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Psych - Chapter 14/11

STUDY
PLAY
divergent thinking
Trying to expand the range of alternatives by generating many possible solutions
convergent thinking
type of thinking in which a problem is seen as having only one answer, and all lines of thinking will eventually lead to that single answer, using previous knowledge and logic
normal distribution
describes a symmetrical, bell shaped curve that shows the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes
emotional intelligence
the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions
predictive validity
The success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior.
Gardner
proposed a theory of multiple intelligences that divides intelligence into seven different types, all of which are equally important
Binet
Frenchman who originally developed the IQ test in order to help identify children needing additional assistance in Parisian schools.
Spearman
suggested that individual differences in intelligence were largely due to differences in amount of a general factor called g
Sternberg
Suggests three intelligences rather than eight:Analytical, Creative, and Practical Intelligence.
aptitude tests
a test designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn.
achievement tests
a test designed to assess what a person has learned
Wechsler
Psychologist who was opposed to a single score summarizing intelligence and developed multiple scales to assess IQ. Gave a verbal IQ score, performance IQ score, and total IQ score.
Flynn Effect
the worldwide phenomenon that shows intelligence test performance has been increasing over the years
crystallized intelligence
one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age
fluid intelligence
one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
standardization
defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested standardization group.
norms
standards used to compare an individuals performance on a test with the performance of others
savant syndrome
a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing
down syndrome
a condition of retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21.
stereotype threat
a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype.
general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
Selye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three stages--alarm, resistance, exhaustion (GAS)
Type A
competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people
Type B
term for easygoing, relaxed people
Lymphocytes
The two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system
problem focused coping
Attempting to alleviate stress directly by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor.
emotion focused coping
attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to one's stress reaction
social support
Term used to describe the degree of emotional support afforded a client by friends, family, and other acquaintances.