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___ boundaries are set by the researcher based on observed distributions;
observed patters, practical reality
most boundaries are easy to draw
where abiotic factors change abruptly, sharp boundaries may exist between adjacent communities
came into focus in the 1970s
obligate (organisms can't live without each other) or facultative(can surivve without each other)?
ex. clown fish and anenome
clown fish are immune to poisonious anenome tentacles. if outside of the anemoe, clown fish gets preyed. anemone may use the food that the clown fish picks up
(mutualism) a whole range of organisms living in our guts; these organisms help you digest food. but may cause problems
(mutualism) obtains nectar, collects pollen and help the plant reproduction. however, the bee may cheat in this system because it can mate with an orchid
a species that is numerically abundant (in individuals or biomass) and that forms a conspicous part of the community
a species that is not necessarily abundant but that exerts strong control on community structure; puts community together
ex. starfish for chitins, mussels, etc.
when keystone predator is absent, mussel population takes over
ex. sea otters eats starfishs, mussels, etc
when you take the otters out of the system, urchin population booms- which removes the kelp forest
ex. beavers physically modifies their shelthers
+ for other organsims, providing shelther for fish, ducks, etc
- for trees
the nonseasonal, direction, and continuous pattern of colonization and extinction on a site by species population
ex. after volcanic eruption- nothing survives. but organisms start to come back, starting brand new
major distribuance: immediately after future, succession will start from a premade slate
trees and seeds and soil still intact
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