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*erected by Constantine, the first imperial patron of Christianity, this huge church stood on the spot of Saint Peter's grave
*the building's plan and elevation resemble those of Roman basilicas, not pagan temples
*Greatest of Constantine's churches in Rome, begun as early as 319
*stood on the western side of the Tiber River on the spot where Constantine and Pope Sylvester believed Peter, first apostle and founder of the Christian community had been buried
**roman cemetery beneath the Church-second-century memorial erected in honor of the Christian martyr at his reputed grave
*housing 3,000 to 4,000 worshipers-raised upon a terrace the ancient cemetery on irregular slope of Vatican Hill
*enshrined one of the most hallowed sites in Christendom-the site of Christ's Ressurection
**"Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church
*Peter was Rome's first bishop and also head of the long of popes that extends to present
*plan and elevation resemble those of Roman basilica and audience halls-such as Basilica Ulpia in Forum of Trajan and Constantine's own AUla Palatina at Trier
* roman basilica, suited as place for congregation
*wide central nae with flanking aisles and an apse at the end, pronounced longitudinal axis
**worsipers entered basilica through a narthex or vestibule
they had an unobstructed view of the altar in the apse framed by the chancel arch dviding the nave from the transept
*transept-transerve aisle-an area perpendicular to the nave between the nave and apse
*it housed relics of Saint Peter that hordes of pilgrims came to see
*transept became standard design element in Western churches only much later-also w/ the nave and apse-symbolism of Christian cross
*had an open colonnaded courtyard in front of the narthex-atrium central room in a Roman private house
*not adorned w/ lavish exterior scultptures
**brick walls were austere as thoe of the Aula Palatina
**inside with frescos and mosaics-marble columns, costly ornaments
San Vitale's mosaics reveal the new Byzantine aesthetic, Justinian foremost among the weightless and speechless frontal figures hovering before the viewer
*the two are united cisually and symbolically (Jesus), by the imperial purple they wear and their halos, dozen attendants accompany him
*he paralleling Christ's 12 apostles
*position of the figures are all-important, express formulas of precedence and rank, JUstinian is at the center, distinguished from other dignitaries by his purple robe and halo
*at his left is Bishop Maximianus-man responsible for San Vitale's completion, mosaicist stressed bishop's importance by labeling his figure w/ only identifying inscription in composition
*Julianus Argentarius-church's benefactor
*artist dived the figures into three groups: emperor and his staff, the clergy, and imperial guard, bearing a shield with chirrhoiota monogram of Christ
*each group has a leader whose feet precede one foot overlapping the feet of those who follow
*emperor appears to be slightly behind the bishop the golden paten (large shallow bowl or plate for the Eucharist bread) he carries overlaps the bishop's arm
*symbolized by place and gesture imperial and churchly powers are in balance
*his patent, Maximianus's cross and attendants clerics' books and censer produce a slow forward movement strikingly modifies the scene's rigid formality-no background is indicated
*artist wished observer to understand the procession as taking place in this very sanctuary
*emperor appears forever as a participant in the sacred rites and as the proprietor of royal church of Western Empire
*feet firmly on the ground
This purse cover is one of many treasures found in a ship beneath a royal burial mound
*the combination of abstract interlace ornament w/ animal figures is the hallmark of early medieval art in western Europe
*decorated w/ cloisonne plaque, metalworkers produced cloisonne jewelry by soldering small metal strips, or cloisons edge up to a metal background, and then filling the compartment w/ semiprecious stones, pieces of colored glass, or glass paste fired to resemble sparkling jewels
*edge of the cloisons are an important part of the design
*Cloisonne is a cross between mosaic and stained glass , but medieval artists used it only a miniature scale
*four symmetrically arranged groups of figures make up the lower row, end groups consist of a man standing between two beasts, he faces front and they appear in profile
*heraldic type of grouping has a venerable heritage in the ancient world-pictorial parallel to epic sagas of eh era which heroes like Beowulf battle and conquer horrific monsters
