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On what liturgical chant repertory did Hildegard base her work

one that grew over centuries out of chants used for Jewish services

The earliest musical settings of the Christian liturgy

were transmitted orally for centuries.

Although the written score was for voices, it is likely that instruments were sometimes added.


The two general rhythmic approaches to plainchant are

free and measured.

In addition to composing music, Hildegard

wrote about theology, plants, and medicine.

What did/does the Mass represent?

a reenactment of Jesus's last supper with his disciples before he was crucified

What is the likely intention of the person singing this text?

to continue with his love and devotion for the lady

Machaut spent much of his life in the service of various monarchs.


What other well

known song uses AAB form?-"The Star-Spangled Banner"

The falsetto technique is not used in today's music.


What is the Mass Ordinary?

The sections of the Mass that remain unchanged from week to week.

About how many manuscript leaves do Machaut's complete works fill?


What is the main reason this piece might sound unusual to our ears?

It is based on a different scale, or mode, than the two commonly used today (major and minor).

How many voices was this piece notated for?


It was common medieval practice to perform with whatever voices or instruments were at hand.


The shawm had largely disappeared from western Europe by the end of the Renaissance.


Some players of reed instruments make their own reeds.


How do we know that drums were central to many ensembles?

They appear in paintings

Composers in the Middle Ages were typically

anonymous monks, priests, nuns, servants at courts, or wandering troubadours.

Who was the patron saint of music?


"Since Robin Hood" is based on what true story?

William Kemp's dancing journey from London to Norwich

The following are all stock characters of the Morris dance except

William Shakespeare

William Kemp's nine day trek depicted in "Since Robin Hood" was really a publicity stunt.


Which voice part contained a melody well known during Weelkes's time?

The highest voice part

"Since Robin Hood" shifts from one _____ to another.


Word painting was so common in the Renaissance madrigal that it is sometimes called madrigalism.


Which best describes Weelkes's career?

Weelkes went to Oxford but his career ended badly.

Weelkes composed in an era that saw little cultural achievement.


Musicians in Elizabethan England spent lots of time in private homes, enabling them to collect


William Byrd's "Sing Joyfully" is a sacred piece that he called

an anthem

"Sing Joyfully" is an example of a cappella choral music because it is

sung with multiple singers per part without accompaniment.

Which statement best describes the form of "Sing Joyfully"?

Each new section of text gets its own musical idea.

Word painting can be subtle, as in Byrd's "Sing Joyfully."


Two examples of word painting in "Sing Joyfully" occur with a ______ and a _______.

trumpet; proclamation

The fact that Byrd wrote a lot of music for Protestant services helped him avoid the fate of many other Catholics in England.


Despite his talent and success, what aspect of Byrd's life caused him problems?

His Catholic faith

Why were women not allowed to sing in Renaissance

era church choirs?-It was thought women might distract the men.

The original purpose of opera was

to stage a narrative drama with characters who express their thoughts and emotions by singing.

Which pair of instruments could be found in a typical basso continuo?

harpsichord and cello

The title of this opera refers to

the hero

Claudio Monteverdi had a career that spanned the following two eras:

Baroque and Renaissance

Monteverdi wrote opera strictly for wealthy patrons.


Composers using seconda prattica favored _____ over _____.

text; music

Basso continuo only works with polyphonic textures.


Why don't operas use only recitative singing?

With only recitative singing, audiences would miss the more musical elements of lyrical singing.

Monteverdi composed only for the glory of God and was not concerned with such earthly things as money.


A recitative describes a lyrical movement or piece for solo voice that usually has some kind of instrumental accompaniment.


Early in Dido and Aeneas, Dido's maidservant, Belinda, sings

an aria

Unlike Renaissance composers, Baroque composers did not imitate real

world sounds and events with their music.-False

Purcell had a relationship to the English tradition of spoken drama as a(n)

contributor of songs and instrumental music to spoken plays

Opera became popular in England in

the early 18th century

Purcell was ahead of his time in his composition of the opera Dido and Aeneas.


As an English composer, Purcell was influenced greatly by

Italian and French opera composers.

One of the functions of the chorus is to

punctuate longer melodic expressions with comments communicated clearly and intelligibly, with one syllable per note.

How does the music of "Revenge" relate to the song's poetic text?

The music responds to the jilted lover's emotions with energy.

How does orchestral music differ from chamber music?

Chamber music uses one performer for each part; orchestral music includes multiple players on most parts.

