is snorted through the nose, which can cause_(health problems)
-damage mucous membranes
-destroy the user's smell
-eats a hole through the septum
when cocaine is snorted, pathway to blood and how makes its effects? how long it lasts?
-when snorted, the drug enters the bloodstream through the lungs in less than 1 minute and reaches the brain in less than 3 minutes
-it binds at receptor sites in the central nervous system, producing an intense high that disappears quickly, leaving a powerful craving for more
modified forms of cocaine?
-freebase (cocaine alkaloid)
how to make freebase (cocaine)?
-cocaine alkaloid, or freebase, is obtained by removing the hydrochloride salt form cocaine powder
method of taking freebase of cocaine alkaloid
-freebasing refers to smoking freebase by placing it at the end of a pipe and holding a flame near it to produce a vapor, which is then inhaled
how to make crack? (cocaine)
-is identical pharmacologically to freebase, but the hydrochloride slat is still present and is processed with baking soda and water
crack: how expensive, how available, how potent, method to take it, how long takes to have effect, how addictive
-it is cheap
-widely available drug that is smokable and very potent
-crack is commonly smoked in the same manner as freebase
-because crack is such a pure drug, it takes little time to achieve the desired high, and a crack user can become addicted quickly
cocaine users can inject the drug intravenously (how quickly acts, why risky)
-some cocaine users inject the drug intravenously, which introduces large amounts into the body rapidly, creating a brief, intense high at risk not only for contracting HIV and hepatitis (serious liver disease) through shared needles, but also for skin infections, vein damage, inflamed arteries, and infection of the heart lining
cocaine is both an _(2)
-central nervous system stimulant
in tiny doses, what cocaine can do to your body? (small doses)
-in tiny doses, it can slow the heart rate
in large doses, what effect can cocaine have on body?
-in larger doses , the physical effects are dramatic: increased heart rate and blood pressure, loss of appetite that can lead to dramatic weight loss, convulsions, muscle twitching, irregular heartbeat, an even death resulting from an overdose
what are benefit symptoms or effects of cocaine? what happens as cocaine dose increases?
-other effects of cocaine include temporary relief of depression, decreased fatigue, talkativeness, increased alertness, and heightened self-confidence
-however, as the dose increases, users become irritable and apprehensive, and their behavior may turn paranoid or violent
-a large and varied group of synthetic agents that stimulate the central nervous system
benefits of small doses of amphetamines? (small doses effects)
-small doses of amphetamines improve alertness, lessen fatigue, and generally elevate mood
what are the body effects with repeated uses of amphetamines?
-with repeated use, however, physical and psychological dependencies develop.
-sleep patterns are affected (insomnia)
-heart rate, breathing rate, and blood pressure increase
-restlessness, anxiety, appetite suppression, and vision problems are common
high doses of amphetamines over long time periods can produce _
certain types of amphetamines or amphetamine-like drugs are sued for _.
ex: drugs prescribed to treat ADHD are stimulants, which are increasingly abused on campus
an increasingly common form of amphetamine are _, which is a _(how activates brain)
-methamphetamine (commonly called "meth")
-is a potent, long-acting, addictive drug that strongly activates the brain's reward center by producing a sense of euphoria
what are methods to take methamphetamines?
explain how long methamphetamine takes to take effect, how long lasts, and include the methods to take it in discussion
-when snorted, the effects can be felt in 3 to 5 minutes
-orally ingested, the effects occur within 15 to 20 minutes
-The pleasurable effects of methamphetamine are typically an intense rush lasting only a few minutes when snorted; in contrast, smoking the drug can produce a high lasting more than 8 hours
what methamphetamine does in brain? (include name of neurotransmitter and what makes the user feel)
-methamphetamine increases the release and blocks the reuptake of the neurotransmitter dopamine, leading to high levels of the chemical in the brain
-dopamine is involved in reward, motivation, the experience of pleasure, and motor function
-methamphetamine's ability to release dopamine rapidly in reward regions of the brain produces the intense euphoria, or "rush," that many users feel
what the use methamphetamine over time does to brain? what are possible diseases arising from this?
-However, over time, meth destroys dopamine receptors, making it impossible to feel pleasure
-researchers have now established that, due to destruction of dopamine receptors, people who abuse methamphetamine or other amphetamine-like substances (cocaine) are more likely to develop Parkinson's disease than those who do not
explain how chronic methamphetamine abuse significantly changes how the brain functions. do this changes reverse after abstinence?
-noninvasive human brain imaging studies have shown alterations in the activity of the dopamine system that are associated with reduced motor skills and impaired verbal learning
-chronic abusers have severe structural and functional changes in areas of the brain associated with emotion and memory, which may account for the emotional and cognitive problems observed in chronic methamphetamine abusers
-some of these changes persist after the methamphetamine abuse has stopped. other changes revers after sustained periods of abstinence form methamphetamine, lasting typically longer than a year, but problems often remain
in the short term, what metamphetamine causes in the body? (short term effects)
-in the short term, methamphetamine produces increased physical activity, alertness, euphoria, rapid breathing, increased body temperature, insomnia, tremors, anxiety, confusion, and decreased appetite
how quickly the effects of methamphetamine wear off?
-the drug's effects quickly wear off
users often experience _after the first use, making methamphetamine highly _
long term effects of methamphetamine
-include severe weight loss, cardiovascular damage, increased risk of heart attack and stroke, hallucinations, extensive tooth decay and tooth loss ("meth mouth"), violence, paranoia, psychotic behavior, and even death
it is believed that more than _million Americans have tried methamphetamine. the rate of methamphetamine may be _because it is relative easy to_.
-easy to make
recipes often include common OTC ingredients such as ephedrineand pseudoephedrine
what is "bath salts"? (what it is, where sold, regulated by FDA? what substances contain, how taken, why attractive for misuse)
-is the latest addition to the growing list of items people are using to get high
-the new designer drug is synthetic powder sold legally online and in corner stores and truck stops
-The powder substance is sold in a packet with a disclaimer "not for human consumption" It is not subject to FDA regulation
-These packages contain various amphetamine or cocaine-like substances such as methylene-dioxypyrovalerone (MPDV), mephedrone, and pyrovalerone
-The powder can be smoked, snorted, injected, and wrapped in pieces of paper and ingested or "bombed"
-These chemicals cannot be detected by routine drug screening, making them attractive for misuse
effects of bath salts. what users describe to feel?