*the two center groups represent eagles attacking ducks-animal figures are cunningly composed
*convex beaks of the eagles fit against the concave beaks of the ducks-two figures fit together so snugly that thy seem at first to be a single dense abstract design
*above these figures are three geometric designs--outer ones are purely linear-rely on color contrasts for their effects
*in central deign, an interlace pattern-interlacements evolve into writhing animal figures
*elaborate intertwining linear patterns are characteristic of many times and places-combination of interlace w/ animal figures was uncommon outside the realm of the early medieval warlords
*metalcraft w/ interlace patterns and other motif beautifully integrated w/ animal form was the premier art of the early Medieval Ages in western Europe
* intimidated the colorful effects of jewelry designs in painted decorations of manuscripts, in masonry of churches and in sculpture n stone and in wood
The inspiration for this author portrait may have been a Medierranean book, illuminator converted the model's fully rounded forms into the linear flat-color idiom of northern European art
*the Matthew symbol in the Book of Durrow reveals that the illuminator's concern was abstract design- not the depcition of the natural world
*in Insular manuscripts, the northern artists based their compositions on classical pictures in imported Mediterranean books
*Hiberno-Saxon illuminator's model must haven been one of the illustrated Gospel books a Christian missionary brought from Italy to England-Author portraits were familiar features of Greek and Latin books, similar presentation of seated philosophers or poets writing or reading abound in ancient art-Lindisfarne Matthew sits in his study composing his account of life of Christ
*curtain sets the scene indoors as in classical art and the evangelist's seat is at an angle-suggests a Mediterranean model employing classical perspective
*the painter labeled Matthew in a curious combination of Greek and Latin-lend prestige of two classical languages to the page
* Accompanying Matthew is his symbol- winged man-disembodied head and shoulders-behind the curtain is uncertain
*among the possibilities are Christ, Saint Cuthbert, and Moses holding the closed book of the Old Testament in contrast w/ open book of Matthew's New Testament-common juxtaposition in medieval Christian art and thought
*southern manuscript inspired the Lindisfarne composition, the Northumbrian painter's goal was not to copy the model faithfully
*the subject is conceived in terms of line and color exclusively, Hiberno-Saxon manuscript-drapery folds are a series of sharp, regularly spaced, curving lines filled in w/ flat colors
*Painter converted fully modeled forms bathed in light into the linear idiom of northern art-result is a vivid new vision of Saint Matthew
Purpose of this plan for an ideal, self-sufficient Benedictine monastery was to separate the monks from the laity, near center stands the church w/ its cloister, an earthly paradise reserved for monks
*ideal monastery provided all the facilities necessary for the conduct of daily life-a mill, bakery, infirmary, vegetable garden, even a brewery-so that monks felt no need to wander outside its protective walls
**these religious communities were centrally important to the revival of learning,clergy who were also often scribes and scholars had a monopoly on the skills of reading and writing in an age of almost universal illiteracy
* Construction and expansion of many monasteries also characterized the Carolingian period, unique document-ideal plan for a Benedictine monastery at Saint Gall in Switzerland, proovides precious information about the design of Carolingian monastic communities
*Haito, the abbot of Reichenau and bishop of Basel,comissioned the drawing and sent it to the abbot of Saint Gall around 819 as a guide for the rebuilding of Saint Gall monastery-the design's fundamental purpose was to separate the monks from the laity (nonclergy) who als inhabited the community
*Variations of the scheme may be seen in later monasteries all across western Europe
*Near the center-dominating everything was the church w/ its cloister-colonnaded courtyard not unlike the Early Christian atrium but situated to the side of the church-reserved for the monks alone-cloister-earthly paradise removed from the world at large-provided for the peace and quiet necessary for contemplation
*clustered around the cloister-dormitory, refectory, kitchen, storage rooms,
**infirmary, school, guest house, bakery, brewery, workshops were grouped around this central core of church and cloister
Abd al-Malik erected the Dome of the Rock to mark the triumph of Islam in Jerusalem on a site sacred to Muslim, Christians, and Jews--Shrine takes the form of an octagon w/ a towering dome