As is common in Baroque music, the singer in "Revenge" does what to the melody?

adds extra notes to decorate the melody

What makes the continued embellishment in "Revenge" possible?

homophonic texture

In Barbara Strozzi's "Revenge," the A melody is in ______ meter and the B melody is in ______ meter.

duple; triple

In the refrain of "Revenge," the melody stays the same but the words change.


"Revenge" is an arietta with one singer, two violins, and a basso continuo, allowing the instruments and voice to

engage in a kind of dialogue about the sweetness of a lover's revenge.

Before her music was first published, Barbara Strozzi anticipated that it might be received with


There were few women composers during the Baroque era because

there were virtually no professional opportunities for women composers.

How does Bach's original Fugue in G Minor differ from Stokowski's arrangement?

Bach's original was written for an organ; Stokowski arranged the music for several instruments.

Which of the following is NOT true about fugues?

Fugues are musical works with new phrases of different melodies introduced in succession.

The organ is unique for its range of ______ and ______.

volume, timbre

In both the original and Stokowski's version of the Fugue in G Minor, the ______ repeats several times.


Each manual or keyboard on the Baroque organ is connected to

a set of pipes

The largest pipes on the Baroque organ, which can be up to 16 feet high, produce the highest notes.


In the Baroque Era, airflow in an organ was generated by

a small boy

Which of the following is NOT true of Bach?

His music was not appreciated during his lifetime.

What makes it likely that this is the first movement of the concerto rather than the second?

It is fast

What characteristics have made concertos a continuing favorite for composers, performers, and audiences?

contrasts and virtuosic playing

Vivaldi's "Winter" retains unity by

beginning and ending in the key of F minor.

Program music is different from word painting in that

it applies to a work for instruments alone.

Which of the following is true about Antonio Vivaldi?

He was well known and admired throughout Europe, and his music helped Bach learn the "Italian style."

Which of the following is true about program music?

The music may also be listened to without representing anything other than itself

According to your textbook, which of the following is true?

Violins made in the eighteenth century remain unsurpassed in quality.

Johann Sebastian Bach's Brandenburg Concerto no. 2 in F Major is called a concerto grosso because

it has multiple soloists.

In Bach's Brandenburg Concerto no. 2 in F Major, timbral contrast occurs between soloists and orchestra as well as among the


Bach's Brandenburg Concerto no. 2 in F Major is based on the ritornello principle, which means that

sections for the soloists alternate with sections for the full orchestra

Bach writes in different ______ in order to give the movement the feeling of a beginning, middle, and end.


The same key opens and closes Bach's movement, providing harmonic _______ in contrast to the modulations throughout the middle of the piece.


In Bach's Brandenburg Concerto no. 2 in F Major, the episodes coincide with the ______ sections, when all of the instruments play together.


The art of playing a valveless trumpet gradually disappeared as the design of trumpets changed from the eighteenth century on.


The modern trumpet has ______ and ______, unlike the Baroque trumpet.

keys; valves

How do oratorios differ from operas?

Oratorios were not staged as operas were, and oratorios were usually based on a sacred topic.

The recitative "He That Dwelleth in Heaven" serves the function of

setting up the aria that follows.

Handel does not use any melodic ______ in the aria "Thou Shalt Break Them" because the text's sole focus is destruction.


The homophonic texture of the recitative and aria

gives the words clarity

What custom was allegedly begun by King George II at the London premiere of Messiah?

The audience rises when the "Hallelujah" chorus begins.

Each verse or half

verse of Handel's chorus "Hallelujah" has its own melodic material, making the form of the chorus-ABCD

There is little repetition in "Hallelujah" because the text comes from three different biblical verses.


How does Handel achieve varied timbres in the chorus "Hallelujah"?

by using a full orchestra with instruments that drop out and reenter as the movement progresses

The melody of the second movement of Joseph Haydn's String Quartet in C Major, op. 76, no. 3, was set to the words

"God save Franz, the Emperor."

Haydn did more than any other composer to establish the significance of the new genre of the string quartet from the middle of the eighteenth century onward.


How does Joseph Haydn make it easy to distinguish among timbres of instruments in this movement?

Haydn gives the main theme to each instrument to play at least once.

Where does polyphonic texture occur?