-users may describe feelings of closeness, sociability, and moderate sexual arousal
-Other symptoms can include tremor, shortness of breath, and loss of appetite
-changes in body temperature regulation are accompanied by hot flashes and sweating, with bleeding from the nose and throat form ulcerations when snorted
-this drug also can have significant effects on the cardiovascular system, resulting in rapid heart rate, increased blood pressure, and chest pain
-psychiatric effects at higher does consists of anxiety, agitation, hallucinations, paranoia, and erratic behavior. depression and suicide have also been reported as a result of use
-while withdrawal symptoms are reported as minimal, users often have described a strong craving for the drug
what is the most popular and widely consumed drug in the United States?
almost _of all Americans drink coffee every day, and many others consume caffeine in some other form, mainly for its well known "_" effect
examples of substances in which you can get caffeine
caffeine is a drug considered by government to be _
caffeine may seem harmless, but _
-excessive consumption is associated with addiction and certain health problems
caffeine is derived from _ (chemical family name and what other products arise from same plant)
-the chemical family called xanthines, which are found in plant products from which coffee, tea, and chocolate are made
Xanthines (which caffeine arise) are_(relate to brain and what cause)
-mild, central nervous stimulants that enhance mental alertness and reduce feeling of fatigue
what are other stimulant effects due to xanthines (caffeine)?
-other stimulant effects include increased heart muscle contractions, oxygen consumption, metabolism, and urinary output
A person feels these effects within _minutes of ingesting a caffeinated product. it takes _hours for the body to metabolize _of the caffeine ingested, so, depending on the amount of caffeine taken, it may _
-15 to 45 minutes
-4 to 6 hours
-it may continue to exert effects for a day or longer
what are side effects of xanthines (caffeine)?
-sometimes mild delirium
-some people also experience heartbun
as the effects of caffeine wear off, how the user may feel? what they choose to do to counteract this? habitually engaging in this practice leads to what?
-as the effects of caffeine wear off, frequent users may feel let down--mentally or physically depressed, tired, and weak
-to counteract this, they commonly choose to drink another cup of coffee
-habitually engaging in this practice leads to tolerance and psychological dependence
symptoms of excessive caffeine consumption include
-involuntary muscle twitches
what withdrawing from caffeine may cause?
withdrawing from caffeine may compound the effects and produce headaches, fatigue, and nausea
why caffeine can be classified as addictive?
-because caffeine meets the requirements for addiction (tolerance, psychological dependence, and withdrawal) it can be classified as addictive
_caffeine use has been suspected of being linked to several serous health problems. However, no strong evidence exists to suggest that _(what kind of use is not harmful) harmful effects in healthy, nonpregnant people
-long-term caffeine use
-moderate caffeine use (less than 300 mg daily, approximately 3 cups of regular coffee) produces harmful effects in healthy, nonpregnant people
why caffeine is not recommended for people that suffer from irregular heartbeat?
-caffeine has not been linked to high blood pressure or strokes, nor is there any evidence of a relationship between caffeine and heart diseases. However, people who suffer from irregular heartbeat are cautioned against using caffeine because the resultant increase in heart rate might be life threatening
although archaeological evidence documents the use of marijuana as far back as _, the drug did not become popular in the United States until the _
marijuana (what it is, source)
-chopped leaves and flowers of Cannabis indica or Cannabis sativa plants (hemp)
other names for marijuana
_is the most common used illicit drug in the United States
marijuana use is also on the rise on_(location), following the trend of _
-increased use in the general population
what is one common way of smoking marijuana?
is to use a pipe
how marijuana is taken? (2)
-most of the time, marijuana is smoked, although it can also be ingested, as in brownies baked with marijuana in them
when marijuana is smoked, it is usually _(ways to smoke it)
-rolled into cigarettes (joints)
-placed in a pipe or water pipe (bong)
_is the psychoactive substance in marijuana and the key determining how powerful a high it will produce
the chemical name for the active ingredient in marijuana
more potent forms of marijuana can contain up to _% THC, but most average_%
-a potent cannabis preparation derived mainly from the plant's thick, sticky resin, contains high THC concentrations
-a substance produced by percolating a solvent such as ether through dried marijuana to extract the THC, is a tarlike liquid that may contain up to 300 mg of THC in a dose
The effects of smoking marijuana are generally felt within _minutes and usually wear off within _hours
-10 to 30 minutes
the most noticeable visible effect of THC (smoke marijuana) is _
the dilation of the eyes' blood vessels, which gives the smoker bloodshot eyes
Marijuana smokers also exhibit (signs)_
-dry mouth and throat ("cotton mouth")
-increased thirst and appetite
-lowered blood pressure
-mild muscular weakness, primarily exhibited in drooping eyelids
what users that smoke marijuana may experience?
-severe anxiety, panic, paranoia, and psychosis
-have intensified reactions to various stimuli: colors, sounds, and the speed at which things move may seem altered
high doses of hashish may produce_
vivid visual hallucinations
many college students have a false sense of _(marijuana use)
-many college students have a false sense of how much their peers use marijuana. In a recent survey, students estimated that about 80% of peers had used marijuana at least once in the past month when in fact, only 16% reported actually using it
marijuana use presents clear hazards for _
drivers of motor vehicles and others on the road with them
explain how marijuana presents clear hazards of drivers of motor vehicles (how impairs them)
-the drug substantially reduces a driver's ability to react and make quick decisions
-perceptual and other performance deficits resulting from marijuana use may persist for some time after the high subsides
-users who attempt to drive, fly, or operate heavy machinery often fail to recognize their impairment
overall, marijuana is the most prevalent illegal drug detected in_.In many of these cases_is detected as well
-impaired drivers, fatally injured drivers, and motor vehicle crash victims
-together have a greater effect than for either drug alone (synergism)
recent research has found that driving under the influence of marijuana is associated with a risk of having crash almost _times as high as driving unimpaired
marijuana smoke contains _% more carcinogenic hydrocarbons than does tobacco smoke
50 to 70%
why the lungs of a marijuana smokers are exposed to more carcinogens?
-because marijuana smokers typically inhale more deeply and hold their breath longer than tobacco smokers, the lungs are exposed to more carcinogens
marijuana smokers can have similar effects to those experienced by tobacco smokers like:
-effects of irritation like cough, excessive phlegm, and increased lung infections
what lung disorders are associated with marijuana smoking?
-lung conditions such as chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and other lung disorders are also associated with smoking marijuana
inhaling marijuana smoke introduces _to the bloodstream
what causes the inhaled carbon monoxide into bloodstream due to inhaling marijuana smoke?