*first great Islamic building is the Dome of Rock in Jerusalem, Muslims had taken the city from Byzantines in 658 and Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik erected the monumental shrine between 687 and 692 as an architectural tribute to the triumph of ISlam
*the Dome marks the coming of the new religion to the city that is sacred to both Jews and Christian-structure rises from a huge platform-Noble Enclosure-where Hebrews built the Temple of Solomon that Roman emperor Titus destroyed in 70
*site took on additional significance as the reputed place where Adam was buried and where Abraham prepared to sacrifice Isaac-rock that gives the building its name also later came to be identified w/ the spot from which Muhammad miraculously journeyed to Heaven and then returned to his home in Mecca
*is a domed octagon resembling San Vitale in Ravenna in its basic design-double shelled wooden dome, 60 feet across and 75 feet high-dominated the elevation as to reduce the octagon to function as its base, soaring majestic unit creates a decidedly more commanding effect than that produced by Late Roman and Byzantine domical structures--silhouettes of those domes are comparatively insignificant when seen from the outside
*Colorful patterning that wraps the walls like a textile is typical of Islamic ornamentation-contrasts markedly w/ Byzantine brickwork and Greco-Roman sculptured decoration-interior's rich mosaic ornament has been preserved and suggests the original appearance of the exterior walls
the Madrasa Imami mihrab is a masterpiece of mosaic tile work, every piece had to be cut to fit its specific place in the design-exemplifies the perfect aesthetic union between Islamic calligraphy and ornament
*14th century mihrab from Madrasa Imami in Isfahan exemplifies the perfect aesthetic union between Islamic calligrapher's art and abstract ornament
*pointed arch that immediately frames the mihrab niche bears an inscription from the Koran in Kufic, stately rectilinear script used in the ninth century Koran discussed earlier
*many supple cursive styles also make up the repertoire of Islamic calligraphy-Muhaqqaq fills the mihrab's outer rectangular frame-mosaic tile ornament on the curving surface of the niche and the area above the pointed arch are composed of tighter and looser networks of geometric and abstract floral motifs
*mosaic technique is masterful-every piece had to be cut to fits specific place in the mihrab
*framed inscription is center of niche-proclaiming that the mosque is the domicile of pious believer-smoothy integrated w/ the subtly varied patterns
*mihrab outermost inscription-detailing the five pillars of Islamic faith-serves a fringelike extension-and boundary for entire design
*calligraphic and geometric elements are so completely unified that only the practiced eye can distinguish them
*artists transformed the architectural surface into a textile surface-3 dimension into 2 dimensional hanging-weaving calligraphy into it as a cluster of motifs w/ total patterns
Christ in a mandorla presides over the seperation of the Blessed from the Damned in this dramatic vision of the Last Judgment, designed to terrify those guilty of sin and beckon them into the church
*in 1132 Cluniac bishop Etienne de Bage consecrated the Burgundian cathedral of Saint-Lazare at AUtun, its tympanum he commissioned the sculptor Gislebertus to carve a dramatic vision of the Last Judgment-four trumpet blowing angles announce
*tympanum's center-far larger than any other figure-is Christ enthroned in a mandorla-he dispassionately presides over the separation of the Blessed from the Damned
*at the left an obliging angel boosts one of the Blessed into the heavenly city-below the souls of the dead line up to await their fate--two of the men near the center of the lintel carry bags emblazoned w/ a cross and a shell-symbols of pilgrims to Jerusalem and Santiago de Compostela
*those who made the difficult journey would be judged favorably--to their right three small figures beg an angel to intercede on their behalf-the angel responds by pointing to the Judge above
*right side are those who will be condemned to Hell-giant hands pluck one poor soul from earth-directly above is one of the most unforgettable renditions of the weighing of souls-Angels and devils compete at the scales-each trying to manipulate the balance for or against a soul-hideous demons guffaw and roar-giant, lined bodies w/ legs ending in sharp claws writhe and bend like long loathsome insect