Variations 2, 3, and 4

Which sequence corresponds to the melody phrases in this movement

Antecedent 1; Antecedent 1 repeated; Antecedent 2; Consequent; and Consequent repeated

The second movement of Haydn's String Quartet in C Major, op. 76, no. 3, consists of ______ phrase structure, with antecedent and consequent units that together make a larger whole.


How is the theme and variations form structured?

A theme is presented and then altered in some way through harmony, melody, texture, dynamics, or a combination of these.

A type of musical appropriation in which new words are set to an established melody is called


One of Haydn's last pupils was

Ludwig van Beethoven

In the aftermath of the French Revolution, Haydn's large orchestra playing together was interpreted by some as

symbolic of an ideal society

Haydn's Symphony no. 102 in B

flat Major consists of the standard _______ movements.-four

The percussion section of the orchestra in Haydn's time included timpani, which are also known as


When the music of a symphony is played softly for a long time,

audiences anticipate the music getting loud again.

Haydn's minuet is typical with a ______ meter.


The minuet proper, the trio, and the return of the minuet proper make up the _______ structure of a minuet.


Classical Era composers liked to use the ______ form for finales in part because they are jaunty and bright, with catchy melodies.


When Joseph Haydn arrived in London, he was already a celebrity.


Which of the following is NOT a way concert audiences in Haydn's time differed from contemporary classical music audiences?

They kept unfavorable opinions to themselves while the music was playing.

Sonata form resembles rounded binary form in its

return of A at the end.

In sonata form, all themes appear in the tonic key in the recapitulation.


Coda means "tail," and it is essential to bringing sonata form to a close.


The part of The Wizard of Oz with color is similar to which section of sonata form?


Why is the first modulation in this movement particularly clear?

It includes a change in mode

Themes 1 and 2 always appear in their original versions.


Mozart's father, Leopold, was

a composer and a violinist

Mozart supported himself largely by giving lessons, playing concerts, and selling compositions on his own..


Which of the following is true about Nannerl Mozart?

She received top billing at the family's London concert.

In "Cosa sento" from the Marriage of Figaro, Mozart gives added depth to the _______ and _______ of the characters onstage through his music.

words, actions

"Cosa sento" is a scene from the end of the first act of Mozart's Marriage of Figaro. Which three characters sing in this scene?

Count Almaviva, Susanna, and Basilio

The Marriage of Figaro is a tragic opera.


How does opera buffa differ from serious opera?

Opera buffa plots do not revolve around mythical or historical figures.

How does the Count change in this scene?

He moves from outrage to astonishment

Mozart uses a form that resembles a rondo in "Cosa sento," which means that

an opening melodic idea returns repeatedly over the course of a movement, and these points of return are separated by a series of contrasting melodic ideas.

Why are opera characters able to sing simultaneously?

The differences in vocal range make it easy to understand the words

One of the two major interruptions in this scene occurs when

the Count describes finding Cherubino the day before, only to find him again hiding in a chair

The fourth movement of the Fifth Symphony contains a "musical flashback" to which of the following pieces?

the previous movement of the same symphony

How was Anton Schindler associated with Beethoven?

He was Beethoven's assistant.

Some critics have seen a progression from struggle to triumph in the Fifth Symphony's move from

C minor to C major

Even though all movements in the Fifth Symphony are composed in different forms, they are all linked by a common melody.


At the end of the _______ movement, without a pause, Beethoven uses extreme dynamic contrast as an eruption into the next movement, highlighting the triumph over struggle that many have heard in this symphony


Sonata form is used only in the first movement of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony.


Beethoven's initial fame as a musician was as a violinist.


Beethoven's personal life was filled with difficulties; some of the most painful involved his


In "Erlkönig," which element does Schubert use to characterize the son?

high register

Which is the only character to sing in a major key in Schubert's "Erlkönig"?


Schubert set many poems by _______, including "Erlkönig" and "Gretchen at the Spinning Wheel."


The Lied was a popular genre for the home because it only required a singer and a pianist.


Schubert composed "Erlkönig" when he was


This piece is always sung by a man.


The high voices typify

Erlking and son

The Erlking sounds menacing in part because he nearly always sings


If there were no words to the "Erlkönig," we would hear a set of variations on a theme in the music.


Mendelssohn uses melodies that can readily be associated with the principal characters of Shakespeare's play in his Overture to A Midsummer Night's Dream.


The integration of purely instrumental music with nonmusical ideas is known as

program music

One can only enjoy A Midsummer Night's Dream if one is familiar with Shakespeare's play.


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