-because the blood has a greater affinity for carbon monoxide than it does for oxygen, its oxygen-carrying capacity is diminished, and the heart must work harder to pump oxygen to oxygen-starved tissues
the tar from cannabis (marijuana smoke) contains higher levels of_than does tobacco smoke
higher levels of carcinogens
frequent and/or long-term marijuana use may significantly increase a man's risk of developing _. The results also suggested that the association with marijuana use might be limited to _(kind, explain)
-nonseminoma, an aggressive, fast-growing testicular malignancy that tends to strike early, between ages 20 and 35, and accounts for about 40% of all testicular cancer cases
teens and young adults who use marijuana are more likely to develop serious _. (what diseases) Some of these studies have shown _as an indicator of vulnerability to later problems
-mental health problems
-association between marijuana use and increased rates of anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, and schizophrenia
-age at first use as an indicator
ex: among individuals 18 and older, those who used marijuana before age 12 were twice as likely to have a serious mental illness as those who first used marijuana at age 18 or older
Chronic use of marijuana can decrease the quality of _. explain. who is mainly affected by this?
-studies have found that chronic users of marijuana experience less rapid eye movement (REM) and slow-wave sleep (SWS), often referred to as deep sleep, both of which are important for the consolidation of memories
-not getting enough sleep interferes with the ability to think and remember, challenging students' ability to learn and perform well academically
others risks associated with marijuana include
-suppression of the immune system
-blood pressure changes
pregnant women who smoke marijuana are at a higher risk for_
-for delivering low birth-weight babies
-babies with abnormalities of the nervous system
Although recognized as a dangerous drug by the US government, marijuana has several_purposes
explain the medical purposes of marijuana
-it helps control the severe nausea and vomiting produced by chemotherapy
-it improves appetite and forestalls the loss of lean muscle mass associated with AIDS-wasting syndrome
-Marijuana also reduces the muscle pain and spasticity caused by diseases such as multiple sclerosis
what states have chosen to legalize marijuana for medicinal use
-16 states: alaska, arizona, california, colorado, delaware, hawaii, maine, michigan, montana, new mexico, new jersey, nevada, oregon, rhode island, vermont, and washington
-the distric of columbia
for points regarding legalization of marijuana are in page 395
synthetic marijuana is also known as_
what is synthetic marijuana?
-synthetic marijuana is used to describe a diverse family of herbal blends marketed under many names, including K2, fake marijuana, Yucatan Fire, Skunk, Moon Rocks, and others
synthetic marijuana products contain what? how are similar to marijuana? advantages?
-these products contain dried, shredded plant material and one or more synthetic cannabinoids, with results that mimic marijuana intoxication but with longer duration and poor detection on urine drug screens
what synthetic marijuana is sold legally? how some people use it?
-K2 is sold legally as herbal blend incense
-However, K2 is smoked by people to gain effects similar to marijuana, hashish, and other forms of cannabis
K2 is used by nearly 1 in 10 _and is more commonly used by _and _
-by males and first and second year college students
Students who reported using K2 were more likely to have _
-smoked cigarettes, marijuana, and huukahs
K2 is also gaining more attention among _
-high school seniors
The most common way of smoking K2 was in _, followed by _use
people smoking K2 may experience several adverse health effects such as _
-exttremely elevated heart rate
-drug dependence, which is not common among cannabis users
whereas central nervous system stimulants increase muscular and nervous system activity, _have the opposite effect
depressants (what are them, what cause)
-drugs that slow down the activity of the central nervous system
-slow down neuromuscular activity and cause sleepines or calmness
if the dose of depressants is high enough, brain function _
can stop, causing death
types of depressants (4)
what is the most common widely used central nervous system depressant?
a sedative drug promotes
-mental calmness and reduces anxiety
hypnotic drug promotes
-sleep or drowsiness
the most common sedative-hypnotic drugs are _. Another sedative-hypnotic drug are _
benzodiazepines (how commonly known, definition)
-most commonly known as tranquilizers
-a class of central nervous system depressant drugs with sedative, hypnotic, and muscle relaxant effects
benzodiazepines include what drugs?
-prescription durgs such as Valium, Ativan, and Xanax
benzodiazepines are most commonly prescribed for _
-tension, muscular strain, sleep problems, anxiety, panic attacks, and alcohol withdrawal
-drugs that depress the central nervous system and have sedative, hypnotic, and anesthetic effects
barbiturates are _drugs such as_(examples)
-Amytal and Seconal
how benzodizapines relate to barbiturates regarding who is most popular?
today, benzodiazepines have largely replaced barbiturates, which were used medically in the past for reliving tension and inducing relaxation and sleep
sedative-hypnotics have a _effect when combined with_, another central nervous system depressant
when sedative-hypnotics are taken together with alcohol, what are possible body results?
-taken together, these drugs can lead to respiratory failure and deaht
problem with sedative or hypnotic drugs
-all sedative or hypnotic drugs can produce physical and psychological dependence in several weeks
-a complication specific to sedatives is cross-tolerance, which occurs when users develop tolerance for one sedative or become dependent on it and develop tolerance for others as well
what are withdrawal symptoms of sedative or hypnotic drugs ?
-withdrawal from sedative or hypnotic drugs may range from mild discomfort to sever symptoms, depending on the degree of dependence
what is a benzodiazepine of concern?
Rohypnol (what it is, similar to what other drug)
-type of benzodiazepine, which is a potent tranquilizer similar to Valium but many times stronger
-the drug produces a sedative effect, amnesia, muscle relaxation, and slowed psychomotor responses
How Rohypnol is used in college?
-The most publicized "date rape" drugm Rohpynol has gained notoriety as a growing problem on college campuses
-The drug has been added to punch and other drinks at parties, where it is reportedly given to women in hopes of lowering their inhibitions and facilitating potential sexual conquests
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) (what it is, what 3 effects)
-it is a central nervous system depressant known to have euphoric, sedative, and anabolic (bodybuilding) effects
How Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has been restricted?
The FDA banned OTC slaes of GHB in 1992, and it is now a Schedule I controlled substance
how Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is similar to Rohypnol?
-Like Rohypnol, Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has been slipped into drinks without being detected, resulting in loss of memory, unconsciousness, amnesia, and even death
what are dangerous side effects of Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)?