*a devil leaning from the dragon mouth of Hell-drags soul in while above him a howling demon crams souls headfirst into a furnace-resources of the Romanesque imagination conjured an appealing scene
*"wise may fear the coming of the future judgment of the world's end
Pisa's cathedral more closely resembles Early Christian basilicas than the structurally more experimental northern Romanesque churches, Separate bell towers and baptisteries are characteristically Italian
*the cathedral complex at Pisa dramatically testifies to the prosperity that busy maritime city enjoyed-spoils of a naval victory over Muslims off Palermo in Sicily in 1062 provided the funds for the Pisan building program-cathedral its freestanding bell tower, and baptistery where infants and converts were initiated into the Christian community-present a rare opportunity to study a coherent group of three Romanesque buildings
*Save for the upper portion of the baptistery w/ its remolded Gothic exterior- three structures are stylistically homogeneous-construction of Pisa Cathedral began first in 1063, Pisa Cathedral is large w/ a nave and four aisles and is one of the most impressive and majestic of all Romanesque churches
*Pisans wanted their bishop's church not only to be a monument to the glory of God but also bring credit to the city-the cathedral resembles an Early Ch
ristian basilica w/ a timber roof, columnar arcade, and clerestory
*But the broadly projecting transept w/ apses, crossing dome, and facade's multiple arcaded galleries distinguish it as Romanesque--rich marble incrustation-wall decoration consisting of bright panels of different colors-cathedral's campanile detached in the standard Italian fashion is Pisa's famous Leaning Tower
*graceful arcaded galleries mark the tower's stage and repeat the cathedral's facade motif, effectively relating the round campanile to its mother building-tilted vertical axis of the tower is the result of a settling foundation-tower began to lean even while under construction and by late 20th century had inclined some 5.5 degrees
*international team of scientists began to remove soil from beneath the north side of tower-moved the tower more than an inch closer to vertical and ensured the stability of the structure for at leas 300 yrs
Abbot Surger's remodeling of Saint-Denis marked the begging of Gothic architecture--rib vaults w/ pointed arches spring from slender columns-radiating chapels have stained glass windows
*remodeled portion of Saint-Denis represented a sharp break from past practice--innovative rib vaults resting on pointed or ovigal arches cover the ambulatory and chapels
*lightweight vaults spring from slender columns in the ambulatory and from thin masonry walls framing the chapels--lightness of vaults enabled builders to eliminate the walls between the chapels and open up the outer walls and fill them w/ stained-glass windows
*Surger and his contemporaries marveled at the wonderful and interrupted light that poured in through the most sacred windows
*abbo called the colored light lux nova-new light, multicolored rays through the windows shone on the walls and columns almost dissolving them-new type of vaulting and stained glass became hallmarks of French Gothic architecture
*rib vault's distinguishing feature is the cross or diagonal arches under its groins-ambulatory and chapels
*these arches form the armature or skeletal framework for constructing the vault
*Gothic vaults generally have more thinly vaulted webs-masonry between the ribs than found in Romanesque vaults-chief difference between the two style of rib vaults is the pointed arch an integral part of the Gothic skeletal armature-first wide use of pointed arches was in Sasanian architecture and Islamic builders adopted them
*pointed arches allowed Gothic builders to make crowns of all the vault's arches approximately the same level regardless of space to be vaulted---Romanesque architects could achieve this w/ their semicircular arches
Early Gothic west facade was all that remained of Chartes Cathedral after the fire of 1194, design still has much in common w/ Romanesque facades-rose window is an example of plate tracery
*Work on the west facade began around 1145, lower parts of the massive west towers at Chartes and portals between them are all that remain of the cathedral destroyed in the fire 1194 before it had been completed-reconstruction of the church began immediately but in the High Gothic style
*west entrance the Royal Portal-statue columns of kings and queens flanking its three doorways constitutes the most complete surviving ensemble of Early Gothic sculpture
*Thierry of Chartes chancellor of the Cathedral School of Chartes may have conceived the complex iconographical program