-nausea, vomiting, seizures, hallucinations, coma, and respiratory distress
opioids (other name, effects)
-also called narcotics
-drugs that induce sleep and relieve pain, including derivatives of opium and synthetics with similar chemical properties,
-cause drowsiness, relieve pain, produce euphoria
opioids are derived from
-derived from the parent drug opium
opium (definition, made of what, how addictive)
-the parent drug of the opioids
-made from the seedpod resin of teh opium poppy
-dark, resinous substance made from the milky juice of the opium poppy seedpood
list the types of narcotics (opioids)
opium and heroin are both _in the US, but some opioids are available by_
-prescription for medical purposes
example of opioids that is available with prescription for medical purposes (2)
-morphine is sometimes prescribed for severe pain, and codeine is found in prescription cough syrup and other painkillers
list the prescription drugs that contain synthetic opioids
opioids are powerful _of the central nervous system
effects of opioids in the body
-in addition of relieving pain, these drugs lower heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure
side effects of opioids
-weakness, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, euphoria, decreased sex drive, visual disturbance, and lack of coordination
why opioids are addictive? (body-level and include hormone and its normal functioning)
-The human body's physiology could be said to encourage opioid addiction
-opioid-like hormones called endorphins are manufactured in the body and have multiple receptor sites, particularly in the central nervous system
-when endorphins attach themselves at these points, they create feelings of painless well-being; medical researchers refer to them as "the body's own opioids."
-When endorphin levels are high, people feel euphoric
-The same euphoria occurs when opioids or related chemicals are active at the endorphin receptor sites
addiction to any opioid follows the same path as _
Heroin (color, state, derived from what)
-white powder derived from morphine
black tar heron
-sticky, dark brown, foul-smelling form of heroin that is relatively pure and inexpensive
once considered a cure for _dependence, heroin was later discovered to be _
-even more addictive and potent than morphine
heroin has no _use
no medical use
effects of heroin in body
-heroin is a depressant that produces drowsiness and a dreamy, mentally slow feeling
-it can cause drastic mood swings, with euphoric highs followed by depressive lows
-heroin slows respiration and urinary output and constricts pupils of the eyes
symptoms of tolerance and withdrawal of heroin can appear within _
3 weeks of first use
the average age of first use was _years
how heroin is taken?
-while heroin is usually injected, the contemporary version of heroin is so potent that users can get high by snorting or smoking the drug
however, the most common route of administration for heroin addicts is _
-"mainlining": intravenous injection of powdered heroin mixed in a solution
how many users of heroin in mainlining describe it? what contributes for addiction?
-many users describe the "rush" they feel when injecting themselves as intensely pleasurable, whereas others report unpredictable and unpleasant side effects
-the temporary nature of the rush contributes to the drug's high potential for addiction
ex: many addicts shoot up 4 to 5 times a day
what mainlining can do to body? how addicts solve this?
-mainlining can cause veins to scar and eventually collapse
-once a vein has collapsed, it can no longer be used to introduce heroin into the bloodstream
-addicts become experts at locating new veins to use: in the feet, the legs, the temples, under the tongue, or in the groin
withdrawal symptoms of heroin
-symptoms include intense desire for the drug, sleep disturbance, dilated pupils, loss of appetite, irritability, goose bumps, and muscle tremors
-all of the preceding symptoms continue, along with nausea, abdominal cramps, restlessness, insomnia, vomiting, diarrhea, extreme anxiety, hot and cold flashes, elevated blood pressure, and rapid heartbeat and respiration
the most difficult time in the withdrawal process occurs _(time period)
24 to 72 hours following the last use
once the peak of the withdrawal has passed, all these symptoms begin to subside. Still, the recovering addict has _
many hurdles to jump
_is one treatment available for people addicted to heroin or other oipiods
why and how methadone can help with heroin treatment?
-methadone is chemically similar enough to opioids to control tremors, chills, vomiting, diarrhea, and severe abdominal pains of withdrawal
why methadone maintenance is controversial?
-because of the drug's own potential for addiction
-critics content that the program merely substitutes one addiction for another
why government finances methadone maintenance?
-proponents argue that people on methadone maintenance are less likely to engage in criminal activities to support their habits than heroin addicts
-for this reason, many methadone maintenance programs are financed by state or federal government and are available free of charge or at reduced cost
list other 2 drug therapies for opioids dependence (besides methadone)
explain how works Naltrexone (Trexan)
-an opioid antagonist
-while on naltrexone, recovering addicts do not have the compulsion to use heroin, and if they do use it, they do not get high, so there is no point in using the drug
explain how buprenorphine (Temgesic) works
-a mild, nonaddicting synthetic opioid that, like heroin and methadone, bonds to certain receptors in the brain, blocks the pain messages, and persuades the brain that its craving for heroin has been satisfied
why is it so hard to quit using heroin? (include most famous drug treatment used to have normal lives)
-Heroin's effect on the body is similar to the painless well-being created by endorphins
-stopping heroin use causes withdrawal symptoms that can be very difficult to manage, which keeps many addicts from attempting to quit.
-Methadone is a synthetic narcotic that blocks the effects of withdrawal. Although it is still a narcotic and must be administered under the supervision of clinic or pharmacy staff, methadone allows many heroin addicts to lead somewhat normal lives
Hallucinogens (other name and definition, effects)
-Substances capable of creating auditory or visual distortions and heightened states
-substances that are capable of creating auditory or visual hallucinations and unusual changes in mood, thoughts, and feelings
where are the major receptor sites for hallucinogens? what this part is responsible of?
-the major receptor sites of these drugs are in the reticular formation (located in the brainstem at the upper end of the spinal cord), which is responsible for interpreting outside stimuli before allowing these signals to travel to other parts of the brain
what happens when an hallucinogen is present at a reticular formation site? how this is called?
-when a hallucinogen is present at a reticular fomentation site, messages become scrambled, and the user may see wavy walls instead of straight one or may "smell colors and "hear" tastes
-this mixing of sensory messages is known as synthesia
-users may also become less inhibited or recall events long buried in the subconscious mind
list the hallucinogen types (6)
what is the most notorious hallucinogen?
what LSD stands for?
lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)
lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) (when was made and by who? how people used it, what happened afterwards in 1970)
-first synthesized in the late 1930s by Albert Hoffman, LSD received media attention in the 1960s when young people used the drug to "turn on and tune out"
-In 1970, federal authorities placed LSD on the list of controlled substances (schedule I)
how lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is known in the streets?
what is the most common and popular form of LSD?
blotter acid (how are made, and how are taken)
-small squares of blotter-like paper that have been impregnanted with a liquid LSD mixture
-The blotter is swallowed or chewed briefly
lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) comes in other forms, what are these?
-tiny thin squares of gelatin called window pane
-tablets called microdots (it would take 10 or more to equal the size of an aspirin tablet)
lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is one of the most _known to science. explain
-most powerful drugs
-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)can produce strong effects in doses as low as 20 micrograms
-the potencty of a typical dose currently ranges from 20 to 80 micrograms
explain the psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)
-euphoria is the common psychological state produced by the drug, but dysphoria (a sense of evil and foreboding) may also be experienced
-LSD also distorts ordinary perceptions, such as the movements of stationary objects, as well as auditory or visual hallucinations
-in addition, the drug shortens attention span, causing the mind to wander
-thoughts may be interposed and juxtaposed, so the user experiences several different thoughts simultaneously -users become introspective, and suppressed memories may surface, often taking on bizarre symbolism
-many more effects are possible, including decreased aggressiveness and enhanced sensory experiences
In addition to its psychedelic effects, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) produces several physical effects, including:
-increased heart rate
-elevated blood pressure and temperature
-gooseflesh (roughened skin)
-increased reflex speeds
-muscle tremors and twitches
-uterine muscle contractions
how lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) can be bad for pregnant women?
-because the drug also stimulates uterine muscle contractions, it can lead to premature labor and miscarriage
what kind of dependency may create lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)?
although there is no evidence that LSD creates a physical dependency, it may well create psychological dependence
why there is a psychological addiction to lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)? (focus on the feelings of the user)
-many LSD users become depressed for 1 or 2 days following a trip and turn to the drug to relieve this depression
-the result is a cycle of LSD use to relieve post-LSD depression, which can lead to psychological addiction
how risky are "club drugs"? (include example of drugs in this category, how are this drugs in composition, effects, actions that can happen due to drugs)
-club drugs are varied group of synthetic drugs including Ectasy, GHB, ketamine, Rohypnol, and meth that are often abused by teens and young adults at nightclubs, bars, or all-night dances
-drugs may not be pure and dosages are unpredictable
-Although users may think them harmless, club drugs can produce hallucinations, paranoia, amnesia, dangerous increases in heart rate and blood pressure, coma, and death
-some club drugs work on the same brain mechanisms as alcohol and can be particularly dangerous when used in combination with alcohol
-In addition, some club drugs can be easily slipped into unsuspecting partygoers' drinks, thus facilitating sexual assault and other crimes
ecstasy is the common street name for the drug_
ecstasy is a _compound with both_(effects)
-both stimulant and mildly hallucinogenic effects
ecstasy is one of the most well-known _
-club drugs or designer drugs, terms applied to synthetic analogs of existing illicit drugs that tend to be popular among teens and young adults at nightclubs
-synthetic analogs (drugs that produce similar effects) of existing illicit drugs
ecstasy creates what feelings?
-feelings of extreme euphoria, openness, and warmth; an increased willingness to communicate; feelings of love and empathy; increased awareness; and heightened appreciation for music
Like other hallucinogenic drugs, ecstasy can _but it does not _
-can enhance the sensory experience and distort perceptions, but it does not create visual hallucinations
effects of ecstasy can begin within _minute sand can last for_hours
-20 to 90 minutes
-3 to 5 hours
what are some risks of ecstasy?
-similar to those of other stimulants
-because the nature of the drug, ecstasy users are at greater risk of inappropriate or unintended emotional bonding and have a tendency to say things they might feel uncomfortableabout later
-physical consequences of ecstasy are mild to extreme jaw clenching, tongue and cheek chewing, short-term memory loss or confusion, increased body temperature as a result of dehydration and heat stroke , and increased heart rate and blood pressure
Individuals with what diseases are at greater risk when taking ecstasy?
individuals with high blood pressure, heart disease, or liver trouble
Combined with _, ecstasy can be extremely dangerous and sometimes fatal
As the effects of ecstasy wear off, the user can experience_
-mild depression, fatigue, and a hangover that can last form days to weeks
chronic use of ecstasy how affect brain?
-chronic use appears to damage the brain's ability to think and to regulate emotion, memory, sleep, and pain
-some studies indicate that the drug may cause long-lasting neurotoxic effects by damaging brain cells that produce serotonin
mescaline is one of the hundreds of chemicals derived from_
-the peyote cactus, a small, button-like plant that grows in the southwestern US and in Latin America
-mescaline comes from "buttons" of the peyote cactus
what is the cultural use of mescaline?
Natives of southwestern US have long used the dried peyote "buttons" for religious purposes
mescaline is both a powerful_
-hallucinogen and a central nervous system stimulant
what are street names of mescaline?
any of these can be toxic in small quantities
how mescaline is taken? (include tastes, how long takes effect and how long are the effects)
-users typically swallow 10 to 12 buttons
-they taste bitter and generally induce immediate nausea or vomiting
-long-time users claim that the nausea becomes less noticeable with frequent use
-Those who are able to keep the drug down begin to feel the effects within 30 to 90 minutes, when mescaline reaches maximum concentration in the brain. It may persist for 9 or 10 hours
psylocybin and what other drug are derived from what?
-psylocybin and psilocin are the active chemicals in a group of mushrooms sometimes called "magic mushrooms"
-Psilocybe mushrooms, which grow throughout the world, can be cultivated from spores or harvested wild
How psylocybin and psilocin are taken? what they cause?
-when the mushrooms are consumed, they can cause hallucinations
psylocybin effects are similar to _(other drug) in its physical effects, which generally wear off in _hours
-4 to 6 hours
what was the original use of phencylidine (PCP)? why stopped used for this purpose?
-it was originally developed as a dissociative anesthetic (patients administered this drug could keep their eyes open, apparently remain conscious, and feel no pain during the medical procedure)
-afterward, they would experience amnesia for the time that the drug was in their system
-such a drug had obvious advantages as an anesthetic, but its unpredictability and drastic effects (postoperative delirium, confusion, and agitation) caused it to be withdrawn form the legal market
on the illegal market, how phencylidine (PCP) is used?
-on the illegal market, phencylidine (PCP) is a white, crystalline powder that users often sprinkle into marijuana cigarettes
phencylidine (PCP) is_regardless of the method of administration. The effects of phencylidine (PCP) depend on _ (include physical effects and 3 doses)
-a dose as small as 5 mg will produce effects similar to those of strong central nervous system depressants: slurred speech, impaired coordination, reduced sensitivity to pain, and reduced heart and respiration rate
-doses between 5 and 10 mg cause fever, salivation, nausea, vomiting, and total loss of sensitivity to pain
-doses greater than 10 mg result in drastic drop in blood pressure, coma, muscular rigidity, violent outbursts, and possible convulsions and death
psychological effects of phencylidine (PCP)
-may produce either euphoria or dysphoria
-hallucinations as well as delusions and overall delirium
-some users experience a prolonged state of "nothingness"
how ketamine is used in medical purposes?