*archivolts of right portal depict the seven female Liberal Arts and their male champions-figures represent the core of medieval learning and symbolize human knowledge which Thierry and other Schoolmen believed led to true faith
*sculptures of the Royal Portal proclaim the majesty and power of Christ-unite the three doorways iconographically and visually the sculptors carved episodes from Christ's life on the capitals-form a frieze linking one entrance to the next
*tympanum of the right portal Christ appears in the lap of the Virgin Mary-scenes of his birth and early life fill the lintel below
*tympanum's theme and composition recall Byzantine representations of the Theotokos-and Romansque Throne of Wisdom
*mary's prominence on the Chartes facade has no parallel in the decoration of Romanesque church portals-the designers gave her a central role in the sculptural program-position maintained throughout the Gothic period
*cult of Virgin Mary reached a high point in Gothic Age-Mother of Christ she stood compassionately between the Last Judge and the horrors of Hell-interceding for all her faithful
* Christ's Ascension into Heaven appears in the tympanum of the left portal-archivolts are the signs of the zodiac and scenes representing the various labors of the month of the year-they are symbols of the cosmic and early worlds
*Second Coming is the subject of the central tympanum-signs of the four evangelist and 24 elders of the Apocalypse and 12 apostles appear around Christ or on the lintel-Second Coming the Last Judgment theme-Early Gothic Chartres-theme became symbol of salvation rather than damnation
*statues of the Old Testament kings and queens decorate the jambs flanking each doorway of the Royal Portal they are the royal ancestors of Christ support the New Testament above the doorways--wear 12th century clothes and medieval observers also regard them as images of kings and queens of France--figures stand rigidly upright w/ their elbows held close against their hips
*linear folds of their garment-inherited from Romanesque style-w/ elongated proportions generally echo the vertical lines of the columns behind them-Gothic figures attached to the columns
*statues displayed the first signs of a new naturalism, sculptors conceived and treated the figures as three dimensional volumes not reliefs and they stand out from the plane of the wall-new naturalism is noticeable in the statue's heads where kindly human faces replace the mask-like features of the Romansque figures
*personalization of appearance began led first to idealized portraits of perfect Christian and by 1400 into the portraiture of specific individuals-sculptors of Royal Portal statues initiated an era of artistic concern w/ personality and individuality
facade of Reims Cathedral displays the High Gothic architect's desire to reduce sheer mass and replace it w/ intricately framed voids-stained glass windows not stone reliefs fill the tympana
*Construction where the coronations of the Kings of France took place--began few years after work commenced at Amiens--Reims builders carried the High Gothic style of Amiens west facade still further both architecturally and sculpturally
*two facades-king's gallery of statues at Reims is above the great rose window-figures stand in taller and more ornate frames--designer stretched every detail of the facade--openings in the towers and those to the left and right of the rose windows are taller, narrower, more intricately decorated and closely resemble the elegant lancets of clerestory w/in
*pointed arch also frames the rose windows-pinnacles over the portals are taller and more elaborate than those at Amiens
*treatment of tympana over the doorways where stained-glass windows replaced the stone relief sculpture of earlier facades--contrast w/ Romanesque heavy masonry construction is extreme--prime example of High Gothic style in sculpture
*statues and reliefs of the west facade celebrate the Virgin Mary-Mary is crowned as Queen of Heaven-on the trumeau she appears in her role as the New Eve above the reliefs depicting the Original Sin--jamb statues relate episodes from Infancy cycle--including the Annunciation and Visitation--all four illustrated statues appear to be detached from their architectural background--sculptors shrank the supporting columns into insignificance so that they do not restrict the free and easy movements of the full-bodies figures
**the background columns occupy a volume equal to that of the figures
*statues vividly illustrate that the sculptural ornamentation of Gothic cathedrals took decades to complete and required many sculptors often working in diverse style--art historians believe that three different sculptors carved the four statues at different times during quarter century