-the liquid of ketamine ("Special K") is used as an anesthetic in some hospitals and veterinary clinics
how dealers treat ketamine ("Special K") for drug use?
-dealers typically dry the liquid (usually by cooking it) and grind the residue into powder
what are the effects of ketamine ("Special K")?
-special K causes hallucinations, as it inhibits the relay of sensory input
-the brain fills the resulting void with visions, dreams, memories, and sensory distortions
The effects of ketamine ("Special K") are similar to those of _(drug and include effects)but even less predictable
-confusion, agitation, aggression, and lack of coordination
why ketamine ("Special K") is used as a club drug?
-the aftereffects of ketamine ("Special K") are less sever than those of Ecstasy, so it has grown in popularity as a club drug
what household products can be used for a quick but risky high?
-aerosols, sprays, solvents, or glues, can be inhaled for a quick but risky high
inhalants (definition, effects)
-products that are sniffed or inhaled in order to produce highs
-are chemicals whose vapors, when inhaled, can cause hallucinations and create intoxication and euphoric effects
why inhalants are widely available? how dangerous are?
-not commonly recognized as drugs, inhalants are legal to purchase and widely available, but dangerous
who commonly looks for inhalants and why?
-they generally appeal to young people who can't afford or obtain illicit substances
some inhalant that are misused to get a high are _
most of the inhalant products are _(how taken) in search of a _(2) high
-sniffed or "huffed" by users in search of a quick, cheap high
why inhalants are fast acting?
-because they are inhaled, the volatile chemicals in these products reach the bloodstream and then the brain within seconds
why inhalants are dangerous? (2)
-they are fast acting because they are inhaled
-dosages are extremely difficult to control because everyone has unique lung and breathing capacities
how long effects of inhalants last?
for fewer then 15 minutes
the effects of inhalants
-resemble those of central nervous system depressants: dizziness, disorientation, impaired coordination, reduced judgment, and slowed reaction time
combining inhalants with alcohol produces _effect and can cause _
-can cause severe and sometimes fatal liver damage
an overdose of fumes form inhalants can cause _
when death can arise from inhalants? (2)
-if the user's oxygen intake is reduced during the inhaling process, death can result within 5 minutes
-sudden sniffing death (SSD) syndrome can be a fatal consequence, whether it is the user's first time or not. Thus syndrome can occur if a user inhales deeply and then participates in physical activity or is startled
example of inhalant (specific drugs)
amyl nitrite (other names, how made, and how used)
-sometimes called "poppers"or "rush"
-amyl nitrite is packaged in small, cloth-covered glass capsule that can be crushed to release the active chemical for the user to inhale
how amyl nitrite is used for medical purposes?
-the drug is often prescribed to alleviate chest pain in heart patients because it dilates small blood vessels and reduces blood pressure
sexual use of amyl nitrite
-dilation of blood vessels in the genital area is thought to enhance sensations or perceptions of orgasm
other effects of amyl nitrite
-fainting, dizziness, warmth, and skin flushing
other common name of nitrous oxide
how nitrous oxide is used for medical purposes?
-nitrous oxide is sometimes used as dental or minor surgical anesthesia
in what product nitrous oxide is found?
-nitrous oxide is a propellant chemical in aerosol products such as whipped toppings
users who inhale nitrous oxide experience_(effects)
-a state of euphoria, floating sensation, and illusions
-effects also include pain relief and a silly feeling (hence its nickname "laughing gas")
sustained inhalation of nitrous oxide can lead to _
-unconsciousness, coma, and death
1 in 4 Americans who began using any addictive substance before age _are addicted, compared to 1 in 25 Americans who started at age _
-21 or older
anabolic steroids (definition)
artificial forms of the hormone testosterone that promote muscle growth and strength
anabolic steroids are available in two forms:
anabolic steroids are believed to be_drugs and are used because people believe the drug will_
-increase their strength, power, bulk (weight), speed, and athletic performance
-substances believed to enhance athletic performance
how anabolic steroids use have changed for college students?
-17 to 20% college atheletes used staroids
-Now that stricter drug-testing policies have been instituted by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), reported use of anabolic steroids among intercollegiate athletes has decreased
half of college students that reported their first experience with anabolic steroids occurred _(age)
after age of 18
how percent of college students that use anabolics compare to the perception of anabolic steroids use by classmates?
-approx 1% report using them within the past 30 days
-However, the perception of anabolic steroids use on the college campus is much higher, with 32% of students perceiving their classmates had used anabolic steroids in the past 30%
anabolic steroids is higher in what gender? which is growing most rapidly?
-anabolic steroids abuse is higher among men than it is among women. However, anabolic steroids abuse is growing most rapidly among young women
effects of anabolic steroids (what these characteristics lead to)
-anabolic steroids produce a state of euphoria, diminished fatigue, and increased bulk and power in both sexes
-these characteristics give steroids an addictive quality
when users of anabolic steroids stop, what they can experience?
-experience psychological withdrawal and sometimes severe depression, in some cases leading to suicide attempts
what are adverse or negative effects of anabolic steroids experienced both by men and women?
-men and women who use steroids experience a variety of adverse effects, including mood swings (aggression and violence, sometimes known as "roid rage"); acne; liver tumors; elevated cholesterol levels; hypertension; kidney disease; and immune system disturbances
what is the danger of usign anabolic steroids?
there is also a danger of transmitting HIV and hepatitis through shared needles
how anabolic steroids affect women? (effects in women)
-large doses of anabolic steroids may trigger the development of masculine attributes such as deeper voice, increased facial and body hair, and male baldness
-enlarged clitoris, smaller breasts, and changes in or absence of menstruation
effects of anabolic steroids in healthy males
anabolic steroids shut down the body's production of testosterone, causing men's breasts to grow and testicles to atrophy
The Anabolic Steroids Control Act (ASCA) of 1990 (what does)
-makes it a crime to possess, prescribe, or distribute anabolic steroids for any use other than the treatment of specific diseases
-penalties for their illegal use include up to 5 years' imprisonment and a $250,000 fine for the first offense and up to 10 years' imprisonment and a $500,000 fine for subsequent offenses
In recent years, high-profile athletes in sports such as_(4) have garnered media attention for suspected use of steroids or other banned performance-enhancing drugs
-track and field
An estimated _Americans age 12 or older needed treatment for an illicit drug or alcohol use problem in 2010, Of these, only_received treatment
what is the most difficult step in the recovery process? why?
-the most difficult step in the recovery process is for the substance abuser to admit that he or she is an addict
-this can be difficult because of the power of denial (inability to see the truth)
-denial is the hallmark of addiction
denial can be so powerful that _(what is needed)
a planned intervention is sometimes necessary to break down the addict's defenses against recognizing the problem
recovery from a drug addiction is a _term process and frequently requires multiple episodes of treatment
the first step of treatment begins with _. This period is called _
-abstinence, refraining form using
the early abstinence period during an addict adjust physically and cognitively to being free from the substance's influence
for some addicts, the detoxification period may involve_. Because of this, most inpatient treatment programs provide a _
-early abstinence may involve profound withdrawal that requires medical supervision
-Because of this, most inpatient treatment programs provide a pretreatment component of supervised detoxification to achieve abstinence safely before further treatment begins
what are two treatment approaches?
-outpatient behavioral treatment
-Residential treatment programs
explain outpatient behavioral treatment
-it encompases a variety of programs for addicts who visit a clinic at regular intervals
-most of the programs involve individual or group drug counseling
for those with more severe problem, what treatment approach is better?
residential treatment program
residential treatment program
-therapeutic communities (TCs) are highly structured programs in which addicts remain at a residence, typically for 6 to 12 months
-The focus of TC is on the resocialization of the addict to a drug-free lifestyle
The first 12-step program was _, begun in 1935 in Akron, Ohio
-Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)
12-step program has since become the most widely used approach to dealing _
-not only with alcoholism, but also with drug abuse and other dysfunctional behaviors
what are some recovery programs based on 12-step program?
-crystal meth anonymous
The 12-step program is _and based on the idea that a program's only purpose is to work on _
Working the 12-steps involves _
-admitting to having a serious problem
-recognizing there is an outside power that could help
-consciously relying on that power
-admitting and listing character defects
-seeking deliverance from defects
-apologizing to those individuals one has harmed in the past
-helping others with the same problems
12-step meetings _
-there is no membership cost
-the meetings are open to anyone who wishes to attend
what cocaine vaccine does?
-the cocaine vaccine does not eliminate the desire for cocaine; instead, it keeps the user from getting high by stimulating the immune system to attack the drug when it is taken
list vaccines for drugs (are in development)
what works in helping people recover from drug addiction? (entire process!)
-for most addicts, recovery is a long, difficult progress-for some people it can be a lifelong journey
-treatment and recovery for a drug addiction usually begins with a period of detoxification, which may involve intense physical and psychological withdrawal symptoms
-Once the body has adjusted to being without the drug, the addict usually enters behavior or cognitive therapy to learn how to cope without the drug and avoid relapse
-Therapy often takes the form of group meetings, such as those held by 12-step programs, for example Narcotics Anonymous
For college students who have developed substance or behavioral addiction, _(technique)
-early intervention increases the likelihood of successful treatment and completion of a college education
depending on the severity of the problem, college students undergoing drug treatment may be required to spend time _
-away from school in a residential drug rehabilitation (rehab) inpatient facility
The needs of college students seeing drug treatment in rehab do not differ greatly from other adults recovering addicts, but for best results, the community of addicts should include others of a similar_
-age and educational background
what therapies can help with recovery? (5)
a growing number of colleges and universities offer _to students who are recovering from alcohol and other drug addiction and want to stay in school without being exposed to excessive drinking or drug use
a_may be available for students who have 3.0 grade point average (GPA) and participate in the "peer community"
recovering students are trained to go back into the classroom and educate_
educate their peers who are most at risk of developing substance abuse problems, such as fraternity and sorority members and incoming freshmen
explain how the risks associated with drug use extend beyond the personal
-the decision to try any illicit substance supports illicit drug manufacture and transport, thus contributing to the national drug problem
Illegal drug use in the US costs about _per year. This estimated includes costs associated with_
-treatment and prevention, health care, reduced job productivity and lost earnings, and social consequences such as crime and social welfare
roughly half of all expenditures to combat crime are related to _
_% of all US workers who use illicit drugs are _(work)
-employed full time
disadvantages of drugs in the workplace that cost. The annual economic impact of illicit drug use is _in lost productivity alone
-These costs reflect reduced work performance and efficiency, lost productivity, absenteeism, and turnover
Many companies have instituted _for their employees
why use of drug testing (mandatory drug urinalysis) is controversial?
-critics argue that such testing violates 4th amendment rights of protection from unreasonable search and seizures
-Drug testing is expensive, with costs running as high as $100 per test
-some critics question the accuracy and reliability of the results. Both false positive and false negatives can occur
for more on drug testing or drug tests see page 403
Urine test, saliva test, hair test, and blood test
strategies that universities should consider to reduce the number of students who become involve in substance use include the following:
-changing the student expectations that college is a time to party and experiment with drugs
-Engaging parents about substance use on campus and encouraging them to continue open communication with their children
-identifying high-risk students through early detection screening programs
-providing services such as treatment programs specifically tailored for students
Most anti-drug programs have not been effective because they have focused on _
-only one aspect of the drug abuse rater than examining all factors that contribute to the problem
People who develop drug problems generally believe they can _
-control their drug use when they start out
initially people view taking drugs as a _. however, since most illegal drugs and many prescription drugs produce _, it is unrealistic to think a person can use them regularly without becoming addicted
-fun and manageable pastime
-physical and psychological dependency
what is a strong motivator, especially among adolescents?
-peer influence is also a strong motivator, especially among adolescents, who fear not being accepted as part of the group
is it legal for employers to require employees to take a drug test?