*Visitation group-is the work of an artist who probably studies classical statuary-Reims was an ancient ROman city and the heads of both Mary and Saint Elizabeth resemble Roman portraits-Gothic statues approximation of the classical naturalistic style and incorporate contrapposto postures that go far beyond the stance of the Chartes Saint Theodore-swaying of hips more pronounced--right legs bend and knees press through the rippling folds of the garments-sculptor also set figures' arms in motion-Mary and Elizabeth turn their faces toward each other and they converse through gestures
Fresco painted in several sections--Giotto used the diagonal slope of the rocky landscape to direct the viewer's attention toward the head of the sculpturesque figure of the dead Christ
*Arena Chapel at Padua show his art at its finest, consecrated in 1305 Arena Chapel takes it name from an Ancient Roman amphitheater nearby--Scrovengi built the chapel--erected the chapel he intended for his family's private use--in part to expiate the banker's sin of usury
*rectangular barrel-vaulted hall as six narrow windows only in its south wall which left the entire north wall an unbroken and well illuminated surface for painting-building seems to have been designed to provide Giotto w/ flat surface for presenting impressive and complete Christian pictorial cycles ever rendered
*38 framed pictures arranged on three levels-artist related the most poignant incidents from lives of Virgin and her parents Joachim and Anna the life and mission of Christ and his Passion, Crucifixion and Ressurection
*three pictorial levels rest on coloristically neutral base--imitation marble veneer reminiscent of ancient Roman decoration-alternates w/ Virtues and Vices painted in grisaille to resemble sculpture--climatic event of cycle of human salvation -Last Judgment covers most of the west wall above chapel's entrance
*Lamentatation reveals the essentials of his style--presence of boldly foreshortened angels seen head on w/ their bodies receding into the background and darting in hysterical grief a congregation mourns over the dead body of the Savior just before its entombment
*Mary cradles her son's body while Mary Magdalene looks solemnly at the wounds in Christ's feet and Saint John the Evangelist thrown his arms back dramatically--arranged a shallow stage for the figures-bounded by a thick diagonal rock incline that defines a horizontal ledge in foreground
*ledge provides firm visual support for the figures and steep slope indicates the picture's dramatic focal point at lower left, rocky setting which recalls that of a 12th century Byzantine mural
*connected the framed scenes throughout the fresco cycle--figures are sculpturesque, simple, weighty did not preclude motion and emotion--Mary's almost fierce despair to the passionate outbursts of Mary Magdalene and John to the philosophical resignation of the two disciples at the right and mute sorrow of the two hooded mourners in the foreground
*single event provokes intense response, figures are grouped w/in constructed space-each group has its own definition and each contributes to the rhythmic order of the compositions
*strong diagonal of rocky ledge single dead tree concentrates the viewer's attention on the group around the head of Christ-massive bulk of the seated mourner in painting's left corner arrests and contains all movement-seated mourner to right establishes a relation w/ center figures-draw viewer's attention back to Christ's head
*figures seen from back represent an innovation in development away from formal Italo-Byzantine style--figures emphasize the foreground aiding the visual placement of the intermediate figures farther back in space--puts viewers behind the observer figures
*depicting spatial depth and body mass w/ management of light and shade-shaded his figures to indicate both direction of light that illuminates them and the shadows giving the figures volume
*light falls upon the upper surfaces of the figure and passes down to dark in their draperies separating the volumes one from the other and pushing one to the fore and the rear
*graded continuum of light and shade directed by an even neutral light from a single steady source-development of Chiaroscuro in later Renaissance painting
*stagelike settings-innovations in perspective and lightning suited perfectly the dramatic narrative the Franciscans emphasized then as a principal method for educating the faithful in their religion
*synthesized dramatic narrative holy lessons and truth to human experience in a visual idiom of his own invention -his frescoes served as textbooks for generations for Renaissance painters