-several court decisions have affirmed the right of employers to test their employees for drug use
-They contend the Fourth Amendment rights pertain only to employees of government agencies, not to those of private businesses
-Most Americans apparently support drug testing for certain types of jobs
Respondents in public opinion polls feel that the most important strategy for fighting drug abuse is _.
educating young people
public opinion also endorse strategies such as the following as possible solutions to the drug problem
-stricter border surveillance to reduce drug trafficking
-longer prison sentences for drug dealers
-increased government spending on prevention
-enforcing anti-drug laws
-greater cooperation between government agencies and private groups and individuals providing treatment assistance
All of these appraoches will probably help, but they do not offer a total solution to the problem
Because drug abuse has been a part of human behavior for thousands of years, it is necessary to _(what we can do)
educate ourselves and develop the self-discipline necessary to avoid dangerous drug dependence
a high percentage of violent and nonviolent crime is linked to _
-drug abuse, affecting not only the abuser, but also entire communities
what is the most popular anti-drug strategy? which has proved to be_
examples of ineffective of total prohibition
-prohibition of alcohol during the 1920s created more problems than it solved, as did prohibition of opioids in 1914
explain what is about "war of drugs"
-recent campaign undertaken by US government with the assistance of participating countries
-this campaign includes laws and policies that are intended to reduce illegal drug trade and discourage the production, distribution, and consumption of illicit substances
researchers in the field of drug education agree that a _is best
-multimodal approach is best
-students should be taught the difference between drug use, misuse, and abuse
-factual information must be presented without scare tactics; lecturing and moralizing have proved not to work
-is a set of practical approaches to reducing negative consequences of drug use, incorporating a spectrum of strategies form safer use to managed use to abstinence
example of harm reduction?
-needle exchange programs for injection drug users provide clean needles and syringes and bleach for cleaning needles
-these effort help reduce the number of cases of HIV and hepatitis B
Harm reduction may involve:
-changing the legal sanctions associated with drug use
-increasing the availability of treatment services to drug abusers
-attempting to change drug users' behavior through education
harm reduction strategies meet drug users _. This strategy recognizes that people always _
-""where they are at," addressing conditions of use along with the use itself
-this strategy recognizes that people always have and always will use drugs and, therefore, attempts to minimize the potential hazards associated with drug use rather than the use itself
Addiction is characterized by four traits:
physical and psychological dependence on the drug, continued use of the substance, despite the harm it may cause, in ability to cut back or stop use of the substance, and tolerance, or when a certain amount of a drug has diminished effects.
Central nervous system depressants are sedative medications commonly used to treat_
antidepressants (definition, examples)
-used to treat major depression
ex: Paxil and Zoloft
-A generic drug is a medication that is sold under a chemical name rather than a brand name.
-While they contain the same active ingredients as brand-name drugs, they are less expensive.
Who uses illicit drugs?
All age groups, ethnicities, occupations, and socioeconomic groups.
most commonly abused drugs on college campuses
Which of the following is an example of a recreational drug? Is it: (a) acetaminophen; or (b) alcohol?
The answer is B - alcohol.
Antacid inhibits the absorption of aspirin and makes it less effective as a pain reliever. Is this drug interaction known as: (a) intolerance; or (b) inhibition?
The answer is B - With inhibition, the effects of one drug are eliminated or reduced by the presence of another drug at the receptor site.
Is the nicotine patch administered via (a) inunction; or (b) injection?
The answer is A. A nicotine patch is absorbed through the skin. This process is referred to as inunction.
When does cross-tolerance occur? Is it when: (a) the effects of one drug are limited or reduced by the presence of another drug at the receptor site; or (b) a person develops a physiological tolerance to one drug and shows a similar tolerance o selected other drugs as a result?
The answer is B. Taking one drug may actually increase the body's tolerance to another substance.
What is the most common method of use for drug misusers? Is it: (a) oral ingestion; or (b) intravenous injection?
The answer is B - intravenous injection. This is also the most dangerous method of administration due to the risk of contracting HIV and damage to blood vessels.
Linda takes a number of medications for various medical conditions, including Prinivil (an antihypertensive), insulin (a diabetic medication), and Claritin (an antihistamine). Is this is an example of (a) polydrug use; or (b) synergism?
The answer is A - polydrug use. Often taking several medications simultaneously can lead to dangerous health problems associated with drug interactions.
What drug schedule has the lowest potential for abuse? Is it (a) Schedule I; or (b) Schedule V?
The answer is B - Schedule V.
Prozac, Zoloft, and Paxil are among the most frequently prescribed: (a) sedatives; or (b) antidepressants?
The answer is B - antidepressants.
Drugs that are marketed by their chemical names rather than a brand name are called: (a) commercial drugs; or (b) generic drugs?
The correct answer is B - generic drugs. For further discussion of this topic.
Rubber cement, model glue, sport removers, and gasoline are examples of: (a) stimulants; or (b) inhalants?
The correct answer is B - inhalants.
This involves the use of a drug for purpose for which it was not intended. Is it: (a) abuse; or (b) misuse?
The answer is B - misuse.
Taking an aspirin to relieve minor muscle aches is in the category of: (a) prescription medication; or (b) over-the-counter drug?
The answer is B - over-the-counter drug.
Administering a drug through the nostrils is considered which route of transmission? Is it: (a) subcutaneous; or (b) inunction?
The answer is B - inunction.
To be addictive: (a) a behavior must have the potential to produce a positive mood change; or (b) continued involvement with a substance or activity occurs despite ongoing negative consequences.
The answer is B - continued involvement with a substance or activity occurs despite ongoing negative consequences.
Jason doesn't see that his addiction to heroin is self-destructive. Is he experiencing: (a) obsession; or (b) denial?
The answer is B - denial.
Do college students most commonly use the illicit drug: (a) amphetamines; or (b) marijuana?
The answer is B - marijuana.
Cocaine that is snorted will reach the brain: (a) within seconds; or (b) in less than three minutes.
The answer is B - in less than three minutes.
The equivalent number of cigarettes that would damage the lungs as much as three joints a day is: (a) 15; or (b) 9
The answer is A - 15.
Which of the following is an accurate description of the drug "ice"? Is it: (a) Its effects typically last less than one hour; or (b) Dysfunction can last years after use.
The answer is B - Dysfunction can last years after use.
The most common illicit drug used in college campus is _
The most common method for taking a drug
The most widely used illegal drug in the United States is
Sets found in the same folder
Chapter 10 the responsible use of alcohol
Chapter 11: Ending Tobacco Use
Access to health: chapter 4
Health Chapter 18: Becoming a Responsible Health C…
Sets with similar terms
Drugs and Society
drug misuse and abuse
Other sets by this creator
Need to memorize (K)
Ch 11 Animal Form and Function
Ch 10: Plants
Ch 9 Biological Diversity (AP)
Other Quizlet sets
Drug Addictions and the Brain's Reward Circuits
Media Images: Drug and Alcohol Abuse Exam 1-Chapte…
Drugs and Behavior Exam #1